Scientific Errors In Hinduism

SCIENTIFIC ERRORS IN HINDUISM

Written by Sulaiman Razvi

The Hindus claim that they were so scientifically advanced that everything was made by them. Later on the knowledge was either destroyed by Muhgals or the white people copied their ideas. As soon as something is discovered they claim that it was already mentioned in Hindu scriptures. Ironically such advanced people’s research is now limited in finding medicinal values of Cow Urine and Dung. They invented everything except for pen to note down their inventions. I will be mentioning some verses from my article Scientific Errors In Vedas but without the Hindi translation as it makes the article very lengthy. This article deals with various scientific errors in Hindu scriptures including the Vedas. And I have written this according to my capability, if a scholar writes about scientific errors in Hinduism then he may find even more errors than I did. It is ridiculous to claim that Hinduism is a scientific religion, this article proves that the Rishis wrote down science of their period which is irrelevant to modern science. Some verses even start with “Scientists says” which suggests that science in Puranas was plagiarized from scientists of that time.

Scientific knowledge in Hindu scriptures is highly objectionable, Atharved 2.32.3 has chant to destroy pests, Atharva Veda 5.23.5 has chant to destroy worms, this is the scientific knowledge imparted by the Vedas. It is mentioned in Vishnu Purana book 5, chapter 11 that Indra was offended by the loss of his offerings, so he caused heavy rain to deluge Gokul, then Krishna held the mountain Govardhana to shelter the cowherds and their cattle. Although this can be dismissed as a miracle but the following scientific errors can’t be dismissed with the said excuse.

 

Mountains had Wings

Vedic Science

Hinduism says that mountains had wings and used to fly and then Indra cut off their wings, the reason why Indra did this varies according to different Puranas, some say that their wings were becoming too large so Indra cut them off and then they became clouds, some says that Gods feared flying mountains would fall to the ground and kill

people so for this reason Indra cut off their wings. Mainak mountain was saved as he took shelter in Vayu Devta.

Valmiki Ramayana 5.1.123-5 “O son! Earlier in the Krita yuga, mountains had wings. With speed equal to that of Garuda and Vayu, they went in all directions. After that when those mountains were thus flying freely, Devas and living creatures together with sages obtained fear in the doubt that those mountains might fall down. Then the angry Devendra who performed a hundred Asvamedha rituals, cut off the wings of thousands of mountains by his weapon vajra then and there.” Tr. K.M.K Murthy

Srimad Bhagavatam 8.11.34 “Indra thought: Formerly, when many mountains flying in the sky with wings would fall to the ground and kill people, I cut their wings with this same thunderbolt.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Matsya Purana 125.10-17 “…The clouds Puskarabartaka have been born from the wings (of the mountains). These wings are named Puskara and hold a huge volume of water hence these clouds are known as Puskaravarta. The valiant Indra cut down the wings of the mountains that used to fly at their will and cause ruin and destruction to the rising generation (of the universe)…” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

Linga Purana I.54.46-48 “…The origin of the third type of clouds is from the wings of mountains chopped off by Indra.” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

Brahmanda Purana I.2.22.41 “The wings of very powerful mountains that had increased in size and who used to go wherever as they pleased, were chopped off by Indra who wished to secure the welfare of all living beings.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Harivamsa Purana 3.40.19 “Knowing that the mountains are responsible for lack of firmness (immobility) of earth, the destroyer of strongholds (Indra), the lord, after installing the mountains at their own places, cut off their wings with his weapon, the hundred jointed (edged shataparva) Vajra.”

Vayu Purana I.51.38 “The wings of the powerful mountains who could go as per their will and pleasure, had grown very large. Indra cut them off for the (welfare of all) living beings.” Tr. G.V. Tagare, Edited by G.P Bhatt

H.H. Wilson writes in the footnoes of the verse Rig Veda 2.12.2,
“Yah parvatan prakupitan aramnat; the Scholiast says he quieted the mountains, going hither and thither, as long as they had wings: Indra cut them off.”

Swami Prabhupada also wrote,
“In many descriptions in Vedic literature it is found that mountains also fly in the sky with wings. When such mountains are dead, they fall to the ground, where they stay as very large dead bodies.” Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 8.11.12
http://www.vedabase.com/en/sb/8/11/12

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Embryology

Vedic Science

According to Hinduism a woman conceives child after the semen mixes with her menstrual blood,

Matsya Purana 39.10 ”The menstrual flow of a woman suddenly develops conception as soon as it mingles itself with the semen virile of man, through the sap of the flowers of herbs.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

Varaha Purana 125.14 ”The generative fluid is in the female and the semen is in the male. In the womb they combine to form a being. This is due to my Maya.” Tr. Vekitasubramonia Iyer, edited by J.L. Shastri

Following are the embryological developments mentioned in Hindu scriptures,

Brahmanda Purana 2.3.72.42-47 “…Blood takes its origin from Rasa (a vital fluid constituent of the body) and it is said that the flesh originates from blood. The source of fat is from the flesh. It is defined that the bone originates from the fat. From the bone the pith and marrow take their origin and the origin of Semen is from the marrow. (?) Foetus originated from semen virile through its assimilative rasa bodily fluid. It is there that water is mixed initially (?). This is called the Saumya Rasi. The foetus that is solidified [lit. born of Asman, stone solid] is called the second Rasi. One should know that semen is of the nature of Soma and Menstrual blood is of the nature of fire. These two Evolutes follow Rasa…” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vayu Purana I.14.17-22 “Then, at the time of conception, Kalana, the embryo at its first stage (in the form of a drop) is formed. In due course the Kalana develops into bubbles. Just as a lump of clay pressed by the wind in the potter’s wheel and shaped by the hands (of the potter) attains multifarious shapes, so also the foetus united with bones and impelled by the wind becomes a human body with proper forms, features and mind. The wind assembles them together. From the wind water is generated. From the water the vital breath is formed and through the vital breath the semen gets developed. Thirty three parts of blood (female contribution) and fourteen parts of the semen mixing together form only half a Pala (two karsas) and is deposited in the womb. The child in the womb is covered by the five vital breaths. From the father’s body he inherits his forms and features.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Matsya Purana 39.14-16 “At the time of menstruation, the air draws the semen virile up, from the inside, after which it magnifies itself there; and then it develops into the embryo and assumes human or animal form (according to the kind of the womb where such development occurs)…” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

The following excerpts from Brahma Vaivarta Purana and Skanda Purana provide details about Puranic Embryology,

Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Prakriti Khanda 35.121-141 “…As soon as the semen is cast into the womb it is mixed up with blood. If there is excess of blood, the issue takes the form of his mother, and if there is excess of semen, the issue takes his father’s form. The combination of the semen with the blood on even days, i.e. Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday, results in a male issue, otherwise, in a female issue…Semen and blood get united in one night. This union, followed by development from day to day. On the seventh day, the fetus takes the form of a jujube and it takes the form of a pillow in a month, the shape of a lump of flesh without hands and feet in three months and is vested with hands, legs and other members of the body in the fifth month. In the sixth month the body gets animation and consciousness, the animate body then knows the past, but like a bird in a cage, it suffers endless torments. The child in the womb occupies the most unholy place for residence, partakes of the remains of the food eaten by its mother and contemplates Hari in endless tortures. After four months of trouble the child impelled by the wind of the womb is born. But by the illusion of Hari, it forgets the past and oblivious of the quarters, time, space and the necessities…” Tr. Rajendra Nath Sen

Skanda Purana V.iii.159.33-53 “…when semen and blood become mixed due to the intercourse of a man and a woman, a creature is born undoubtedly…In the first month it is a phlegmatic mass with the full complement of the body ingredients. In the second month it is a lump of flesh; in the third it gets equipped with sense organs. From the element of ether it derives lightness, subtlety, sound, power of hearing, strength etc. From air the Atman obtains sense of touch, movement, digestive power and roughness. From fiery element the sense of vision, warmth, digestive capacity, colour, and illumination are obtained. It takes from watery elements chillness, fluidity, dampness and softness. From earth element it takes odour, sense of smell, weight and physical form. These are unborn Atman takes up in the third month and beings to throb. If the longing of a pregnant woman is not fulfilled, the foetus becomes defective. It may get ugliness or even death. Hence the woman should be kept pleased. In the fourth month the limbs get firmness. Blood begins to flow in the fifth month. Physical strength is obtained in the sixth month. Complexion is fixed and the nails and hairs grow at that time. In the seventh month, the foetus becomes endowed with consciousness and mind and the body has all the nails and hundreds of hairs. In the eighth month, the outer skin is fixed and the foetus becomes endowed with the power of memory. It is at this time that his sin pursues the foetus and the mother as well. Hence if the birth is premature and the child is born in the eighth month it dies invariably. Either in the ninth or the tenth month the child comes out naturally forced by the powerful winds at the time of delivery…Now it has its full complement of the limbs of the body. There are one hundred vulnerable joints with three hundred Asthas (bones?). There are seven skull pieces in the head created by the Self born Lord himself. O descendant of Bharata, there are three and half crores of hairs on the limbs. There are seventy two thousand Nadis (nerve vessels) fanning out.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Both these passages are contradicting each other. Hinduism believes that a woman becomes pregnant after semen mixes with her menstrual blood. Semen contains millions of sperm and a woman becomes pregnant when a sperm enters egg of the female and not when entire semen mixes with blood. Every Purana which talks about Embryology says that a woman becomes pregnant after her blood mixes with semen which is a scientific error. Foetus doesn’t take the form of a jujube in a week. The above verse from Brahma Vaivarta Purana says that foetus takes the shape of a lump of flesh without hands and feet in three months and is vested with hands and legs in the fifth month which is not correct because the foetus starts developing limbs in 8 weeks (2 months) and by 14th week (3 ½ month) the lower limbs are well developed, refer Mayo Clinic’c articles Link 1 and Link 2,

In this article by babycenter.com you can see pictures of foetus development week by week.

It also says that the baby “partakes of the remains of the food eaten by its mother” while the baby doesn’t eat food in the womb, it gets all nutrients from the umbilical cord. Now let’s move on to Skanda Purana. It says that in the third month the baby gets the power of hearing, whereas the baby begins to hear from the 18th week (4 ½ month), refer Mayo Clinic‘s article. It also says that the baby obtains sense of movement, digestive power in the third month whereas this happens after the fourth month, Refer Mayo Clinic. Blood begins to flow in the 6th week and heart pumps about 100 pints of blood each day in 17th week (4 month & 1 week) but Skanda Purana says that blood begins to flow in the fifth month, refer Mayo Clinic and Parents.com. Skanda Purana says that in the sixth month the baby grows hairs and nails and by seventh month it has all hairs and nails whereas baby’s fingernails starts forming in 10 weeks (2 months & 2 weeks) and toenails appears in 14-15 (3 ½ months) weeks and develops in 17th week (4 months and 1 week), refer Mayo Clinic link 1, link 2 and UNSW.edu.au. Hairs starts growing in 22 week (5 months & 2 week) and gets a full head of hairs by 30th week (7 month & 2 weeks), refer Mayo Clinic, link 1 & link 2. Skanda Purana is bit correct about bones of baby but not precisely accurate, a new born baby has 270-350 bones. It says that baby’s skulll has 7 pieces whereas the skull of a baby consists of five main bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones, and one occipital bone. These are joined by fibrous sutures, which allow movement that facilitates childbirth and brain growth, refer Stanford Children’s Health & Wikipedia.

