VedKaBhed.Com

Contradictions in the Vedas

Written by Sulaiman Razvi

Do mention the blog address and name of writer when you copy this article

This article deals with contradictions in Vedas more particularly the Rig Veda. Contradictions in religious scriptures prove that either it is not a word of God because a god cannot make mistakes, or it is that the scripture underwent interpolations over time resulting in conflicting views within the scripture. Books like The Oriental Studies by John Muir and Vedic Mythology by Arthur Anthony Macdonell were very helpful on this topic, I have taken some points from my previous articles as well. Due to time constraints, I couldn’t write more, if God wills then I will add more contradictions in this article. And I request you to please mention the blog link when you copy this article, appreciate the hard work of writers by crediting the writer.

  • WHAT DID THE ASHWINS DRAW FROM HOOF OF THE HORSE?

100 Jars of Sura (wine)

Rig Veda 1.116.7 “O Heroes, ye gave wisdom to Kakṣīvān who sprang from Pajra’s line, who sang your praises. Ye poured forth from the hoof of your strong charger a hundred jars of wine as from a strainer.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

100 Jars of Madhu (honey)

Rig Veda 1.117.6 “Kakṣīvān, Pajra’s son, must laud that exploit of yours, Nāsatyas, Heroes, ye who wander! When from the hoof of your strong horse ye showered a hundred jars of honey for the people.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Madhu sometime also denotes wine but that’s probably not applicable here. If it meant sweet wine then the word Sura should have also been used here which is not the case. It clearly says that Ashwins (Nasatyas) drew 100 jars of Madhu (Honey).

 

  • WHO RAISED UP THE CLOUD AND SHOWERED IT FOR RISHI GAUTAMA?


Maruts

Rig Veda 1.85.10-11 “They with their vigorous strength pushed the well up on high, and clove the cloud in twain though it was passing strong. The Maruts, bounteous Givers, sending forth their voice, in the wild joy of Soma wrought their glorious deeds. They drave the cloud transverse directed hitherward, and poured the fountain forth for thirsting Gotama…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Nasatyas/Ashwins

Rig Veda 1.116.9 “Ye lifted up the well, O ye Nasatyas, and set the base on high to open downward. Streams flowed for folk of Gotama who thirsted, like rain to bring forth thousandfold abundance.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO HEALED BLIND & CRIPPLED RISHI PARAVRIK/PARAVRIJ?


Ashwins

Rig Veda 1.112.8 “Mighty Ones, with what powers ye gave Parāvṛj aid what time ye made the blind and lame to see and walk…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra

Rig Veda 2.15.7 “Conscious of the disappearance of the damsels, the (Rishi) Parivrij, becoming manifest, stood up; the lame man overtook (them), the blind man beheld (them): in the exhilaration of the Soma, Indra has done these (deeds).” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Griffith’s translation is not clear hence I quoted Wilson’s translation here but Ralph T.H. Griffith writes in the footnotes of this verse, “Paravrij, here rendered ‘the outcast,’ is taken by Sayana as the name of a Rishi who was lame and blind. When some girls made sport of him he prayed to Indra and was made sound.”

Soma

Rig Veda 10.25.11 “This to the sage who offers gifts brings power that comes from wealth in kine.

This, better than the seven, hath-at your glad carouse-furthered the blind, the cripple. Thou art waxing great.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO BESTOWED IMMORTALITY ON GODS/HOW DID THE GODS ATTAIN IMMORTALITY?


Rohita

Atharva Veda 13.1.7 “Rohita made firm heaven and earth, by him the (heavenly) light was established, by him the firmament. By him the atmosphere and the spaces were measured out, through him the gods obtained immortality.” Tr. Maurice Bloomfield

Savitar

Rig Veda 4.54.2; Yajur Veda 33.54 “For thou at first producest for the holy Gods the noblest of all portions, immortality: Thereafter as a gift to men, O Savitar, thou openest existence, life succeeding life.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Agni

Rig Veda 6.7.4 “To thee, Immortal! when to life thou springest, all the Gods sing for joy as to their infant. They by thy mental powers were made immortal, Vaiśvānara, when thou shonest from thy Parents.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Atharva Veda 4.23.6 “Through whom the Gods discovered life eternal…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Yajur Veda 32.10 “He is our kin, our Father and Begetter: he knows all beings and all Ordinances, In whom the Gods obtaining life eternal have risen upward to the third high station.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

By drinking Soma

Rig Veda 9.106.8 “Thy drops that swim in water have exalted Indra to delight: The Gods have drunk thee up for immortality.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Kushtha plant regarded as immortal

Atharva Veda 6.95.2 “There moved through heaven a golden ship, a ship with cordage wrought of gold. There Gods obtained the Kushtha plant, the flower of immortality.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • SUN TRAVELS BY MARES OR HORSES?