Now let’s evaluate Embryology mentioned in Padma and Bhagavad Puranas,

Padma Purana II.66.22-38 …The semen with the blood (of the woman) would be (turned into) a foetus in a day. Then within five nights bubbles would be formed in the foetus. It takes the form of flesh in the five forms; neck, head, shoulder (s), spine and belly; so also hands and feet, the two sides, waists, and (the other parts of) the body; the limbs are produced one by one within two months. After three months, hundreds of sharp joints are produced (i.e. formed). Fingers etc. are produced (i.e. are formed) one by one in four months. After five months mouth, nose and ears are produced (i.e. formed). Within six months, the row of teeth, so also tongue and nails are formed, so also cavities in the ears are formed. So also are formed anus, penis, organ of generation and the male organ of generation. The joints which (are present) in the limbs, are formed within seven months. In the eight month the head with the entire body with limbs and with each limb clearly separated is formed. He is complete and endowed with five. Due to the power of the food of (i.e. eaten by) the mother and by the tastes of six kinds, fixed in the umbilical cord (i.e. the foetus) grows day by day.” Tr. N.A Deshpande

Srimad Bhagavatam 3.31.2-5 “On the first night, the sperm and ovum mix, and on the fifth night the mixture ferments into a bubble. On the tenth night it develops into a form like a plum, and after that, it gradually turns into a lump of flesh or an egg, as the case may be. In the course of a month, a head is formed, and at the end of two months the hands, feet and other limbs take shape. By the end of three months, the nails, fingers, toes, body hair, bones and skin appear, as do the organ of generation and the other apertures in the body, namely the eyes, nostrils, ears, mouth and anus. Within four months from the date of conception, the seven essential ingredients of the body, namely chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and semen, come into existence. At the end of five months, hunger and thirst make themselves felt, and at the end of six months, the fetus, enclosed by the amnion, begins to move on the right side of the abdomen. Deriving its nutrition from the food and drink taken by the mother, the fetus grows and remains in that abominable residence of stools and urine, which is the breeding place of all kinds of worms.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Srimad Bhagavatam says a head is formed in a month whereas head develops in 7th week (1 month & 3 weeks) refer Mayo Clinic’s article. It says by the end of third month (i.e. on 3rd month) nails appear whereas baby’s fingernails starts forming in 10 weeks (2 months & 2 weeks) and toenails appears in 14-15 weeks (around 3 ½ months) and develops in 17th week (4 months and 1 week), refer Mayo Clinic link 1, link 2. Srimad Bhagavatam says that fingers, nostrils, toes, reproductive organ appears in third month whereas it occurs much early than that, fingers starts forming at 8th week (2 months), nostrils form at 7-8 week (around 2 months), toes forms at 9th week (2 month & 1 week), genitals develops on 11th week (2 months & 3 week), refer Mayo Clinic’s article.

Now let’s evaluate Padma Purana. Padma Purana says fingers are formed in 4 months which is contrary to what is mentioned in Srimad Bhagavatam which says they are formed in 3 months but in reality this occurs much earlier than that, reference is already given above. It says after five months nose, ears are produced whereas ears starts developing much earlier than that i.e. in 8th week (2 months) and baby may begin to hear by 18th week (4 months & 2 weeks), refer Link 1 and Link 2. And nose is formed in 2nd month (week 8) refer Mayo Clinic. It says nails are formed in 6th month whereas baby’s fingernails starts forming in 10 weeks (2 months & 2 weeks) and toenails appears in 14-15 weeks and develops in 17th week (4 months and 1 week), refer Mayo Clinic link 1, link 2 and UNSW.edu.au. Padma Purana says that reproductive organs are formed in 6th month which is contrary to what is mentioned in Srimad Bhagavatam which says that reproductive organ is formed in 3 months which are both contradictory. Organ of generation develops on 11th week (2 months & 3 week), refer Mayo Clinic’s article.

I have checked these facts from several websites but I am quoting only Mayo Clinic because it is very reliable, readers can read about Mayo Clinic on Wikipedia. The following topic is also about Embryology in Hinduism.

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Semen is produced?

These verses even says that bone is produced from fat,

Brahma Purana 70.49 “Fat is produced from flesh; bone is produced from fat; marrow is generated from bone and semen is produced from marrow.” Tr. Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri

Also mentioned in Brahmanda Purana 2.3.72.44

Harivamsa Purana 1.40.48-56 “The distillate of various foods, rasa, vital-juice, produces blood, and flesh is produced from that blood; fat comes from flesh and bones from that fat; bones generate marrow and marrow generates seminal fluid, from which pregnancy occurs; hence, rasa, vital-fluid is substratum of all… Water is the primary principle of that rasa, vital-fluid, and this belongs to the soma, the moon, or, the nectarean principle of the moon, in the somatology – Greek – soma -atos ‘body’ and its formation… heat resides in the second half, say in menstrual blood… hence, the being of living beings is a compound of coolness and heatedness of the moon and fire. Thus the essence of all juice, the seminal fluid, is created by an excess of phlegm; blood is created by an excess billious matter. The seat of phlegm is the heart and the seat of bile is the navel. The heart, which is in the body, is known as the seat of the mind. The fire exists behind the cavity of the navel – jaThara agni – is none other than huta-ashana, the devourer of oblations, whose life-spirit is madhu-sUdana. Mind is known as prajApati, the phlegm as soma and the bile as agni. Thus the whole world is a commixture of heat and cold. Where a conception takes place, as is the formation of a cloud, the air enters there accompanied by the Absolute… It then creates the various limbs and nourishes them. Inside the body the vital air divides itself into five kinds of airs, namely prANa, apAna, samAna, samAna and vyAna, and gradually assumes proportions.” Tr. Desiraju Hanumant Rao

Vayu Purana II.35.45-46 ”From flesh fat is produced and bone is developed from fat. Pith and marrow are developed from bone and semen virile is generated from marrow; foetus is developed from semen through assimilative activity of Rasa bodily fluid (or through the activity rooted in sexual pleasure).” Tr. G.V. Tagare

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Conceiving pregnancy at will without intercourse

Hinduism says that sexual intercourse wasn’t needed to conceive birth in ancient period and offspring were begotten by flat of the will and in the succeeding Yuga women conceived pregnancies just by touch,

Mahabharata 12.207.38-40 “…Sexual congress, O chief of the Bharatas, was then not necessary for perpetuating the species. In those days offspring were begotten by flat of the will. In the age that followed, viz., Treta, children were begotten by touch alone. The people of that age even, O monarch, were above the necessity of sexual congress. It was in the next age, viz., Dwapara, that the practice of sexual congress originated, O king, to prevail among men. In the Kali age, O monarch, men have come to marry and live in pairs…” Tr. K.M. Ganguli

Vayu Purana II.2.45 ”The creation of the earlier ones was due to thought, sight, and touch. Thenceforth, the subjects in this world were born of sexual intercourse.” Tr. G.V. Tagare, edited by G.P. Bhatt

Seer Urva is said to have created a son named Aurva with his mental ability,

Matsya Purana 175.43-44 ”…If one has the seed of asceticism within him, he can create a son from his mind…The ascetics ought to beget progeny out of the embryo created by their mind, and your address to me is bereft of dharma, and is like the speech of those who are not good. By the power of my innerself, I shall create a son, without the help of a woman, after illumining my mind with the glory of asceticism. I shall create such a son out of my soul, who would be ready to consume the creation. Afterwards the sage Urva, absorbed in his asceticism, throwing his thighs into the fire rubbed them with a kusu grass. Then the son in the form of Fire, desirous of consuming the universe, was produced from his thigh, by its own force without the help of any firewood. In such a way the fearful Aurva was begotten from the thigh of the seer Urva.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

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Conceiving pregnancy by drinking semen

Hinduism also says that a woman can become pregnant by drinking semen. It even says that animals can become pregnant after drinking human semen,

Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Brahma Kanda 20.33-46 “…At that time, Menaka was passing by that way, At the sight of her thigh and breast the semen of the saint was discharged. Thereupon the woman Kalavati drank it cheerfully, went to her husband, bowed to him and told him everything about, her pregnancy…” Tr. Rajendra Nath Sen

Varaha Purana 95.20-21 “Finding the water fragrant (with it), Mahismati told her friends that she would drink it. She then drank the water containing the emission of the sage. As a result she conceived and in due time brought forth, a son named Mahisa, intelligent and valiant.” Tr. Venkitaasubramonia Iyer, edited by J.L. Shastri

Skanda Purana III.iii.19.64 The semen virile of the royal sage Yupaketu fell into water. It is said that a harlot drank that water together with the semen and became pregnant” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Skanda Purana V.iii.5.27-37 “…O excellent king, Paramesthin Rudra sported about with Uma in the vast expanse of sea-like water. A splendid girl was born out of the sweat of Uma due to her delight. When Sarva’s chest pressed against the breasts of Uma, a great girl of lotus-like eyes issued forth from the sweat…” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vishnu Purana 4.2.13-17 “Yuvanaswa had no son, at which he was deeply grieved. Whilst residing in the vicinage of the holy Munis, he inspired them with pity for his childless condition, and they instituted a religious rite to procure him progeny. One night during its performance the sages having placed a vessel of consecrated water upon the altar had retired to repose. It was past midnight, when the king awoke, exceedingly thirsty; and unwilling to disturb any of the holy inmates of the dwelling, he looked about for something to drink. In his search he came to the water in the jar, which had been sanctified and endowed with prolific efficacy by sacred texts, and he drank it. When the Munis rose, and found that the water had been drunk, they inquired who had taken it, and said, “The queen that has drunk this water shall give birth to a mighty and valiant son.” “It was I,” exclaimed the Raja, “who unwittingly drank the water!” and accordingly in the belly of Yuvanaswa was conceived a child, and it grew, and in due time it ripped open the right side of the Raja, and was born, and the Raja, did not die…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Animals becoming pregnant,

Skanda Purana III.iii.19.65 “After drinking the semen of Sage Vibhandaka together with water, a female deer became pregnant and gave birth to Rsyasrnga.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Mahabharata 1.3.17 “…The Rishi thus addressed, answered Janamejaya, ‘O Janamejaya, this my son, deep in ascetic devotions, accomplished in the study of the Vedas, and endued with the full force of my asceticism, is born of (the womb of) a she-snake that had drunk my vital fluid…” Tr. K.M. Ganguli

Devi Bhagavatam 5.2.27-31 “…Vyasa said :– O king! Hearing thus the sweet words of Fire, Rambha quitted the hold of his hairs and said :– O Lord of the Devas! If thou art pleased, grant my desired boon that a son be born unto me, who will destroy the forces of my enemy and who will conquer the three worlds. And that son be invincible in every way by the Devas, Danavas and men, very powerful, assuming forms at will, and respected by all. The Fire [Agni] said :– O highly Fortunate! You will get your son, as you desire; therefore desist now from your attempting suicide. O highly fortunate Rambha! With any female of whichever species, you will co-habit, you will get a son, more powerful than you; there is no doubt in this. Vyasa said :– O king! Hearing thus the sweet words of the Fire as desired, Rambha, the chief of the Danavas, went, surrounded by Yaksas, to a beautiful place, adorned with picturesque sceneries; when one lovely she-buffalo, who was very maddened with passion, fell to the sight of Rambha. And he desired to have sexual intercourse with her, in preference to other women. The she-buffallo, too, gladly yielded to his purpose and Rambha had sexual intercourse with her, impelled as it were by the destiny. The she-buffalo became pregnant with his semen virile…” Tr. Swami Vijnananda

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Seven layers of the Skin

There are three layers of the skin, 1) Epidermis, 2) Dermis and 3) Hypodermis. But according to Agni Purana there are seven layers of the skin,

Agni Purana 350.40-45 “The external layers of the skin, together with the one that contains blood, are seven in number.” Tr. M.N. Dutt

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Seven Oceans created by the impression of King Priyavrata’s chariot’s wheel

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.1.31 “When Priyavrata drove his chariot behind the sun, the rims of his chariot wheels created impressions that later became seven oceans, dividing the planetary system known as Bhū-maṇḍala into seven islands.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Also mentioned in Devi Bhagavatam 8.4.1-28

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Shape of the Earth

https://vedkabhed.files.wordpress.com/2017/10/science-vedic-flat-earth-untitle-1.jpg?w=357&h=449

Earth according to Vedas is four cornered,

Rig Veda 10.58.3 Thy spirit, that went far away, away to the four cornered earth…

Satapatha Brahmana says the same,

Satapatha Brahman 6.1.2.29 …Now this earth is four-cornered, for the quarters are her corners: hence the bricks are four-cornered; for all the bricks are after the manner of this earth.

Ramayana also endorses it,

Valmiki Ramayana 5.9.26 “the floor was covered by a carpet, wide and four-cornered like the earth…” Tr. Hari Prasad Shastri

Hari Prasad Shastri writes in the footnotes,
https://vedkabhed.files.wordpress.com/2017/10/1.jpg?w=526&h=42

“Four-Cornered – The ancient Hindu belief was that the earth was four-cornered.”
The Ramayana of Valmiki, Translated by Hari Prasad Shastri, Shanti Sadan 29 Chepstow Villas, London, W.II. 1952. Printed in Great Britain at the Burgleigh Press, Lewins Mead, Bristol.

Another translation,

Valmiki Ramayana 5.9.26 “…containing spacious and parti-colored woolen clothes bearing the marks of the Earth*; extensive as the Earth is, with kingdoms and dwellings…” Tr. Manmath Nath Dutt

M.N. Dutt writes in the footnotes,
https://vedkabhed.files.wordpress.com/2017/10/2.jpg?w=572&h=61
“*i.e. four-cornered, The Earth, in Hindu cosmogony, is a flat surface having four corners.”
The Ramayanna, Edited and Published by Manmatha Nath Dutt, Rector, Keshub Academu. Printed by Girish Chanda Chackravarti, Deva Press, 65/2, Beadon Street, Calcutta. 1892.

Hindi translation of Valmiki Ramayana 5.9.26 by Dwaraka Prasad Sharma,
https://vedkabhed.files.wordpress.com/2017/10/3.jpg?w=458&h=194

Padma Purana 1.19.166-171 “…O you creator of the worlds, you are the protector and creator of us and (also) of the worlds. This flat world will be elevated by your favour…” Tr. N.A. Deshpande

Rig Veda 8.6.5 “His might is manifest, for Indra folds and unfolds both heaven and earth, as (one spreads or rolls up) a skin.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Rig Veda 6.8.3 “Wonderful Mitra propped the heaven and earth apart, and covered and concealed the darkness with his light. He made the two bowls part asunder like two skins. Vaiśvānara put forth all his creative power.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

One can Google how a hide (skin of animal) is stretched and spread. Some Puranas describes the earth as lotus shaped,

Vishnu Purana 2.12.36 “From the waters, which are the body of Vishnu, was produced the lotus shaped earth, with its seas and mountains.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Vayu Purana I.34.44 “The lotus that was fashioned by Visnu grew from his umbilicus. The earth along with the forests and the trees was evolved in the shape of a lotus.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Srimad Bhagavatam describes the planetary system or the earth as lotus shaped and Jambudvipa (Which is supposed to where we live) in the shape of leaf of a lotus flower,

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.16.5 “The planetary system known as Bhū-maṇḍala resembles a lotus flower, and its seven islands resemble the whorl of that flower. The length and breadth of the island known as Jambūdvīpa, which is situated in the middle of the whorl, are one million yojanas [eight million miles]. Jambūdvīpa is round like the leaf of a lotus flower.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Markandeya Purana 156.22 also mentions Earth as a lotus. Puranas says that Vishnu flattened the Earth,

Padma Purana 1.3.55 “The beginningless supreme being, then having flattened the earth, piled the mountains on it according to (its) divisions.” Tr. N.A. Deshpande

Vishnu Purana 1.4.45-48 “The supreme being thus eulogized, upholding the earth, raised it quickly, and placed it on the summit of the ocean, where it floats like a mighty vessel, and from its expansive surface does not sink beneath the waters. Then, having levelled the earth, the great eternal deity divided it into portions, by mountains…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Kurma Purana I.6.25 “He levelled the earth and gathered the mountains together on it…” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Shiva Purana VayaviyaSamhita 7, Section I.11.34-35; Vayu Purana I.6.27 “The Boar brought the earth to its own place. It then assumed his natural form and fixed it there. He levelled the earth, fixed the mountains and set up the four worlds on the earth as before.” Tr. J.L. Shastri

Veda says that the Earth is stretched or spread out. Hindus often uses such verses against other religions, wondering what they will have to say about these,

Rig Veda 3.6.5 Great are the deeds of thee, the Great, O Agni: thou by thy power hast spread out earth and heaven.

Rig Veda 10.62.3 Ye raised the Sun to heaven by everlasting Law, and spread broad earth, the Mother

https://vedkabhed.files.wordpress.com/2017/10/4.jpg?w=324&h=434

Some translates words like Gau, Bhu Mandala as globe which is misleading, they try to insert their own definitions while according to Hinduism, the Earth is four-cornered, lotus shaped, shaped like a leaf of a lotus flower etc, but the idea of Earth as a flat circular disk is emphasised in the Puranas. Puranas describes the earth as a flat disc of enormous size. In its centre was Mount Meru, round which sun, moon and stars revolved. Around Meru were continents or regions (Dvipa), separated from the central peak by oceans, and named according to the great trees which stood on their shores opposite Meru. According to some Puranas there are Saptadvipas (four regions/continents/islands) in the world and as per some there are Chaturdvipa (four Dvipas) including Jambduvipa. Below the earth are seven levels of hell and above the earth is heaven, the earth is established on waters. This is the description of earth given in Hindu scriptures. The verses are not clear, but if you search Jambudvipa on Google then you will find stuff related to Earth as a Flat Circular disc also if you imagine the Earth as described in Puranas then you will get a flat circular earth.

Vishnu Purana 2.2.4-36 “PARÁŚARA.–You shall hear, Maitreya, a brief account of the earth from me: a full detail I could not give you in a century. The seven great insular continents are Jambu, Plaksha, Sálmali, Kuśa, Krauncha, Śáka, and Pushkara: and they are surrounded severally by seven great seas; the sea of salt water (Lavańa), of sugar-cane juice (Ikshu), of wine (Surá), of clarified butter (Sarpi), of curds (Dadhi), of milk (Dugdha), and of fresh water (Jala). Jambu-dwípa is in the centre of all these: and in the centre of this continent is the golden mountain Meru…The capital of Brahma is enclosed by the river Ganges, which, issuing from the foot of Vishńu, and washing the lunar orb, falls here from the skies…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Agni Purana 212.33-35 “…Obeisance to the mount Meru, the representative of Vishnu on earth. Salutation unto the mountain which forms the main stay of the earth. I make obeisance to the mountain situate at the centre of the earth…” Tr. M.N. Dutt

Harivamsha Purana 3.34.4 “Containing the earth within four boundaries, the Lord created the great ocean. At the centre of the earth, the golden mountain, meru was installed.” Tr. Desiraju Hanumanta Rao

Padma Purana VII.2.10-17 “…At the centre of the earth he produced the great mountain (viz. Meru) with jewelled peaks…” Tr. N.A. Deshpande

Brahmanda Purana I.2.21.13-16 “…The extent of the earth towards all the sides (quarters) from the middle of the Meru is remembered as one crore and eightynine lakhs (of Yojanas)…” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vishnu Purana 2.4.87-93 “…In this manner the seven island continents are encompassed successively by the seven oceans, and each ocean and continent is respectively of twice the extent of that which precedes it…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Following verses shows that Mount Meru is in the middle of the earth with land surrounding it and the land is separated by oceans,

Vayu Purana I.34.37 “From the unmanifest the great lotus of the earth is evolved. Its pericarp is the four-cornered Meru that is five times great.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Matsya Purana 123.27-28 “Thus the seven dvipas are surrounded by the seven oceans…” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

Linga Purana I.46.1 “The Earth consists of seven continents. It is full of rivers and mountains. It is surrounded by seven oceans all round and embellished by them.” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

Vayu Purana I.34.46 “The four famous great continents are stationed on the petals. The powerful Meru is stationed on the pericarp.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Similar thing is mentioned in Mahabharata,

Mahabharata 6.6.18-21 “Besides Meru are situated, O lord, these four islands, viz., Bhadraswa, and Ketumala, and Jamvudwipa otherwise called Bharata, and Uttar-Kuru which is the abode of persons who have achieved the merit of righteousness. The bird Sumukha, the son of Suparna, beholding that all the birds on Meru were of golden plumage, reflected that he should leave that mountain inasmuch as there was no difference between the good, middling, and bad birds. The foremost of luminaries, the sun, always circumambulates Meru” Tr. K.M. Ganguli

Vayu Purana I.34.56 “That Meru, the purifier of living beings, is encircled by worlds. Four islands are established on its different sides.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vayu Purana I.50.68-70 “The entire earth is known as fifty crores (of Yojanas) in extent. From the middle of Meru on all four sides is half of it. Half the extent of the earth is stated in terms of Yojanas. The extent of the earth towards all the sides (quarters) from the middle of Meru is said to be eleven crores and eighty nine lakhs (of Yojanas) and fifty thousand.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Brahmanda Purana I.2.15.12-13 “Jambudvipa is immense and glorious with huge zones all round. It is encircled by nine worlds that evolve a number of living beings. It is surrounded on all sides by the briny sea the extent of which is equal to that of Jambudvipa itself.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

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Earth is immovable

There are chapters in Puranas about movements of planets. It mentions revolution of all planets of our solar system like Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and even satellite and star like Moon and Sun but nowhere mentions the movement of the Earth. Which proves that the Earth according to Hinduism is stationary.

Brahmanda Purana 2.3.52.8 “The earth overwhelmed by the ocean began to quake though its name is Acala (immovable). There was a break and hindrance in the penance and abstract meditation of the ascetics.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Mahabharata, Anushasana Parva 12, Section 62, verse 2 “Bhishma said, ‘Of all kinds of gifts, the gift of earth has been said to be the first (in point of merit). Earth is immovable and indestructible…” Tr. K.M. Ganguli

Vamana Purana 8.26 “I bow down to the Worshipful Lord Visnu who raised the immovable earth with one single tusk, who sustains everything, and who sleeps absorbing the entire universe in Him.” Tr. Ananada Swarup Gupta

Mahabharata 13.62.2 “…Earth is immovable and indestructible…” Tr. K.M. Ganguli

Mahabharata 5.76.7-8 “Behold, O Krishna, these the firmament and the earth which are immovable, immense, and infinite, and which are the refuge of, and in which are born these countless creatures.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli

Vayu Purana I.35.11; Linga Purana I.49.25b-27 “Meru has four great ranges (legs) in all the four quarters. Held by them, the earth with her seven continents does not move.” Tr. G.V. tagare

Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 87.99-104 …Vrinda, so saying, remained there like the immoveable earth….” Tr. Various Sanskrit Scholars, Edited by B.D. Basu.

Atharva Veda 6.44.1 “The heavens have stood still, the earth has stood still, all creatures have stood still. The trees that sleep erect have stood still: may this disease of thine stand still!” Tr. Maurice Bloomfield

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Sun revolves around the Earth

Brahmanda Purana 1.2.21.87-88 “Everyday the sun traverses those (zones) in due order. Just as the outer rim of the potter’s wheel comes back quickly (i.e. revolves), so also the sun functions quickly during his Souther transit. Hence, he traverses a major portion of the Earth in the course of a shorter period.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Brahmanda Purana I.2.23.44-45 “Thus the sun traverses the quarters by means of his swift chariot with one wheel. The horses are splendid but they do not have the usual place (? Akramaih). In the course of a day and night, the sun traverses the earth consisting of the seven continents and oceans by means of his chariot with a single wheel.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Matsya Purana 126.41-46 “The Sun in course of one single day and night goes swiftly over the world consisting of the seven oceans and the seven islands, seating in His one-wheeled chariot and drawn by seven horses. The seven horses yoked to the Sun’s chariot are no other than the seven chhandas metres); they can assume forms at their will; they go as they like…Ascending on such a chariot the Sun travels the earth in course of one day (24 hours.) The horses were yoked at the beginning of Kalpa and carry on the Sun toll the end of the Great Dissolution (Maha Pralaya). Thus He goes on round and round, day and night, surrounded by the Valakhillya Munis…” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

Vayu Purana I.52.43-44 “Thus the Sun moves ahead quickly in his celestial sphere by means of his single-wheeled chariot dragged by the unimpaired gentle horses. In the course of a day and night he traverses over the world of seven continents and oceans by means of his single wheeled chariot dragged by the seven horses.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vayu Purana I.50.142 “Within a short time, therefore, the sun traverses the extensive earth. Within twelve Muhurtas it traverses quickly from the south to the north.” Tr. G.V. tagare

Brahmanda Purana I.2.23.44-45 “Thus the sun traverses the quarters by means of his swift chariot with one wheel. The horses are splendid but they do not have the usual place (? Akramaih). In the course of a day and night, the sun traverses th earth consisting of the seven continenents and oceans by means of his chariot with a single wheel.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Linga Purana Section I.54.9-12 “…Similarly when the sucker of waters (i.e. the sun) moves about in the middle of Puskara the mountain to the north of Manasa, he traverses a thirtieth part of the earth in a Muhurta (48 mts). Understand this number in yojanas travelled in a Muhurta. The speed of the noble souled sun per Muhurta is three million one hundred and fifty thousand yojanas…” Tr. Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri

Vayu Purana I.50.119-121; Matsya Purana 124.40-60 “When the sun passes through the middle of the sky, it traverses one thirtieth of the diameter of the earth in a Muhurta (forty eight minutes). In regard to the distance traversed in Yojanas, know that it is three million one hundred and fifty thousand in full. This is the distance traverses by the sun in one Muhurta.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.22.5 “The sun-god, who is Nārāyaṇa, or Viṣṇu, the soul of all the worlds, is situated in outer space between the upper and lower portions of the universe. Passing through twelve months on the wheel of time, the sun comes in touch with twelve different signs of the zodiac…” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.22.7 “The sun-god has three speeds — slow, fast and moderate. The time he takes to travel entirely around the spheres of heaven, earth
and space at these three speeds is referred to, by learned scholars, by the five names Saṁvatsara, Parivatsara, Iḍāvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Satapatha Brahmana 8:7:2:5 …having once revolved round these worlds, that sun would not pass by them. Let him lay down the two last alongside the two first by reaching over them: he thus causes that sun to pass by these worlds; and hence that sun revolves incessantly round these worlds again and again (from left) to right.