Mares

Rig Veda 1.50.9 “The Sun has yoked the seven mares that safely draw his chariot…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Horses

Rig Veda 5.45.9 “Borne by his Coursers Seven may Sūrya visit the field that spreadeth wide for his long journey…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO FIRST GAVE SOMA TO INDRA?


Aditi & Kashyapa

Rig Veda 3.48.2 “On the day on which thou wast born, thou didst drink at will the mountain-abiding nectar of this Soma plant, for thy youthful parent mother (Aditi), in the dwelling of thy great sire (Kasyapa), gave it to thee before she gave the breast.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Rig Veda 7.98.3 “As soon as born, Indra, thou hast drunk the Soma for thine invigoration: thy mother (Aditi) proclaimed thy greatness…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Falcon Suparna

Rig Veda 3.43.7 “Drink of the strong pressed out by strong ones, Indra, that which the Falcon brought thee when thou longedst…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

According to the story, Soma was not available to gods, the falcon Suparna was the first one to bring Soma to Vedic gods.

 

 

  • WHOM DID INDRA KILL AFTER DRINKING SOMA BROUGHT DOWN BY THE FALCON?


Indra killed Vritra

Rig Veda 1.80.2 “That exceedingly exhilarating Soma juice, which was brought by the hawk, (from heaven), when poured forth, has exhilarated thee, so that, in thy vigour, thunderer, thou hast struck Vritra from the sky, manifesting thine own sovereignty.” Tr. H.H. Willson

Indra killed Namuchi

Rig Veda 6.20.6 “And the hawk bore to Indra the exhilarating Soma, when, bruising the head of the oppressor Namuchi…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • SOMA WAS BROUGHT DOWN FOR WHOM?

Verses suggesting that the Soma was brought for Indra

Rig Veda 6.20.6 “And the hawk bore to Indra the exhilarating Soma, when, bruising the head of the oppressor Namuchi…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Rig Veda 3.43.7 “Drink of the strong pressed out by strong ones, Indra, that which the Falcon brought thee when thou longedst…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Brought for Humans to perform sacrifices

Rig Veda 4.26.4 “May this bird, Maruts, be pre-eminent over (other) hawks, since with a wheelless car the swift-winged bore the Soma, accepted by the gods, to Manu.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Humans are mentioned as Manu in above verse. Following verse states that Vedic god Agni commanded the eagle to bring down the Soma and suggests that it was brought for the Aryans for the sacrifice,

Rig Veda 10.11.4 “The hawk sent (by Agni) to the sacrifice has brought the dripping copious all-seeing (Soma) libation. When the Arya people chose the victorious Agni as the ministrant priest, then the sacred rite is celebrated.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • HOW MANY CASTLES/FORTS OF SAMBARA DID INDRA DESTROY?

100 Castles/Cities

Rig Veda 2.14.6 “Ye ministers, to him who as with thunder demolished Śambara’s hundred ancient castles…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Though it is mentioned elsewhere that Indra gave the hundredth castle to Divodasa but Rig Veda 2.14.6 talks about demolishing all 100 castles.

Rig Veda 6.31.4 “Thou smotest to the ground the hundred castles, impregnable, of Sambara the Dasyu…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

90 Castles/Cities

Rig Veda 1.130.7 “For Pūru thou hast shattered, Indra ninety forts, for Divodāsa thy boon servant with thy bolt, O Dancer, for thy worshipper. For Atithigva he, the Strong, brought Śambara from the mountain down…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

99 Castles/Cities

Rig Veda 2.19.6 “…And Indra, for the sake of Divodasa demolished Sambara’s nine-and-ninety castles.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO IS THE CREATOR OF EARTH AND HEAVEN?

Unsure about creator

Rig Veda 10.129.6-7 Who verily knows and who can here declare it, whence it was born and whence comes this creation? The Gods are later than this world’s production. Who knows then whence it first came into being? He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not form it, Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps he knows not.