Varaha Purana 26.8 “From its lustre arose twelve suns, and the principal one among these now revolves round the world.” Tr. Vankitasubramonia Iyer, Edited by J.L. Shastri

Mahabharata 6.6.7-16 “…This (the land where we are) is in the Varsha that is called after Bharata…Besides Meru are situated, O lord, these four islands, viz., Bhadraswa, and Ketumala, and Jamvudwipa otherwise called Bharata, and Uttar-Kuru…The foremost of luminaries, the sun, always circumambulates Meru, as also the moon with (his) attendant constellation, and the Wind-god too…” Tr. K.M. Ganguli

Mount Meru is in the centre of the world.

Rig Veda 1.35.9 “The gold-handed, all-beholding luminary travels between the two regions of heaven and earth, dispels diseases, and this, verily, is known as the sun, and it finally overspreads the sky, extending from the dark interspace to the celestial region” Tr. SatyaPrakash Saraswati.

Nirukta 7.23 The sun having first revolved towards the northern hemisphere, a person holds a polished (piece of) white copper, or crystal, focusing the sun-rays in a place where there is some dry cow-dung, without touching it… Now (had VaisVauara been the sun), there would have occurred expressions relating to VaisVanara in those same hymns and shares which are assigned to celestial deities, i.e. Savitr, [Surya], Pusan, Visnu, and [the VisVedevas.] And they would have praised him by (attributing to him) the functions of the sun, as thou risest, thou settest, thou revolvest, &c.

Atharva Veda 13.2.6 “Hail to thy rapid car whereon, O Sūrya, thou circlest in a moment both the limits…[44] The suppliant’s way, filling the earth, the Mighty circleth the world with eye that none deceiveth…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Vayu Purana I.50.60 “Revolving all round, the Sun illuminates and protects the three worlds. Hence on account of illumination and protection, he is called ‘Ravi’. The root av means ‘illumination’ (and protection.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Following verses shows movements of the Sun,

Brahmanda Purana I.2.21.35-36 “Understand the movement of the sun during the southern transit, as he goes to that quarter. His movement is above all the guardians of the quarters. During this southern transit, the sun rushes forward like an arrow that is discharged. He revolved always, taking the circle of luminaries with him.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Brahmanda Purana 1.2.21.45-46 “The sun revolves rapidly like the whirling firebrand. Moving about, the sun traverses the revolving constellations. Thus the sun thereby moves to the south among the four quarters. The sun rises and sets again and again.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Matsya Purana 125.50-58 …The success of the sun’s chariot is due to the conjunction (with Dhruva). Thus this divine solar chariot moves about in the heaven. The pins of the yoke and axle are on its south. The pair of reins of the yoke and the wheel of this aerial chariot revolve round and round in all directions like the potter’s wheel…

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.22.6 “Thus the time the sun takes to rotate through half of outer space is called an ayana, or its period of movement [in the north or in the south].” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Vayu Purana I.51.68-69 “With that the lord Sun moves quickly in the heaven. There are two reins of the chariot tied to the tips of the pole and the axle. Propelled by Dhruva the chariot moves in the sky in a circular fashion.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vayu Purana I.50.92-93 “Understand the solar movement when the sun reaches south during the southern transit all round above the guardians of the worlds. In his transit to the south, the sun moves fast like a discharged arrow. It takes the group of luminary bodies with it and revolves always.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vayu Purana I.50.151-4 “During the northern transit, the movement of the moon (?) is slow during day and fast during night. During the southern transit the sun’s movement is dast during day and slow during night. Dividing nights and days thus by its special diverse movements, the sun traverses the path by its even (regular) and uneven (irregular) movement.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Many verses are clearly saying that the sun travels around the earth so there is no way for apologists to defend these verses. Also read categories like Sun moves in a chariot pulled by Seven Horses, Speed of Sun moving around the Earth which proves that the Sun indeed revolves around the earth as per Hinduism.

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Sun moves in a chariot pulled by seven horses

Indian Prime Minister from the Hindu nationalist party said that, In our mythology we have imagined the sun god Surya riding on seven horses. This has basis in Hindu scriptures which says,

Rig Veda 1.50.8; 1.50.1 O, Bright sun, a chariot named harit with seven horses takes you to sky

Mahabharata book 13.158.20-22 …the sun possessed of a thousand rays… He it is that constitutes the wheel of the year, having three naves and seven horses to drag it…He is the sun, the dispeller of all darkness.

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.21.12-19 “Thus the chariot of the sun-god, which is trayimaya, or worshiped by the words om bhur bhuvah svah, travels through the four residences…My dear King, the carriage of the sun-god’s chariot is estimated to be 3,600,000 yojanas [28,800,000 miles] long and one-fourth as wide [900,000 yojanas, or 7,200,000 miles]. The chariot’s horses, which are named after Gayatri and other Vedic meters, are harnessed by Arunadeva to a yoke that is also 900,000 yojanas wide. This chariot continuously carries the sun-god. Although Arunadeva sits in front of the sun-god and is engaged in driving the chariot and controlling the horses, he looks backward toward the sun-god…My dear King, in his orbit through Bhu-mandala [Earth], the sun-god traverses a distance of 95,100,000 yojanas [760,800,000 miles] at the speed of 2,000 yojanas and two krosas [16,004 miles] in a moment.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Brahmanda Purana I.2.23.50 “…The lord of the day (i.e. the sun) thus revolves and wanders by means of horses that gallop and that are as swift as birds.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Linga Purana I.55.81-82 “Thus the sun, the harbinger of the day moves ahead quickly in a single wheeled chariot drawn by seven green imperishable horses. He whirls day and night in his chariot which has a single wheel. He traverses in heaven over the seven continents and oceans with the help of seven groups.” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

Devi Bhagwatam 8.15.40-45 “…The seat of the Sun on his chariot measures 36 Lakh Yoyanas wide. The Yuga measures in length one fourth of the above dimensions, that of his seat. The Chariot is moved by seven horses, consisting of the seven Chhandas, Gâyatrî, etc., driven by Aruna. The horses carry the Sun for the happiness of all. Though the charioteer sits in front of the Sun, his face is turned towards the west. He does his work as a charioteer in that state…” Tr. Swami Vijnananda

Some apologists tries to defend this by saying that seven horses mentioned here are not actually horses but seven rays, in many scriptures the Sun is described as having a thousand rays not 7 rays and none of the Puranas or the Mahabharat explains seven horses as seven rays so this proves that its apologists concocted explanation which has no basis. If seven horses are described as seven rays then does that mean the Moon too emits ten rays as Hindu scriptures describes moon moving in a chariot pulled by 10 horses. Sun is described in Hindu scriptures including the Vedas as of having 1000 rays not 7 rays, these 7 horses’ names are different than the names of rays of sun given in Hindu scriptures. Hindu scriptures clearly mentions that the seven horses are seven Vedic metres who have assumed the shape of horses. Some also explain it by saying that one wheel of the chariot signifies day or year, five spokes in it signifies five seasons etc. which is true to an extent but the one wheel represents year and five spokes of the chariot represents five seasons, the chariot is not a metaphor. Just as in the Tricolor (Indian flag) the saffron, white and green represents courage and sacrifice, peace and truth, and faith and chivalry respectively, the Ashoka Chakra in the middle represents the eternal wheel of law so the wheel of the chariot and its spokes too represent year and seasons in the same manner. Hindu scriptures even gives the size of Sun’s chariot, how will apologists explain that? If it is symbolic then why Hindu scriptures mentioned the size of chariot? And why do they say that Sun moves around in his chariot? Hindu scriptures also mentions chariot of moon what does it signifies? Also check above topic especially Brahmanda Purana I.2.23.44-45 and Vayu Purana I.52.43-44 which clearly states about Sun revolving around the earth in a chariot pulled by horses and even has a charioteer in front. Logically speaking does the Sun rotates or revolves through rays if horses means rays? Before speaking about 7 horses of the sun, the Mahabharata verse mentions 1000 rays of the sun which makes it pretty clear that 7 horses aren’t really rays, moreover if seven horses of the sun means 7 rays of the sun then what does 10 horses of the moon means? Hindu text mentions 10 horses of the moon also, does that mean moon also emits 10 types of rays?

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Even the Moon moves around the earth in a chariot pulled by horses

Brahmanda Purana 1.2.23.50-51 “He is served by Gandharvas and groups of celestial damsels by means of sons and dances. The lord of the day (i.e. the sun) thus revolves and wanders by means of horses that gallop and that are as swift as birds. The chariot of Soma (the Moon) has three wheels. His horses have the lustre of Kunda (white jasmine) flowers. They are ten in number and they are yoked to the left as well as to the right. The moon traverses by means of this.” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

Vayu Purana I.52.50-51 “The chariot of the Moon has three wheels. The horses are tied in pairs on either side. The chariot along with the horses and the charioteer has come out of the womb of the waters. The three wheels have a hundred spokes. Excellent white horses have been yoked thereto. They are ten in number. They are slender and divine. They are unimpeded and have the velocity of the mind. They are yoked but once (in the beginning of the Kalpa) and they travels till the end of the Yugas.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

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Speed of Sun moving around the Earth

Linga Purana Section I.54.9-12 “…Similarly when the sucker of waters (i.e. the sun) moves about in the middle of Puskara the mountain to the north of Manasa, he traverses a thirtieth part of the earth in a Muhurta (48 mts). Understand this number in yojanas travelled in a Muhurta. The speed of the noble souled sun per Muhurta is three million one hundred and fifty thousand yojanas…” Tr. Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri

Vayu Purana I.50.119-121 “When the sun passes through the middle of the sky, it traverses one thirtieth of the diameter of the earth in a Muhurta (forty eight minutes). In regard to the distance traversed in Yojanas, know that it is three million one hundred and fifty thousand in full. This is the distance traverses by the sun in one Muhurta.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

1 Muhurta = 48 minutes

1 Yojana = 8 miles (as per Hindu translators of Puranas)

3,150,000 Yojana*8 miles = 25,200,000

25,200,000/48 = 525,000 i.e. speed in one minute

525,000*60 = 31,500,000 miles per hour

According to modern science,
“The Sun’s orbital speed around the Galaxy: ~200 km/s (720,000 km/h, 450,000 mph) The speed of the ground beneath your feet, as a result of the Earth’s rotation: 1000 km/h (600 mph) at the latitude of Sheffield (53 degrees); it goes up to 1670 km/h (1000 mph) at the equator.”
http://www.iop.org/activity/outreach/resources/pips/topics/earth/facts/page_43079.html

http://solar-center.stanford.edu/FAQ/Qsolsysspeed.html

The orbital speed of the sun given in Vayu Purana is 31,500,000 mph and the orbital speed of the sun according to science is 450,000 mph which is nowhere close to the speed given in Puranas. Brahmanda Purana mentions a different speed, so let’s have a look at that too,

Brahmanda Purana I.2.21.60-65 “…Thus, when the sun traverses the middle of the sky, it passes through parts of the earth in the course of a Muhurta as it were (?) Understand the number of Yojanas here in the course of a Muhurta. It is one hundred and eightyone thousand Yojanas. This is the speed of the sun in a Muhurta.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

181,000*8 = 1,448,000 miles

1,448,000/48 = 30,166 in a minute

30,166*60= 1,810,000 mph

This speed given is also not correct, the speed given in Srimad Bhagavata (Bhagavad Purana) is different so let’s evaluate its authenticity as well,

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.21.12 “Thus the chariot of the sun-god, which is trayīmaya, or worshiped by the words om bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ, travels through the four residences mentioned above at a speed of 3,400,800 yojanas [27,206,400 miles] in a muhūrta.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

mph already given hence,

27,206,400/48 (1 Muhurta) = 566,800

566,800*60= 34,008,000 mph

Whereas the orbital speed of the sun is 450,000 mph.

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.21.19 “My dear King, in his orbit through Bhū-maṇḍala, the sun-god traverses a distance of 95,100,000 yojanas [760,800,000 miles] at the speed of 2,000 yojanas and two krośas [16,004 miles] in a moment.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

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Moon travels faster than the Sun

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.22.8 “Above the rays of the sunshine by a distance of 100,000 yojanas [800,000 miles] is the moon, which travels at a speed faster than that of the sun. In two lunar fortnights the moon travels through the equivalent of a saṁvatsara of the sun, in two and a quarter days it passes through a month of the sun, and in one day it passes through a fortnight of the sun.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

It says that the Moon travels faster than the Sun.

“The Moon orbits Earth at a speed of 2,288 miles per hour (3,683 kilometers per hour). During this time it travels a distance of 1,423,000 miles (2,290,000 kilometers).”

http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/ask/176–How-fast-does-the-Moon-travel-around-Earth-

Whereas the sun travels at a speed of 450,000 which means that as per modern science, the sun travels faster than the moon but it’s contrary to Vedic Science.

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Speed of Planets

Brahmanda Purana I.2.24.110-1 “Three planets among them which orbit very far away and above all are the Saturn, the Jupiter and the Mars. It should be known that they orbit very slowly. The great planets beneath them are the four fast moving ones, viz. the sun, the moon, the Mercury and the Venus.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Speed of slow moving planets

Speed of Saturn 34,821 kilometers per hour
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/ask/122-How-long-does-it-take-Saturn-to-go-around-the-Sun-

Speed of Jupiter 47,051 kilometers per hour
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/ask/90-How-long-does-it-take-Jupiter-to-go-around-the-Sun-

Speed of Mars 86,871 kilometers per hour
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/ask/75-How-long-does-it-take-Mars-to-go-around-the-sun-

Fast moving planets

Speed of Mercury 170,505 kilometers) per hour
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/ask/22-How-fast-does-Mercury-orbit-the-Sun-

Speed of Venus 78,341 miles per hour
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/ask/54-How-long-does-it-take-Venus-to-go-around-the-Sun-

Speed of Moon 3,683 kilometers per hour
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/ask/176–How-fast-does-the-Moon-travel-around-Earth-

Mars orbits faster than Venus still it’s counted as slow moving planet. And moon orbits very slow despite that its included in fast moving planets. Though it is correct about Saturn and Jupiter compared to Mercury and Venus.

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Moon has water

Vayu Purana I.53.57 “The orb of the Moon is of solid water and the orb of the Sun is of solid refulgence.” Tr. G.V. Tagare, Edited by G.P Bhatt

Another Vayu Purana may be saying the same,

Vayu Purana I.53.84-86 “Thus the abodes and their resident deities are mentioned. The abode of the thousand rayed Sun is full of fire and sparkling. The abode of the thousand rayed Moon is full of water and sparkling white. The abode of the five rayed charming planet Budha is dark in color.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Linga Purana I.52.3 “The storehouse of water in the sky which is called Soma (moon) is the support of all living beings. To Devas, it is the receptacle of nectar.” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

Brahmanda Purana I.2.23.78-79 “The divine spheres of the sun and the moon are sparkling and white. They are of the form (or full of) of fire and water. They move about in the firmament. They resemble auspicious round pots. The sphere of the moon is remembered to be consisting of dense water. The white and brilliantly sparkling sphere of the sun is composed of dense fiery splendour.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Hinduism also says that Moon is born from waters,

Matsya Purana 126.48 “The Moon has been born from waters along with His chariot, horses and the charioteer. That chariot is decorated with fine garlands and yoked with excellent white horses, rests on three wheels.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

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How Full Moon occurs

According to Hinduism, the Sun fills the moon with a nectar which lasts until 33330 Devas drinks it and turns it dark. The nectar is described as sweet like honey and consisting of the essence of the watery juice. It is the food of the Devas which makes them immortal. Seems this is the Soma Ras.

Vayu Purana I.52.60-66 “Beginning with the second day in the dark half and ending with the fourteenth day Devas drink the watery wine, the nectar of the Moon that is essentially made up of water and that by nature consists of tasty essence. By the brilliance of the Sun the nectar is collected and prepared in the course of a fortnight. On the full moon night Devas, Pitrs and the sages attend the Moon facing the Sun. The digits being drunk decline gradually in the dark half and become refilled in the bright half. When days pass on gradually Devas drink the moon for half a month until the new moon day and go away. On the new moon day Pitrs resort to the Moon. When the fifteenth part of the digits is left over in the later part of the day, that part is used up by the groups of Pitrs. The remaining digit is drunk by Pitrs during the period of two Kalas. From the lunar rays the nectar of Svadha comes out on the new moon night. They drink the nectar and remain content for a month. They attain immortality.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Matsya Purana 126.53-60 “…in the dark fortnight, the Moon wanes daily from the second day till the Chaturdasi tithi (the fourteenth day after the full Moon) when the Devas drink up the soft and excellent nectar of the Moon, sweet like honey and consisting of the essence of the watery juice. For half the month the nectar becomes stored up in the Moon by the Sun’s ray, so that the Devas would be able to drink it; and the quantity of this nectar becomes maximum on the full moon night when the Devas adore the Moon for another supply of the same, gathered from the Sun’s radiance in course of a fortnight.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

Matsya Purana 126.61-70 “…From the beginning of the dark fortnight the Moon turns black, wanes and becomes dull; His digits decline owing to His nectar being drunk up day by day. 33330 Devas drink the lunar ambrosia. The Moon thus declines during the dark fortnight and waxes until He becomes complete in the bright fortnight. Thus, drinking the nectar, the Devas, at the end of the fortnight, go away elsewhere on the Amasvasya (dark) night when the Pitris come to Him. When the still small portion of the 15th part of the Moon is left, they drink that in the afternoon on the next day for a brief period of two kalas and go away after the completion of this dark fortnight…” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

Vishnu Purana 2.12.1-9 “The radiant sun supplies the moon, when reduced by the draughts of the gods to a single Kalá, with a single ray; and in the same proportion as the ruler of the night was exhausted by the celestials, it is replenished by the sun, the plunderer of the waters: for the gods, Maitreya, drink the nectar and ambrosia accumulated in the moon during half the month, and from this being their food they are immortal. Thirty-six thousand three hundred and thirty-three divinities drink the lunar ambrosia. When two digits remain, the moon enters the orbit of the sun, and abides in the ray called Amá; whence the period is termed Amávásya. In that orbit the moon is immersed for a day and night in the water; thence it enters the branches and shoots of the trees; and thence goes to the sun.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

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All planets and stars originated from the Sun

Brahmanda Purana I.2.24.46 “All these, viz. the moon, the stars and the planets should be known as originating from the sun. The moon is the lord of all stars and the sun is the king of planets.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Linga Purana I.59.41-45 “…It should be known that the moon, stars and planets are all born of the sun…” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

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Moon is bigger in size than the Sun

Brahmanda Purana I.2.21.8 “In diameter as well as girth (Circumference), the moon is twice as much as the sun.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vayu Purana I.53.61-62 “…The diameter of the Sun is nine thousand Yojanas. The girth of the Sun is three times its diameter. The width of the Moon is twice that of the Sun.”Tr. G.V. Tagare, Edited by G.P Bhatt

Vayu Purana I.50.63 “The extent of the sun is nine thousand Yojanas. The girth or the extent of its disc is thrice its diameter. The lunar disc is twice the solar disc (in diameter as well as girth).” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Matsya Purana 123.57-58 “The diameter of the Sun is nine thousand yojanas and its circumference is three times that (2700 yojanas). The diameter of the Moon is twice the diameter of the Sun; its circumference is thrice its diameter.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, edited by B.D. Basu

Linga Purana I.61.28-29 “The diameter of the sun is nine thousand yojanas. The extent of its circular surface is three times that. The extent of the moon is twice that of the sun…” Tr. Board of Scholars, edited by B.D. Basu

Another scientific blunder, there is no need to provide proof but still for your ease let me present the size of the sun and moon as per science,

Size of the Sun

“The sun is nearly a perfect sphere. Its equatorial diameter and its polar diameter differ by only 6.2 miles (10 km). The mean radius of the sun is 432,450 miles (696,000 kilometers), which makes its diameter about 864,938 miles (1.392 million km). You could line up 109 Earths across the face of the sun. The sun’s circumference is about 2,713,406 miles (4,366,813 km).”

https://www.space.com/17001-how-big-is-the-sun-size-of-the-sun.html

Size of the Moon

“The moon’s mean radius is 1,079.6 miles (1,737.5 kilometers). Double those figures to get its diameter: 2,159.2 miles
(3,475 km). The moon’s equatorial circumference is 6,783.5 miles (10,917 km).

The moon’s surface area is about 14.6 million square miles (38 million square kilometers), which is less than the total surface area of the continent of Asia (17.2 million sq mi or 44.5 million sq km).”

https://www.space.com/18135-how-big-is-the-moon.html

Both the Sun and the Moon revolves around the Earth as per Hinduism and since the moon appears bigger to the naked eye than the sun so the Rishis may have thought that moon must be bigger in size than the sun.

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Size of Earth, Moon, Sun and other Planets

Size of the Earth,

Brahmanda Purana I.2.21.12 “…The entire Earth is remembered as fifty crores (of Yojanas) in extent.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vishnu Purana 2.4.18 “…Such, Maitreya, is the earth, which with its continents, mountains, oceans, and exterior shell, is fifty crores (five hundred millions) of Yojanas in extent…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

500000000*8 = 4000000000 miles

And this number is nowhere close to the number proved by modern science, this number doesn’t match with either Earth’s radius or diameter.

“The radius of Earth at the equator is 3,963 miles (6,378 kilometers), according to NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. However, Earth is not quite a sphere. The planet’s rotation causes it to bulge at the equator. Earth’s polar radius is 3,949 miles (6,356 km) — a difference of 14 miles (22 km).

Using those measurements, the equatorial circumference of Earth is about 24,900 miles (40,070 km). However, from pole-to-pole — the meridional circumference — Earth is only 24,812 miles (39,931 km) around. This shape, caused by the flattening at the poles, is called an oblate spheroid.”
https://www.space.com/17638-how-big-is-earth.html

Devi Bhagavatam 8.18.11-24 “…O Best of the twice-born! Below this Antarîksa is this earth, measuring one hundred Yoyanas…” Tr. Swami Vijnananda

Size of the Sun

Brahmanda Purana I.2.21.69 “The circumference of the sun is estimated to be nine crores of Yojanas as well as fortyfive hundred thousands (i.e. 9,45,00000 Yojanas).” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Brahmanda Purana I.2.21.7 “The extent of the disc of the sun is nine thousand Yojanas. Its girth is three times the extent.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

The same book gives contradictory numbers, let’s evaluate both numbers,

9 crores of Yojanas is the circumference of the Sun as per Brahmana Purana,

90,000,000*8= 720,000,000 miles

9,45,00000*8= 756,000,000 miles

As per the second verse,

9,000*8= 72,000 miles

“The sun is nearly a perfect sphere. Its equatorial diameter and its polar diameter differ by only 6.2 miles (10 km). The mean radius of the sun is 432,450 miles (696,000 kilometers), which makes its diameter about 864,938 miles (1.392 million km). You could line up 109 Earths across the face of the sun. The sun’s circumference is about 2,713,406 miles (4,366,813 km).”
https://www.space.com/17001-how-big-is-the-sun-size-of-the-sun.html

The numbers are again nowhere close. Also the diameter given below in Srimad Bhagavatam is inaccurate.

Size of the Moon,

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.24.2 “The sun globe, which is a source of heat, extends for 10,000 yojanas [80,000 miles]. The moon extends for 20,000 yojanas [160,000 miles], and Rāhu extends for 30,000 yojanas [240,000 miles]…” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Devi Bhagavatam 8.18.1-9 “…So the sphere of the Moon extends upto the twelve thousand Yoyanas…” Tr. Swami Vijnananda

Diameter of Moon given in Srimad Bhagavatam

160,000 miles

Diameter of Moon given in Devi Bhagavatam

12,000*8= 96,000 miles

“The moon’s mean radius is 1,079.6 miles (1,737.5 kilometers). Double those figures to get its diameter: 2,159.2 miles
(3,475 km). The moon’s equatorial circumference is 6,783.5 miles (10,917 km).
The moon’s surface area is about 14.6 million square miles (38 million square kilometers), which is less than the total surface area of the continent of Asia (17.2 million sq mi or 44.5 million sq km).”
https://www.space.com/18135-how-big-is-the-moon.html

Size of Venus, Jupiter, Mars and Saturn. The size is given in ratios and not Yojanas and one can easily find the error in this when it says that Jupiter is less than Venus when Jupiter is the biggest planet of our solar system,

Brahmanda Purana I.2.23.104-6; Matsya Purana 128.64-65 “The diameter and extent of the sphere of Bhargava (the Venus) it laid down as one sixteenth of that of the moon. Brhaspati (the Jupiter) should be known as one-fourth less than the Venus (i.e. three fourth of its size). The Mars and Saturn are remembered to be three fourths of Jupiter in extent. In diameter and extent, Mercury is three-fourths of either of them.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

The mean radius of moon in kilometres is 1737 divided by 16 is 108 kilometres, so Brahmanda and Matsya Purana are saying that the mean radius of Venus is 108 km when the actual mean radius of Venus is much bigger than the moon, the mean radius of Venus is 6051 km. Linga Purana gives different sizes of planets, I will just present the verse to you.