Rig Veda 1.185.1 “Which of these two, (Heaven and Earth), is prior, which posterior; how were they engendered; (declare), sages, who knows this? verily, you uphold the universe of itself, and the days (and nights) revovle as if they had wheels.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Unknown/Supreme God

Rig Veda 1.160.4 “Among the skilful Gods most skilled is he, who made the two world-halves which bring prosperity to all; Who with great wisdom measured both the regions out, and stablished them with pillars that shall ne’er decay.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra

Rig Veda 10.51.4 “…For from thy body thou hast generated at the same time the Mother and the Father.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 8.36.4 “Creator of the heaven, creator of the earth, O Śatakratu, drink Soma to make thee glad.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Brahma

Yajur Veda 31.12 “Forth from his navel came mid-air; the sky was fashioned from his head; Earth from his feet…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Vishwakarma

Rig Veda 10.82.1 “THE Father of the eye, the Wise in spirit, created both these worlds submerged in fatness. Then when the eastern ends were firmly fastened, the heavens and the earth were far extended.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Aja

Atharva Veda 9.5.20 “This Unborn cleft apart in the beginning: his breast became the earth, his back was heaven…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Dhatar

Rig Veda 10.90.3 “…He formed in order Heaven and Earth, the regions of the air, and light.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Visvakarman

Rig Veda 10.81.2 “…Whence Visvakarman, seeing all, producing the earth, with mighty power disclosed the heavens.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Tvastar

Rig Veda 10.110.9 “Hotar more skilled in sacrifice, bring hither with speed to-day God Tvaṣṭar, thou who knowest. Even him who formed these two, the Earth and Heaven the Parents, with their forms, and every creature.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Ribhus

Rig Veda 4.34.9 “Ṛbhus, who helped their Parents and the Aśvins, who formed the Milch-cow and the pair of horses, Made armour, set the heaven and earth asunder,—far- reaching Heroes, they have made good offspring.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Hiranyagarba

Rig Veda 10.121.9 “Neer may he harm us who is earth’s Begetter, nor he whose laws are sure, the heavens’ Creator, He who brought forth the great and lucid waters. What God shall we adore with our oblation?” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW THE SUN WAS CREATED?

From breath of God

Atharva Veda 19.27.7 “With vital breath the Gods produced the Sun whose face turn every way.”

From eye of Brahma

Yajur Veda 31.12 “The Moon was gendered from his mind, and from his eye the Sun had birth…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

From Vritra

Atharva Veda 4.10.5 “From ocean sprang the Amulet, from Vritra sprang the Lord of Day…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra generated the Sun

Rig Veda 2.12.7 “…He who gave being to the Sun and Morning, who leads the waters, He, O men, is Indra.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Soma created the Sun

Rig Veda 9.96.5 “Father of holy hymns, Soma flows onward the Father of the earth, Father of heaven: Father of Agni, Sūrya’s generator, the Father who begat Indra and Viṣṇu.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 9.42.1 “ENGENDERING the Sun in floods, engendering heaven’s lights, green-hued, Robed in the waters and the milk.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Dhatar

Rig Veda 10.190.3 “Dhātar, the great Creator, then formed in due order Sun and Moon…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO PLACED THE SUN IN HEAVEN/SKY?

Agni

Rig Veda 10.156.4 “O Agni, thou hast made the Sun, Eternal Star, to mount the sky, Bestowing light on living men.”

Indra

Rig Veda 8.12.30 “When yonder Sun, that brilliant light, thou settest in the heaven above…”

Atharva Veda 20.38.6 “Indra hath raised the Sun aloft in heaven that he may see afar…”

Indra & Vishnu

Rig Veda 7.99.4 “…Ye have made spacious room for sacrificing by generating Sūrya, Dawn, and Agni.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Angiras

Rig Veda 10.62.2-3 “…O ye Aṅgirases. Welcome the son of Manu, ye who are most wise. Ye raised the Sun to heaven by everlasting Law…”

Atri

Atharva Veda 13.2.12 “Atri established thee in heaven. O Surya…”

Varuna

Yajur Veda 4.31 “…Sûrya in heaven and Soma on the mountain.”

Mitra-Varuna

Rig Veda 5.6.7 “Wise, with your Law and through the Asura’s magic power ye guard the ordinances, Mitra-Varuṇa. Ye by eternal Order govern all the world. Ye set the Sun in heaven as a refulgent car.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Soma

Rig Veda 9.107.7 “Bountiful, best of furtherers, Soma floweth on, Ṛṣi and Singer, keen of sight. Thou hast become a Sage most welcome to the Gods: thou madest Sūrya mount to heaven.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW THE UNIVERSE (OR EARTH) WAS CREATED?