Linga Purana I.57.13-15 “The diameter, the circumference and the distance in yojanas of Bhargava (Venus) is a sixteenth part of that of the moon. Brhaspati (Jupiter) is of three-fourths of the size of Venus. Mars and Saturn are three-fourths of the size of Brhaspati. Budha (Mercury) is three-fourths of their size in extent and circumference.” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

The contradictions in these two verses proves that they were written on imaginations and whims and has no scientific basis.

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Moon emits rays

Vayu Purana I.51.20 “The hot rays emanate from the sun; the cool rays from the moon. These two powerful hot and cool rays sustain the universe.” Tr. G.V. Tagare, Edited by G.P Bhatt

Vayu Purana I.52.49 “The Moon too moves among the stars that stay in the pathway of heaven (vithi). The increase and decrease of its rays are similar to the increase and decrease of the Sun” Tr. G.V. Tagare, Edited by G.P Bhatt

Brahmanda Purana I.2.23.52 “…The shrinking and lengthening of its rays are remembered as being like those of the sun.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Linga Purana I.56.3 “The moon traverses in his chariot along with Devas and Pitrs. It has white rays in the form of sparkling water particles.” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

Rig Veda 10.12.7; Atharva Veda 18.1.35 “In him the gods find pleasure at the sacrifice; they seat themselves on the altar of the sacrifices, They placed light in the sun; beams in the moon; and these untiring shed their light around.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

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What causes hoarfrost/dew drops?

Hinduism says that four elephants of the four quarters spraying water from their huge trunks causes hoarfrost. Or it may be referring to a cloud who could take shape of any. But I am sure that it talks about the elephants that’s holding up the earth because the 43rd verse states that “Elephants, mountains and clouds along with serpents belong to one and the same family” had it been a type of cloud then this verse wouldn’t have separated elephants from clouds and also the Brahmanda Purana makes it more clear.

Vayu Purana I.51.45-47 “During Hemanta (early winter) Parjanya and the elephants of the quarters born of chilliness shower snow (drops) for making the corn flourish…The elephants of the quarters spray all round drops of water from the Ganga by means of their huge trunks. That (spray of water) is called the hoarfrost.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vishnu Purana 2.9.16-18 “…the water, although that of the Gangá of the sky, is scattered, by the elephants of the quarters, not by the rays of the sun: it is only when such rain falls, and the sun is in the even asterisms, that it is distributed by his beams.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Brahmanda Purana I.2.22.47-52a “Smoke is conducive to development of all of them without any distinction. The most excellent among them is Parjanya. The Elephants of the quarters are four in number (Although) these are separate, the source of origin of elephants, mountains, clouds and serpents is the same and water is remembered as that origin. On being directed to make the plants and trees flourish, Parjanya and the Diggajas (Elephants of the quarters) showers snowdrops during Hemanta (early winter), born of cool virility. …With their huge trunks, the elephants of the quarters receive the waters oozing from the Ganga and scatter them in the form of water spray. That is remembered as dew drops.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

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Sun emits different types of rays which are responsible for changes in Season

As the Earth spins on its axis, producing night and day, it also moves about the Sun in an elliptical (elongated circle) orbit that requires 365 1/4 days to complete. The Earth’s axis is tilted at 23.5 degrees and is why we have seasons. When the Earth’s axis points towards the Sun, it is summer for that hemisphere. When the Earth’s axis points away, winter can be expected.

But according to Vedic Science we have seasons because the sun emits different types and specific number of rays and changes them to cause different seasons.

Brahmanda Purana 1.2.24.32-33 “During Vasanta (spring) and Grisma (summer), the sun blazes by means of three hundred rays. During the rainy season and autumn he showers (rain) by means of four hundred rays. During Hemanta (early winter) and Sisira (later winter), he scatters snow by means of three hundred rays.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Linga Purana I.59.41-45 “…The thousand rays of the sun serve the purpose of the world. Reaching the earth they assume different forms by emitting snow, rain and heat…” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

Vayu Purana I.52.36 “In accordance with the seasons, the Sun changes his rays, releasing heat in the summer, mist and fog in the winter and rain during the rainy season and demarcates day and night. He (thus) propitiates Devas, Pitrs and human beings.” Tr. G.V. Tagare, Edited by G.P Bhatt

Vayu Purana I.53.25-27; Linga Purana I.59.31a-31b “During the spring and the summer he blazes with the three hundred rays. During rains and autumn he generates rain by the four (hundred rays). The Sun creates mist and fog by means of the three (hundred rays) during early and late winter. He deposits energy on the medicinal herbs. By means of Svadha he propitiates Pitrs. By means of nectar of three varieties he bestows immorality. Thus thousand rays of the Sun achieve the purpose of the worlds. They differ according to the season by exuding water, chilliness and heat.” Tr. G.V. Tagare, Edited by G.P Bhatt

Matsya Purana 128.24-25 “During spring and hot weather the sun imparts heat by his three hundred rays; during the rainy season and autumn causes rain by his four hundred rays; during the dewy and winter season imparts cold by his three hundred rays.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

Brahmanda Purana also says that Sun moves in medium speed to make day and night equal in Autumn and Spring seasons,

Brahmanda Purana I.2.21.142 “During the time in between the Autumn and the Spring, the sun proceeds with a medium speed and he resorts to its eastern peak.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

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Moon causes rain

Hindu scriptures correctly says that the sun takes up the water through rays but also makes an unscientific claim that the water is transferred to moon which then sends it to clouds (perhaps to Abhra clouds) that causes rain, some also say that the cloud named Abhra doesn’t cause rainfall while Linga Purana I.54.39-40 states that Abhra means ‘that which showers water’.

Brahmanda Purana I.2.22.13-21 “…the sun takes away the water of the entire world, O excellent Brahmanas. The moon transmits the entire water drunk by the sun. The torrential currents of water (Downpour of rain) functions through Nadis (vein like vessels) accompanied by the wind. The water that oozes out of the moon remains in the food (i.e. plants and food crops). The water that has fallen down from the moon, from the sky, is conducive to the welfare of all the worlds. The entire universe has the moon as its support. This has been truthfully recounted. The Usna (hot virility) oozes out of the sun, and the Sita (chill virility) functions from the moon.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Linga Purana Section I.54.29-33 “The waters drunk by the sun penetrates the moon gradually and from the moon they drip down to the clouds. On being tossed about by the wind, the cluster of clouds causes shower on the earth…” Tr. Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri

Vayu Purana I.51.14-15 “The water drunk in by the sun gets transferred to the moon from the solar fire. Through the Nadis (tubular veins) full of wind the activity of sustaining the worlds begins. What exudes from the moon, the sun receives at its tips. When the wind blows the clouds let it shower on the earth.” Tr. G.V. Tagare, Edited by G.P Bhatt

Aitareya Brahmana Book 8, Para 28 “…The rain having rained enters into the moon…” Tr. Arthur Berriedale Keith

Vishnu Purana 2.9.8-18 “…The sun with his scorching rays absorbs the moisture of the earth, and with them nourishes the moon. The moon communicates, through tubes of air, its dews to the clouds, which, being composed of smoke, fire, and wind (or vapour), can retain the waters with which they are charged: they are therefore called Abhras, because their contents are not dispersed When however they are broken to pieces by the wind, then watery stores descend, bland, and freed front every impurity by the sweetening process of time…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Linga Purana mentions strange water cycle,

Linga Purana I.54.65-68 “There is neither increase nor decrease of water, if we consider it duly. The wind presided over by Dhruva withdraws the rain. It falls off the planet sun and spreads through the sphere of the stars. At the close of the movement, it re-enters the sun and is presided over by Dhruva.” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

Dhurva means Pole Star.

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Unique way to cause rain

A Hindu MP of India was ridiculed for saying that Smoke from Yajna goes up, rainfall comes down. But what people may not be knowing is that he said this on the basis of Hindu scriptures, so those making fun of this statement should also make fun of Hindu scriptures which promotes such unscientific things,

Yajur Veda 2.16 “We perform the yajna for Vasus, Rudras and Adityas…The desired oblation (Ahuti) reaches the space, comes in contact with air and the light of that sun. It thence brings down rain for us…” Tr. Devi Chand

Yajur Veda 3.49 “The oblation full of cooked articles put into the fire, goes up to the sky. And returns there from full of rain.” Tr. Devi Chand

Manu Smriti 3.76. An oblation duly thrown into the fire, reaches the sun; from the sun comes rain, from rain food, therefrom the living creatures (derive their subsistence).

Maitrayana Brahmana 6.37 … ‘The oblation which is properly thrown on the fire, goes toward the sun; from the sun comes rain…”

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What causes Earthquakes and who lifts the Earth?

Valmiki Ramayana says that four elephants are holding up the earth and if the easterly elephant namely Viruupaaksha moves its trunk then earthquakes occurs on earth,

Valmiki Ramayana 1.40.13-22 “While digging the earth there they beheld a mountain similar easterly elephant named Viruupaaksha, which is bearing the eastern side of earth’s surface on its head. Oh, Rama, the legatee of Raghu, that great easterly elephant Viruupaaksha is bearing the entire eastern earth along with its mountains and forests on its head. On certain occasions, oh, Rama of Kakutstha, when that great-elephant moves its head desiring respite in tiresomeness then earthquakes will occur on earth. After splitting the eastern direction then they split opened the southern direction, and even in southern direction they beheld an elephant that is similar to a very great mountain, and that is sustaining southerly side of earth on its head, and on seeing that mammoth elephant of venerable character, namely Mahapadma, they went into an inordinate astonishment. Even in the westerly direction those great mighty sons of Sagara beheld an infinite and mountain similar elephant of western direction, called Sumanasa. In the northern direction, oh, Rama, they beheld Bhadra, a snow-white elephant with an auspicious body bearing northern side of this earth.” Tr. Shri Desiraju Hanumanta Rao

6th century Indian astronomer named Varahamihira also writes about this,

क्षितिकंम्पमाहुरेके बृहदन्तर्जलनिवासिसत्वकृतम् ।
भूभारखिन्नदिग्गजविश्रामसमुद्भवं चान्ये ॥१॥
Brihatsamhita 32.1 “Some hold that an earth-quake is caused by huge animals living in the midst of the ocean, while others opine that it is the result of the rest that is availed of by the elephants of the quarters tired by the weight of the earth.” Tr. Panditbhushan V. Subrahmanya Shastri & Vidwan M. Ramkrishna Bhat

I quoted it to show that elephants holding up the earth is literal and not simile and this view was widely held by Hindus even in the 6th century. Vishnu Purana says that Vishnu in the form of a snake named Shesha is holding up the world and the earth trembles if he yawns,

Vishnu Purana 2.5.20-25 “…Śesha bears the entire world, like a diadem, upon his head, and he is the foundation on which the seven Pátálas rest. His power, his glory, his form, his nature, cannot be described, cannot he comprehended by the gods themselves. Who shall recount his might, who wears this whole earth, like a garland of flowers, tinged of a purple dye by the radiance of the jewels of his crests. When Ananta, his eyes rolling with intoxication, yawns, then earth, with all her woods, and mountains, and seas, and rivers, trembles…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Shiva Purana says that earthquakes occurs when Shesha stretches himself,
Shiva Purana, Uma Samhita 5, chapter 15, verses 18-21 “Holding the sphere of the earth on his back, Sesa, the lord of Bhutas stands at the root of Patala. He is worshipped for his endless attributes. The power of his virility cannot be adequately described even by the ambitious gods nor can his form be known…With his eyes rolling due to inebriation when Sesa stretches himself, the earth quakes along with all its mountains, oceans and forests.” Tr. J.L. Shastri

Srimad Bhagavatam and Devi Bhagavatam also says that four elephants are holding up the universe,

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.20.39 “On the top of Lokāloka Mountain are the four gaja-patis, the best of elephants, which were established in the four directions by Lord Brahmā, the supreme spiritual master of the entire universe. The names of those elephants are Ṛṣabha, Puṣkaracūḍa, Vāmana and Aparājita. They are responsible for maintaining the planetary systems of the universe.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Devi Bhagavatam 8.14.1-29 “…The self-born Brahmâ has placed very big elephants on all sides of it. Hear their names. These are Risabha, Puspachûda, Vâmana, and Aparâjita. These four elephants are said to hold all the Lokas in their respective positions. The Bhagavân Hari gives strength to these elephants and to Indra and others who are reckoned to be His Vibhûtis (powers)…” Tr. Swami Vijnananda

Srimad Bhagavatam also says that Vishnu in the form of a dolphin or Gigantic porpoise is holding up the universe or earth,

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.23.4 “Some persons describe this system of heavenly luminaries as being supported by the mystical Yogic powers of Lord Vasudeva who has assumed the form of a Gangetic porpoise.” Tr. G.V. Tagare, Edited by J.L. Shastri