Nasadiya Sukta version

Rig Veda 10.72.1-4 Let us proclaim with a clear voice the generations of the gods (the divine company), who, when their praises are recited, look (favourably on the worshipper) in this latter age. Brahmanaspati filled these (generations of the gods) with breath as a blacksmith (his bellows) in the first age of the gods the existent was born of the non-existent. In the first age of the gods the existent was born of the non-existent; after that the quarters (of the horizon) were born, and after them the upward-growing (trees). The earth was born from the upward-growing (tree), the quarters were born from the earth; Daksha was born from Aditi, and afterwards Aditi from Daksha. – Tr. H.H Wilson

Purusha Sukta version

Rig Veda 10.90.8-14 “From that great general sacrifice the dripping fat was gathered up…

He formed the creatures of-the air, and animals both wild and tame. From it were horses born, from it all cattle with two rows of teeth: From it were generated kine, from it the goats and sheep were born…The Moon was gendered from his mind, and from his eye the Sun had birth; Indra and Agni from his mouth were born, and Vāyu from his breath. Forth from his navel came mid-air the sky was fashioned from his head Earth from his feet, and from his car the regions. Thus they formed the worlds.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • DID GOD CREATE THE UNIVERSE AND ITS BEINGS?

Yes, God(s) created the universe

Refer Nasadiya Sukta 72 and Purusha Sukta 90 of Rig Veda Mandala 10.

No, God(s) did not create the universe

Rig Veda 10.129.6-7 Who verily knows and who can here declare it, whence it was born and whence comes this creation? The Gods are later than this world’s production. Who knows then whence it first came into being? He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not form it, Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps he knows not.

Rig Veda 1.185.1 “Which of these two, (Heaven and Earth), is prior, which posterior; how were they engendered; (declare), sages, who knows this? verily, you uphold the universe of itself, and the days (and nights) revovle as if they had wheels.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • THE CREATION PARADOX

Earth and Heaven were created by God(s)

Rig Veda 4.34.9 “Ṛbhus, who helped their Parents and the Aśvins, who formed the Milch-cow and the pair of horses, Made armour, set the heaven and earth asunder,—far- reaching Heroes, they have made good offspring.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

This is the biggest blunder here, Veda states that Ribhus were mortals and attained godhood through their deeds (Rig Veda 4.35.8) then how come it were them who created earth and heaven? Another blunder mentioned below is that Veda are confused about who created earth and heaven, what was created first, the earth or the heaven?

Rig Veda 1.185.1 “Which of these two, (Heaven and Earth), is prior, which posterior; how were they engendered; (declare), sages, who knows this? verily, you uphold the universe of itself, and the days (and nights) revovle as if they had wheels.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Creation of earth and heaven is ascribed to various deities such as to Soma and Pushan (Rig Veda 2.40.1); Dhatr (Rig Veda 5.190.3); Hiranyagarbha (Rig Veda 10.121.9); Purusha (Rig Veda 10.90.14)

Earth and Heaven are creator of Gods

Rig Veda 1.159.1 “I PRAISE with sacrifices mighty Heaven and Earth at festivals, the wise, the Strengtheners of Law. Who, having Gods for progeny, conjoined with Gods, through wonder-working wisdom bring forth choicest boons.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW THE GODS CAME INTO EXISTENCE?

From Non-Existence

Atharva Veda 10.7.25 “Great, verily, are those Gods who sprang from non-existence into life. Further, men say that that one part of Skambha is nonentity.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Gods came after the creation

Rig Veda 10.129.6 “Who verily knows and who can here declare it, whence it was born and whence comes this creation? The Gods are later than this world’s production. Who knows then whence it first came into being?” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Usha (Dawn) is mother of gods

Rig Veda 1.113.19 “Mother of Gods, Aditi’s form of glory, ensign of sacrifice, shine forth exalted…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO IS THE FATHER OF GODS?

Brahmanaspati

Rig Veda 2.26.3 “Who with oblation and a true believing heart serves Brahmaṇaspati the Father of the Gods…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Soma

Rig Veda 9.87.2 “Indu, the well-armed God, is flowing onward, who quells the curse and guards from treacherous onslaught, Father, begetter of the Gods, most skilful, the buttress of the heavens and earth’s supporter.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Dyaus

Atharva Veda 9.10.12 “Dyaus is our father, our begetter: kinship is here. This great Earth is our kin and mother.Between the wide-spread world-halves is the birth-place. The Father laid the Daughter’s germ within it.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW MANY GODS ARE THERE?

33 Deities

Rig Veda 1.45.2 “Agni, the Gods who understand give ear unto the worshipper: Lord of Red Steeds, who lovest song, bring thou those Three-and-Thirty Gods.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Yajur Veda 7.19 “O ye eleven Gods whose home is heaven, O ye eleven who make earth your dwelling. Ye who with might, eleven, live in waters, accept this sacrifice, Ye Gods, with pleasure.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

34

Rig Veda 10.55.3 “…the classes of seven in their seasons, with the thirty-four (deities,) (endowed) with light of like nature, and with various functions.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

339 Deities

Rig Veda 10.52.6 “The Deities three hundred and thirty-nine, have served and honoured Agni…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

3339 Deities

Rig Veda 3.9.9 “Three times a hundred Gods and thrice a thousand, and three times ten and nine have worshipped Agni…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO IS THE KING OF GODS & WORLD/UNIVERSE?

Varuna

Rig Veda 5.85.3 “Varuṇa lets the big cask, opening downward, flow through the heaven and earth and air’s mid-region. Therewith the universe’s Sovran waters earth as the shower of rain bedews the barley.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 2.27.10 “Thou over all, O Varuṇa, art Sovran, be they Gods, Asura! or be they mortals…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Atharva Veda 1.10.1 “This Asura rules over the gods; the commands of Varuna, the ruler…” Tr. Maurice Bloomfield

Indra alone is the King

Rig Veda 3.46.2 “…Thyself alone the universe’s Sovran: so send forth men to combat and to rest them.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.174.1 “Thou art the King of all the Gods, O Indra: protect the men…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO FASHIONED THE THUNDERBOLT OF INDRA?

Tvastar

Rig Veda 10.48.3 “For me hath Tvaṣṭar forged the iron thunderbolt…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.32.2 “He slew the Dragon lying on the mountain: his heavenly bolt of thunder Tvaṣṭar fashioned…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Kavya Usana

Rig Veda 1.121.12 “Mount Indra, lover of the men thou guardest, the well-yoked horses of the wind, best bearers. The bolt which Kāvya Uśanā erst gave thee, strong, gladdening, Vṛtra-slaying, hath he fashioned.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra himself

Rig Veda 1.121.3 “Lord of red dawns, he came victorious, daily to the Aṅgirases’ former invocation. His bolt and team hath he prepared, and stablished the heaven for quadrupeds and men two-footed.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHATS THE COMPLEXION OF RUDRA?

Brown/Tawny (Babhru)

Rig Veda 2.33.5 “May I with praise-songs win that Rudra’s favour who is adored with gifts and invocations. Ne’er may the tawny God, fair-checked, and gracious, swifthearing, yield us to this evil purpose. ” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Red with dark blue belly

Yajur Veda 16.7 “May he who glides away, whose neck is azure, and whose hue is red, He whom the herdsmen, whom the girls who carry water have beheld, may he when seen be kind to us.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Atharva Veda 15.1.7 “His belly is dark-blue, his back is red…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW MANY MARUTS ARE THERE?

Twenty-One

Atharva Veda 13.1.3 “Let Rohita, ye bounteous givers, hear you, thrice-seven Maruts who delight in sweetness!” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Forty-Nine

Rig Veda 5.52.16-17 “…And the impetuous Rudra they, the Mighty Ones, declared their Sire. The mighty ones, the seven times seven, have singly given me hundred gifts…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

One hundred and eighty

Rig Veda 8.85.8 “Thrice-sixty Maruts, waxing strong, were with thee, like piles of beaming light, worthy of worship…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • USHA’S CHARIOT IS DRAWN BY?

Horses

Rig Veda 7.75.6 “Apparent are the steeds of varied colour, the red steeds carrying resplendent Morning…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Bulls

Rig Veda 1.124.11 “This young Maid from the east hath shone upon us; she harnesseth her team of bright red oxen. She will beam forth, the light will hasten hither, and Agni will be present in each dwelling.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 5.80.3 “She, harnessing her car with purple oxen. injuring none, hath brought perpetual riches…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Cow

Rig Veda 1.92.2 “Readily have the purple beams of light shot up; the Red Cows have they harnessed, easy to be yoked. The Dawns have brought distinct perception as before: red-hued, they have attained their fulgent brilliancy.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WAS INDRA BORN WITHOUT AN ENEMY?