Mahabharata and Puranas says that a snake named Shesha is holding up the Earth and that’s the reason snakes are found in the ground,

Mahabharata 3.202.12-13 “…then lay in Yoga sleep on the wide hood of the Snake Sesha of immeasurable energy, and the Creator of the Universe, that highly-blessed and holy Hari, knowing no deterioration, lay on the hood of that Snake encircling the whole Earth…” Tr. K.M. Ganguli

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.25.2 “Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: This great universe, situated on one of Lord Anantadeva’s thousands of hoods, appears just like a white mustard seed. It is infinitesimal compared to the hood of Lord Ananta.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Mahabharata describes how Adishesha held the earth, I am quoting some excerpts from the section,

Mahabharata1.36.17-25 “Then Sesha replied, ‘O divine Grandsire, this is the boon desired by me; viz., may my heart always delight in virtue and in blessed ascetic penances, O Lord of all!’ Brahman said, ‘O Sesha, I am exceedingly gratified with this thy self-denial and love of peace. But, at my command, let this act be done by thee for the good of my creatures. Bear thou, O Sesha, properly and well this Earth so unsteady with her mountains and forests, her seas and towns and retreats, so that she may be steady.’ Sesha said, ‘O divine Lord of all creatures, O bestower of boons, O lord of the Earth, lord of every created thing, lord of the universe, I will, even as thou sayest hold the Earth steady. Therefore, O lord of all creatures, place her on my head.’ Brahman said, ‘O best of snakes, go underneath the Earth. She will herself give thee a crevice to pass through. And, O Sesha, by holding the Earth, thou shalt certainly do what is prized by me very greatly…Then the elder brother of the king of the snakes, entering a hole, passed to the other side of the Earth, and holding her, supported with his head that goddess with her belt of seas passing all round.’ Brahman said, ‘O Sesha, O best of snakes, thou art the god Dharma, because alone, with thy huge body, thou supportest the Earth with everything on her, even as I myself, or Valavit (Indra), can…The snake, Sesha, the lord Ananta, of great prowess, lives underneath the Earth, alone supporting the world at the command of Brahman. And the illustrious Grandsire, the best of the immortals, then gave unto Ananta the bird of fair feathers, viz., the son of Vinata, for Ananta’s help.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli

Swami Prabhupada wrote,

“The incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead known as Śeṣa or Ananta has unlimited strength, fame, wealth, knowledge, beauty and renunciation. As described in this verse, Ananta’s strength is so great that the innumerable universes rest on His hoods. He has the bodily features of a snake with thousands of hoods, and since His strength is unlimited, all the universes resting on His hoods feel no heavier than mustard seeds. We can just imagine how insignificant a mustard seed is on the hood of a serpent. In this connection, the reader is referred to Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Ādi-līlā, Chapter Five, verses 117-125. There it is stated that Lord Viṣṇu’s incarnation as the serpentine Ananta Śeṣa Nāga supports all the universes on His hoods. By our calculation, a universe may be very, very heavy, but because the Lord is ananta (unlimited), He feels the weight to be no heavier than a mustard seed.” Swami Prabhupada 5.17.21 https://www.vedabase.com/en/sb/5/17/21

Vishnu Purana book 2, chapter 5 states that Sesha is a form of Vishnu but Mahabharata says that Sesha is a form of Shiva,

Mahabharata 13.14.151 “…Mahadeva is the soul of all creatures. He pervades all things. He is the speaker of all discourses (on duties and rituals)…He it is that assumes the form of Sesha who sustains the world on his head…”

It’s not just elephant, snake or dolphin that is holding up the earth, Hindu scriptures also says that Vishnu in the form of a boar is holding up the earth and also saving it from sinking in waters. The following topic is also related to this one.

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Earth established on waters

Scientists are spending billions of dollars to find water on other planets but Vishnu’s avatar Varaha found water below the earth some 3000 years ago and also saved the earth from sinking into that water. The story of Varaha lifting up the earth in Puranas may have taken inspiration from Brahmanas,

Satapatha Brahmana 14:1:2:11 “Then (earth) torn up by a boar (he takes), with (Vâg. S. XXXVII, 5), ‘Only thus large was she in the beginning,’–for, indeed, only so large was this earth in the beginning, of the size of a span. A boar, called Emûsha, raised her up, and he was her lord Pragâpati: with that mate, his heart’s delight, he thus supplies and completes him 1;–‘may I this day compass for you Makha’s head on the Earth’s place of divine worship: for Makha thee! for Makha’s head thee!’ the import of this is the same as before.” Tr. Julius Eggeling

Shiva Purana, VayaviyaSamhita 7, Section I.11.31 “The he lifted the Earth sunk under water and held it on his curved fangs. He rose up from the nether worlds.” Tr. J.L. Shastri

Harivamsha Purana 3.35.1 “(O janamejaya!) The earth which was installed on the top surface of the water body, did not sink, like a huge ship, due to its vast body.” Tr. Desiraju Hanumant Rao

Vayu Purana I.50.7 “Waters lie within the earth and the earth is established over waters. The sky is above, the earth is below (it) and again waters are underneath.” Tr. G.V. Tagare, Edited by G.P Bhatt

Brahmanda Purana I.I.5.10 On seeing that the earth had sunk into the water he thought- ”What form shall I assume and uplift the earth?”[15] Assuming this inimitable form of a boar, Hari entered the nether worlds for uplifting the earth.

Srimad Bhagavatam 3.13.31 “Lord Boar very easily took the earth on His tusks and got it out of the water. Thus He appeared very splendid. Then, His anger glowing like the Sudarśana wheel, He immediately killed the demon [Hiraṇyākṣa], although he tried to fight with the Lord.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Devi Bhagavatam 8.2.34-38 “…He came up from the Rasâtala and placed the earth on the waters. He then went away to His Vaikuntha abode…” Tr. Swami Vijnananda

Devi Bhagavatam 8.2.11-20 “The ocean was very much agitated with the fierce striking of the hairs of the Boar, when He entered into the waters, and spoke thus :– “O Deva ! O Thou, the destroyer of the afflictions of your refuges! Protect me.” Hearing the words of the ocean, the God Hari tore asunder all the aquatic animals and went down beneath the waters. Searching violently hither and thither, He knew the earth by her smell. At once the Bhagavân Hari, the Lord of all, went to Her and rescued the earth by raising Her up on his big teeth, the Earth that was the abode of all the beings. When the Bhagavân, the Lord of all the sacrifices, came up with the Earth on the top of His teeth, He looked beautiful like the elephant of a quarter taking out by the root and holding a thousand petalled lotus upon his tusks.” Tr. Swami Vijnananada

Vishnu Purana 1.4.45-48 “The supreme being thus eulogized, upholding the earth, raised it quickly, and placed it on the summit of the ocean, where it floats like a mighty vessel, and from its expansive surface does not sink beneath the waters. Then, having levelled the earth, the great eternal deity divided it into portions, by mountains…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Harivamsa Purana 1.40.6 “We have heard that sage Krishna-dwaipAyana described this great boar incarnation before the twice-born ones when they assembled at a sacrifice, and detailed as to how that enemy-eradicator, Vishnu, incarnating himself as a boar, saved the earth sunk in the ocean with his tusks; now I would like to hear at length the various deeds performed by the intelligent slayer of enemies hari in his incarnation of boar.” Tr. Desiraju Hanumanta Rao

I remember, when I had posted a meme on my Facebook account about Varaha lifting up the Earth from waters, a Hindu tried to explain it by saying that the water mentioned in Purana is not actually water and later gave a lame explanation. Those who try to give “water” a metaphorical meaning should read following verses which refutes their claim,

Vayu Purana I.6.10-27 ”Observing that the earth was overflowed with waters on all sides, (he thought to himself), ”Oh, what great form should I assume and uplift the earth”? He thought of the form of a Boar charmingly comfortable in sporting about in waters…It had a girth of ten and a height of a hundred Yojanas. It resembled a dark blue cloud in complexion. It grunted like the rumbling of thunder-clouds…Assuming this large immeasurable form of a boar, Visnu entered the nether regions in order to lift up the earth…. [25-27] Holding the Earth in his hands he brought it to its place. The supporter of the Earth at first mentally supported the earth and then released it. Over the flood of waters, the Earth floated like an immense boat. Due to the activities of the lord, it did not sink. With a desire to set up the universe, the lord lifted up the Earth. Then, he, the lotus-eyed lord, decided to divide the Earth. He levelled the Earth and created the mountains on it.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

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Distance between Planets

Brahma Purana 21.5-9 “O brahmins, the disc of the sun is stationed a hundred thousand Yojanas away from the earth. The disc of the moon is stationed a hundred thousand Yojanas away from the sun. Full hundred thousand Yojanas above the moon, the entire sphere of the stars shines. O brahmins, mercury (Budha) is two hundred thousand Yojanas above the sphere of stars…Saturn (Sauri) is stationed two hundred thousand Yojanas above Jupiter…” Tr. Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri

The above verse says that the sun is a hundred thousand Yojanas away from the earth, so let’s do the calculation now,

1 Yojana = 8 miles

100,000*8= 800,000 miles

Distance between Earth and the Sun as per science

“149,600,000 kilometers (km) or 92,900,000 miles”
https://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/k-4/features/F_Measuring_the_Distance_Student_Pages.html

https://www.space.com/17081-how-far-is-earth-from-the-sun.html

The verse also says that the Saturn is stationed two hundred thousand Yojanas “ABOVE” Jupiter.

200,000*8= 1,600,000 miles

“The distance between Saturn and Jupiter is 4.32 AU. That’s approximately 646,270,000 km or 401,592,178 miles.”
https://theplanets.org/distances-between-planets/

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.22.8 “Similarly the Moon is observed to be a hundred thousand Yojanas above the rays (orb) of the Sun. As it is faster in velocity (than the sun), it goes ahead (of the Sun). It covers in two fortnights the circuit made by the Sun in one (complete) year; in two days and a quarter of that distance which the Sun traverses in a month; and in one day the distance the Sun requires a fortnight to cover.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

The distance between Moon and Sun mentioned in Srimad Bhagavatam is same as mentioned in Brahma Purana 21.5-9, so now let’s calculate the distance,

100,000*8= 800,000 miles

“The moon is 93205678.8356 miles away from the sun which is 150 million kilometres.”
https://www.universetoday.com/20566/how-far-is-the-moon-from-the-sun/ .

Distance between Planets,

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.22.14-17 “Situated 1,600,000 miles above Mercury, or 8,800,000 miles above earth, is the planet Mars. If this planet does not travel in a crooked way, it crosses through each sign of the zodiac in three fortnights and in this way travels through all twelve, one after another. It almost always creates unfavorable conditions in respect to rainfall and other influences. Situated 1,600,000 miles above Mars, or 10,400,000 miles above earth, is the planet Jupiter, which travels through one sign of the zodiac within the period of a Parivatsara. If its movement is not curved, the planet Jupiter is very favorable to the brāhmaṇas of the universe. Situated 1,600,000 miles above Jupiter, or 12,000,000 miles above earth, is the planet Saturn, which passes through one sign of the zodiac in thirty months and covers the entire zodiac circle in thirty Anuvatsaras. This planet is always very inauspicious for the universal situation. Situated 8,800,000 miles above Saturn, or 20,800,000 miles above earth, are the seven saintly sages, who are always thinking of the well-being of the inhabitants of the universe. They circumambulate the supreme abode of Lord Viṣṇu, known as Dhruvaloka, the polestar.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Above verse says that Mercury is 1,600,000 miles above Mars while according to science, The distance between Mercury and Mars is 1.14 AU. That’s approximately 170,030,000 km or 105,651,744 miles. It also says that Earth is 8,800,000 miles away from Mars while Earth is 0.52 AU away from Mars. That’s approximately 78,340,000 km or 48,678,219 miles.
https://theplanets.org/distances-between-planets/

It also makes the claim that “Situated 1,600,000 miles above Mars, or 10,400,000 miles above earth, is the planet Jupiter”

While as per science the distance between Mars and Jupiter is 3.68 AU. That’s approximately 550,390,000 km or 342,012,346 miles. And the distance between Earth and Jupiter is 4.2 AU. That’s approximately 628,730,000 km or 390,674,710 miles.
https://theplanets.org/distances-between-planets/

It then makes claim that “Situated 1,600,000 miles above Jupiter, or 12,000,000 miles above earth, is the planet Saturn”

While the fact is, The distance between Saturn and Jupiter is 4.32 AU. That’s approximately 646,270,000 km or 401,592,178 miles and the distance between Saturn and Earth is 8.52 AU. That’s approximately 1,275,000,000 km or 792,248,270 miles.

https://theplanets.org/distances-between-planets/

Following verses from Srimad Bhagavatam 5.22.12-13 are related to this subject. It makes the claim that Mercury is 1,600,000 miles above Venus or 7,200,000 miles above earth. While the distance between Mercury and Venus is 0.34 AU. That’s approximately 50,290,000 km or 31,248,757 miles. And the distance between Mercury and Earth is 0.61 AU. That’s approximately 91,691,000 km or 56,974,146 miles.
https://theplanets.org/distances-between-planets/

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Sun, Venus and Mercury has same Orbits

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.22.12 “Some 1,600,000 miles above this group of stars is the planet Venus, which moves at almost exactly the same pace as the sun according to swift, slow and moderate movements. Sometimes Venus moves behind the sun, sometimes in front of the sun and sometimes along with it. Venus nullifies the influence of planets that are obstacles to rainfall. Consequently its presence causes rainfall, and it is therefore considered very favorable for all living beings within this universe. This has been accepted by learned scholars.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.22.13 “Mercury is described to be similar to Venus, in that it moves sometimes behind the sun, sometimes in front of the sun and sometimes along with it. It is 1,600,000 miles above Venus, or 7,200,000 miles above earth. Mercury, which is the son of the moon, is almost always very auspicious for the inhabitants of the universe, but when it does not move along with the sun, it forbodes cyclones, dust, irregular rainfall, and waterless clouds. In this way it creates fearful conditions due to inadequate or excessive rainfall.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

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Orbits of Planets are above each other

According to Hinduism, orbits of the planets are above each other. Also read Srimad Bhagavatam 5.22.8; 5.22.14-17 which I have mentioned in Distance in Planets category,

Brahmanda Purana I.2.24.121 “The Mercury orbits above all the stars. The Venus orbits above the Mercury. The Mars does so above the Venus and the Jupiter above the Mars.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Matsya Purana 128.71-73 “The Sun moves lowest down of all the planets. Above Him the Moon travels. The stars travel above the Moon; above Moon, travels Mercury; above Mercury, travels Venus; above Venus, travels Mars; above Mars, travels Jupiter; above Jupiter, travels Saturn.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

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Planets move propelled by the rope of wind

Hinduism says that planets move due to wind as Hinduism believes that there is air in space,

Matsya Purana 128.14 “All these stars are tied to Dhruva: and they move on propelled by the wind. The Moon and the Sun move on in the celestial firmament, prompted by currents of strong wind. They glide on tied to the Dhruva. Their motions round the pole are brought about by these ropes made of wind.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

Linga Purana I.57.7 “The stars and the luminaries, urged by the circular gusts of wind, move like fire brands. Since the wind bears the luminaries, it is called Pravaha.” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

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Wind stars from Sun

Vayu Purana I.51.53 “The wind starts from the planet sun and traverses the entire stellar zone. At the end of the day it enters the sun encompassed by Dhruva.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

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Sun and Moon dipping in water

Vamana Purana 16.53 “Burnt by the fire of the eyes of Siva, the restless Surya immersed in the Asi and reaching Varuna, he had a dip in it as freely as he like.” Tr. Ananda Swarup Gupta

Rig Veda 7.55.7, Atharva Veda 4.5.1 The Bull [Vushab/Sun] who hath a thousand horns, who rises up from out the sea…

Kausitaki Brahmana 18.9 Him who yonder gives heat they seek by these pressings to obtain; the rising by the morning pressing, (the sun) in the middle (of his course) by the midday pressing, (the sun) as he sets by the third pressing. He, having entered the waters, becomes Varuna.

Aitareya Brahma Book 4, Chapter 20, verse 13 “…This (Aditya, the sun) is ‘the swan sitting in light’…he is ‘born from the waters’ (abja), for in the morning he comes out of the waters, and in the evening he enters the waters.” Tr. Martin Haug

Vishnu Purana 2.12.8-9 “whence the period is termed Amávásya. In that orbit the moon is immersed for a day and night in the water; thence it enters the branches and shoots of the trees; and thence goes to the sun.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Atharva Veda 13.2.4 “Victorious, inspired, and brightly shining, whom seven strong tawny-coloured coursers carry, Whom Atri lifted from the flood to heaven, thus men behold thee as thy course thou runnest.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 10.72.7 “When, O ye Gods, like Yatis, ye caused all existing things to grow, Then ye brought Sūrya forward who was lying hidden in the sea.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Hinduism also says that the sun enters fire while setting, I don’t understand this verse so I leave it to the readers to understand it.

Vayu Purana I.50.112-3 “When the sun sets, the brilliance of the sun partially enters fire. Hence fire shines more brilliantly at night, even from a distance. When the sun rises again, the brilliance of fire enters the sun. The sun rises again, the brilliance of fire enters the sun. This together with the brillaince left in the sun at the time of sunset, makes it all the more brilliant. So the sun blazes during the day.” Tr. G.V. Tagare

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How Eclipse occurs

According to Vedic mythology a demon covers the Sun which causes solar eclipse.

Rig Veda 5.40.5-6 O Sūrya, when the Asura’s descendant Svarbhanu, pierced thee through and through with darkness, All creatures looked like one who is bewildered, who knoweth not the place where he is standing. What time thou smotest down Svarbhanu’s magic that spread itself beneath the sky, O Indra, By his fourth sacred prayer Atri disoovered Sūrya concealed in gloom that stayed his function.

Following verses may have taken inspiration from the above Vedic verse. A demon named Rahu which is a star according to Hinduism causes Solar and Lunar eclipses.

Devi Bhagavatam 8.18.1-9 “…The Asura Râhu thus covers his rays. So the sphere of the Moon extends upto the twelve thousand Yoyanas. Râhu covers the field of the thirteen thousand Yoyanas. So he covers both the Sun and the Moon. Desire to take the vengeance of the previous enmity, he covers them during the time of Parva (the festivals). This planet wants to cover them from a distance. Hearing this, the Bhagavân Visnu hurls His Sudars’an Chakra against Râhu. This Chakra (disc) is encircled with the fiery flames and is very terrible. When all the quarters were filled with its violent flames, Râhu became instantly alarmed and fled away from the distance. O Devarsi! This is known as the eclipse known amongst the mortals…” Tr. Swami Vijananda

Srimad Bhagavatam 5.24.1-3 “Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: My dear King, some historians, the speakers of the Purāṇas, say that 10,000 yojanas [80,000 miles] below the sun is the planet known as Rāhu, which moves like one of the stars. The presiding deity of that planet, who is the son of Siṁhikā, is the most abominable of all asuras, but although he is completely unfit to assume the position of a demigod or planetary deity, he has achieved that position by the grace of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Later I shall speak further about him. Rāhu tried to create dissension between the sun and moon by interposing himself between them. Rāhu is inimical toward both the sun and the moon, and therefore he always tries to cover the sunshine and moonshine on the dark-moon day and full-moon night…After hearing from the sun and moon demigods about Rāhu’s attack, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu, engages His disc, known as the Sudarśana cakra, to protect them. The Sudarśana cakra is the Lord’s most beloved devotee and is favored by the Lord. The intense heat of its effulgence, meant for killing non-Vaiṣṇavas, is unbearable to Rāhu, and he therefore flees in fear of it. During the time Rāhu disturbs the sun or moon, there occurs what people commonly know as an eclipse.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada

Swami Prabhupada writes on Srimad Bhagavatam 5.24.2-3 “As stated herein, the sun extends for 10,000 yojanas, and the moon extends for twice that, or 20,000 yojanas. The word dvādaśa should be understood to mean twice as much as ten, or twenty. In the opinion of Vijayadhvaja, the extent of Rāhu should be twice that of the moon, or 40,000 yojanas. However to reconcile this apparent contradiction to the text of the Bhāgavatam, Vijayadhvaja cites the following quotation concerning Rāhu; rāhu-soma-ravīṇāṁ tu maṇḍalā dvi-guṇoktitām. This means that Rāhu is twice as large as the moon, which is twice as large as the sun. This is the conclusion of the commentator Vijayadhvaja. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu, is always the protector of His devotees, who are also known as demigods. The controlling demigods are most obedient to Lord Viṣṇu, although they also want material sense enjoyment, and that is why they are called demigods, or almost godly. Although Rāhu attempts to attack both the sun and the moon, they are protected by Lord Viṣṇu. Being very afraid of Lord Viṣṇu’s cakra, Rāhu cannot stay in front of the sun or moon for more than a muhūrta (forty-eight minutes). The phenomenon that occurs when Rāhu blocks the light of the sun or moon is called an eclipse. The attempt of the scientists of this earth to go to the moon is as demoniac as Rāhu’s attack. Of course. their attempts will be failures because no one can enter the moon or sun so easily. Like the attack of Rāhu, such attempts will certainly be failures.” Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 5.24.2-3
http://www.vedabase.com/en/sb/5/24/2
http://www.vedabase.com/en/sb/5/24/3

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Clouds originating from wildfire is conducive to forests

Linga Purana I.54.39-40 “…The cloud originating from sacrificial smoke is conducive to the welfare of the twice born. The cloud originating from the smoke of the forest fires, is conducive to the welfare of the forests.” Tr. Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

How Gold came on earth?

Earth’s Gold Came from Colliding Dead Stars but according to Hinduism, Gold and Silver appeared on earth after ejaculation by Shiva.

Srimad Bhagavatam 8.12.32-33 “While running after her, the semen of Siva of unfailing procreative capacity, went on escaping like that of a big bull leader of a herd pursuing a fecundable cow or as that of a rutting leader elephant running after a fertilizable she-elephant. Oh ruler of the earth! The various places on earth where the seed of that great souled god fell, became the areas of silver and gold ores. Tr. Swami Prabhupada

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 How mountains were formed

Brahmanda Purana 1.2.7.9b-11 “As the previous creation was being burned formerly by the Samvartaka fire, the mountains of that period had been melted by that fire. They were then scattered by the wind. Due to chillness, they became solidified. Wherever the (molten rocks) were split there arose mountain. They are called Acalas (not-moving or immobile)…” Tr. G.V. Tagare

Vayu Purana 7- “On seeing the earth fully engulfed in waters, he entered the waters after assuming the form of a Boar. After lifting up the earth from the waters, he deposited the waters of the oceans in the oceans, of the rivers in the rivers and of the earth on the earth. Then he collected the mountains. When the previous creation was being burnt by the Samvartaka, fire of dissolution, the mountains lay destroyed and (scattered) all over the earth. In that one vast ocean, the (solidified) waters tossed by wind got collected together due to cold. Wherever they were (thus) stuck (heaped) together, there they became immovable. The mountains are called Acalas because they become motionless after being dried up and solidified…” Tr. G.V. Tagare, edited by G.P. Bhatt

What are the stars?

Virtuous men become stars,

Black Yajur Veda 5.4.1.3 “…these are the lights of the sky; verily he wins them; the Naksatras are the lights of the doers of good deeds…” Tr. Arthur Berriedale Keith

Satapatha Brahmana 6:5:4:8 “May the divine women, with unclipped wings, dear to all the gods, bake thee, Aṅgiras-like, O fire-pan, in the lap of the earth!’ for of old the divine women, with unclipped wings, dear to all the gods, did bake it, like Aṅgiras, in the lap of the earth; and with their help he now bakes it. But, surely, these are the stars,–the women (gani) are indeed the stars, for these are the lights of those righteous men (gana) who go to the celestial world: it is by means of the stars that he thus bakes it.” Tr. Julius Eggeling

Sky/Heaven is supported by pillars

Rig Veda 6.72.2 O lords of resplendence and bliss, you bestow light to the dawns; you upraise the sun with his splendour; you prop up the sky with the supporting pillar of the firmament; you spread out the earth, the mother of all. Tr. Svami Satya Prakash Saraswati

Rig Veda 6.47.5 “This very same exilir of devotional love finds the wavy sea of brilliant colours in fore-front of the dawns, whose dwelling is in firmament. This might exilir sustains the heavens up with a mighty pillar, the sender of rains, the leader of the winds.” Tr. Svami Satya Prakash Saraswati

Rig Veda 8.41.10 “In his successive functions, he emits his bright rays (during day) or turns them dark (during the night). He measures out the eternal abode, and supports with the pillar of the firmament, both heaven and the earth. May all our adversities vanish” Tr. Svami Satya Prakash Saraswati

What supports the Sky?

Satapatha Brahmana 3.3.4.2. He then makes (the sacrificer) say, after touching (the Soma), ‘The bull hath propped the sky, the welkin.’ For, when the gods were spreading the sacrifice, they were afraid of an attack on the part of the Asura-Rakshas. Now by what he says, ‘The bull hath propped the sky, the welkin…

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Sky/Heaven can fall on us

Rig Veda 2.17.5 “…He controls the earth that nourishes us all, and with his skill, stays the heaven from falling” Tr. Svami Satya Prakash Saraswati