Yes, he was born without any enemy

Rig Veda 10.133.2 “…Foeless, O Indra, wast thou born…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

He killed enemies as soon as he was born

Rig Veda 10.120.1 “…As soon as born he overcomes his foemen, be in whom all who lend him aid are joyful…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 8.45.4 “The new-born Vṛtra-slayer asked his Mother, as he seized his shaft, Who are the fierce? Who are renowned?” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 8.85.16 “Then, at thy birth, thou wast the foeman, Indra, of those the seven who ne’er had met a rival…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 7.20.3 “A warrior who turns not back in battle, a combatant, one engaged in tumults, a hero, victorious over (his) foes from birth, invincible…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • COLOUR OF SOMA

Greenish

Rig Veda 9.25.1 “Green-hued! as one who giveth strength flow on for Gods to drink, a draught For Vāyu and the Marut host.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Red (Aruna)

Rig Veda 10.144.5 “…Which, fair, unrobbed, the Falcon brought thee in his foot, the red-hued dwelling of the juice.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Tawny/Golden/Greenish-Yellow (Hari)

Rig Veda 9.92.1 “THE gold-hued juice, poured out upon the filter, is started like a car sent forth to conquer…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Brown (Babhru)

Rig Veda 9.31.5 “For thee, brown-hued! the kine have poured imperishable oil and milk. Aloft on the sublimest height.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 9.63.4 “These Somas swift and brown of hue…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO KILLED VRITRA?

Indra alone

Rig Veda 1.61.10 “Through his own strength Indra with bolt of thunder cut piece-meal Vṛtra, drier up of waters…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.165.8 “Vṛtra I slew by mine own strength, O Maruts, having waxed mighty in mine indignation…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 3.30.4 “For, overthrowing what hath ne’er been shaken, thou goest forth alone destroying Vṛtras…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 7.21.6 “…With thine own power and might thou slewest Vṛtra…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

All gods except Maruts ran away in Indra’s war against Vritra

Rig Veda 8.85.7 “Flying in terror from the snort of Vṛtra, all Deities who were thy friends forsook thee. So, Indra, be thy friendship with the Maruts: in all these battles thou shalt be the victor.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

All gods abandoned Indra who then begged for help from Vishnu

Rig Veda 4.18.11 “Then to her mighty Child the Mother turned her, saying, My son, these Deities forsake thee. Then Indra said, about to slaughter Vṛtra, O my friend Vṛtra, stride full boldly forward.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Trita

Rig Veda 1.187.1 “Now will I glorify Food that upholds great strength, By whose invigorating power Trita rent Vṛtra limb from limb.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra and Trita killed Vritra with help of Maruts

Rig Veda 8.7.24 “They reinforced the power and strength of Trita as he fought, and helped Indra in battle with the foe.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra killed Vritra with help of Maruts

Rig Veda 8.65.2-3 “This Indra with his Marut Friends clave into pieces Vṛtra’s bead With hundred-knotted thunderbolt. Indra, with Marut Friends grown strong, hath rent asunder Vṛtra…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra killed Vritra with help of an Amulet

Atharva Veda 8.5.3 “With this same Amulet wise Indra routed the Asuras, with this he slaughtered Vritra…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Maruts killed Vritra with the help of Indra

Rig Veda 1.23.9 “With conquering Indra for ally, strike Vṛtra down, ye bounteous Gods Let not the wicked master us.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Soma

Rig Veda 9.37.5 “This Vṛtra-slaying Steer, effused, Soma room-giver, ne’er deceived, Hath gone, as ’twere, to win the spoil.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra-Agni

Rig Veda 1.109.5 “You, I have heard, were mightiest, Indra-Agni, when Vṛtra fell and when the spoil was parted…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Agni

Rig Veda 3.20.4 “Agni, like Bhaga, leads the godly people, he who is true to Law and guards the seasons. Ancient, all-knowing, he the Vṛtra-slayer shall bear the singer safe through every trouble.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.59.6 “Now will I tell the greatness of the Hero whom Pūru’s sons follow as Vṛtra’s slayer: Agni Vaiśvānara struck down the Dasyu, cleave Śambara through and shattered down his fences.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 6.16.48 “The Gods enkindle Agni, best slayer of Vṛtra, first in rank…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Ashwins

Rig Veda 8.8.9 The holy singer with his hymns hath called you, Aśvins, hither-ward; Best Vṛtra-slayers, free from stain, as such bring us felicity.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra killed Vritra with help of Visnu

Rig Veda 6.20.2 “Even as the power of Dyaus, to thee, O Indra, all Asura sway was by the Gods entrusted, When thou, Impetuous! leagued with Viṣṇu, slewest Vṛtra the Dragon who enclosed the waters.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra killed Vritra with help of Varuna

Rig Veda 6.68.3 “Praise those Twain Gods for powers that merit worship, Indra and Varuṇa, for bliss, the joyous. One with his might and thunderbolt slays Vṛtra; the other as a Sage stands near in troubles.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra killed Vrtra with the help of Pusan

Rig Veda 6.56.2 “And he is best of charioteers. Indra, the hero’s Lord, allied With him as Friend, destroys the foes.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

The Sanskrit word mentioned here is Vritrani referring to Vritra.

 

  • WHO SEVERED THE LIMBS OF VRITRA?

Indra

Rig Veda 8.6.13 “When his wrath thundered, when he rent Vṛtra to pieces, limb by limb, He sent the waters to the sea.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Trita

Rig Veda 1.187.1 “Now will I glorify Food that upholds great strength, By whose invigorating power Trita rent Vṛtra limb from limb.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHERE DID INDRA STRIKE VRITRA TO KILL HIM?

Between the shoulders

Rig Veda 1.32.7 “Footless and handless still he challenged Indra, who smote him with his bolt between the shoulders. Emasculate yet claiming manly vigour, thus Vṛtra lay with scattered limbs dissevered.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

On Back

Rig Veda 1.80.5 “The wrathful Indra with his bolt of thunder rushing on the foe, Smote fierce on trembling Vṛtra’s back, and loosed the waters free to run, lauding his own imperial sway.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

On Face

Rig Veda 1.52.15 “The Maruts sang thy praise in this encounter, and in thee all the Deities delighted, What time thou, Indra, with thy spiky weapon, thy deadly bolt, smotest the face of Vṛtra.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Beheaded Vritra

Rig Veda 8.6.6 “The fiercely-moving Vṛtra’s head he severed with his thunderbolt, His mighty hundred-knotted bolt.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • MARUTS STOOD WITH INDRA IN HIS FIGHT WITH VRITRA OR FLED AWAY?

Stood by him

Rig Veda 3.32.4 “They, even the Maruts who were there, excited with song the meath-created strength of Indra. By them impelled to act he reached the vitals Of Vṛtra.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Fled away

Rig Veda 8.7.30-31 “When, Maruts, ye come to him, the singer who invokes you thus, With favours to your suppliant? What now? where have ye still a friend since ye left Indra all alone? Who counteth on your friendship now?” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO DESTROYED SAMBARA’S CASTLES?

Vishnu and Indra

Rig Veda 7.99.5 “Ye have destroyed, thou, Indra, and thou Viṣṇu, Śambara’s nine-and-ninety fenced castles…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Agni

Rig Veda 1.59.6 “Now will I tell the greatness of the Hero whom Pūru’s sons follow as Vṛtra’s slayer: Agni Vaiśvānara struck down the Dasyu, cleave Śambara through and shattered down his fences.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra alone

Rig Veda 4.26.3 “In the wild joy of Soma I demolished Śambara’s forts, ninety-and-nine, together… Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO KILLED VALA?

Indra

Rig Veda 10.67.6 “As with a hand, so with his roaring Indra cleft Vala through, the guardian of the cattle…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Brahmanaspati

Rig Veda 2.24.3 “…He drave the kine forth and cleft Vala through by prayer, dispelled the darkness and displayed the light of heaven.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 4.50.4 “With the loud-shouting band who sang his praises, with thunder, he destroyed obstructive Vala. Brhaspati thundering drave forth the cattle, the lowing cows who make oblations ready. ” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Angirases killed Vala

Rig Veda 10.62.2 “The Fathers, who drave forth the wealth in cattle, have in the year’s courses cleft Vala by Eternal Law…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra killed Vala with the help of Angirases

Rig Veda 2.11.20 “…Indra sent forth his whirling wheel like Sūrya, and aided by the Aṅgirases rent Vala.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra killed Vala with the help of Navagvas and Dasagvas

Rig Veda 1.62.4 “…Thou hast, with speeders, with Daśagvas, Indra, Śakra, with thunder rent obstructive Vala.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • ASVINS’ CHARIOT IS DRAWN BY WHAT?

Ashwins’s chariot is horseless

Rig Veda 1.120.10 “I have obtained the horseless car of Aśvins rich in sacrifice…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 4.36.1 “THE car that was not made for horses or for reins, three-wheeled, worthy of lauds, rolls round the firmament. That is the great announcement of your Deity, that, O ye Ṛbhus, ye sustain the earth and heaven.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Drawn by a single Donkey

Rig Veda 1.34.9 “Where are the three wheels of your triple chariot, where are the three seats thereto firmly fastened? When will ye yoke the mighty ass that draws it, to bring you to our sacrifice. Nāsatyas?” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 8.74.7 “Yoke to the firmly jointed car the ass which draws you, Lords of wealth. To drink the savoury Soma juice.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Drawn by horses

Rig Veda 7.69.1 “MAY your gold chariot, drawn by vigorous horses, come to us, blocking up the earth and heaven…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Drawn by flying winged horses

Rig Veda 5.75.5-6 “Aśvins, with winged steeds ye speed down to cyavana void of guile. Lovers of sweetness, hear my call. Hither, O Heroes, let your steeds, of dappled hue, yoked at the thought, Your flying steeds, O Aśvins, bring you hitherward, with bliss, to drink…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Drawn by Falcons

Rig Veda 1.118.4 “O Aśvins, let your falcons bear you hither, yoked to your chariot, swift, with flying pinions…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • INDRA FOUGHT SUSHNA FOR KUTSA OR WITH KUTSA?

With Kutsa

Rig Veda 6.31.3 “Thou, Indra, with Kutsa, has warred against the inexhaustible Sushna…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Fought alone for Kutsa

Rig Veda 1.175.4 “Sage Indra, who art he lord, thou has carried off by thy strength one wheel of (the chariot of) the sun. Take up thy bolt for the death of Sushna, and proceed with thy horses swift as the wind, to Kutsa.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • TO HOW MANY PILLARS WAS SHUNASHEPA TIED TO & TO WHOM DID SHUNASHEP PRAY

Prayed to Agni and was tied to Thousand Pillars

Rig Veda 5.2.7 “Thou from the stake didst loose e’en Śunaḥśepa bound for a thousand; for he prayed with fervour. So, Agni, loose from us the bonds that bind us…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

The Sanskrit word mentioned here is Sahasradyupada which means thousand (Sahasra) pillars (Yupa)

Prayed to Varuna and was tied to Three Pillars

Rig Veda 1.24.13 “Bound to three pillars captured Śunaḥśepa thus to the Āditya made his supplication. Him may the Sovran Varuṇa deliver, wise, ne’er deceived, loosen the bonds that bind him.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Aditya here is referring to Varuna who is one among the Adityas.

 

  • WHO WAS/WERE THE HUSBAND(S) OF SARASWATI?

Ashwin Brothers

Yajur Veda 19.94 “Sarasvati, as Consort of the Asvins, bears in her womb the nobly-fashioned Infant…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra

Rig Veda 6.49.7 So may Sarasvatī, the Hero’s Consort, brisk with rare life, the lightning’s Child, inspire us, And, with the Dames accordant, give the singer a refuge unassailable and flawless.

Rig Veda 5.42.12 May the House-friends, the cunning-handed Artists, may the Steer’s Wives, the streams carved out by Vibhvan, And may the fair Ones honour and befriend us, Sarasvatī, Brhaddiva, and Rākā.

 

  • WHO WERE THE HUSBAND(S) OF SURYA THE DAUGHTER OF SUN SAVITAR?

Ashwin brothers

Rig Veda 4.43.6 “…Observed of all was that your rapid going, whereby ye were the Lords of Sūrya’s Daughter.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.119.5 “Aśvins, the car which you had yoked for glorious show your own two voices urged directed to its goal. Then she who came for friendship, Maid of noble birth, elected you as Husbands, you to be her Lords.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Pushan

Rig Veda 6.58.4 “Near kinsman of the heaven and earth is Pūṣan, liberal, Lord of food, of wondrous lustre, Whom strong and vigorous and swiftly moving, subdued by love, the Deities gave to Sūrya.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

In Rig Veda 6.55.4-5 Surya is both sister and mother of Pushan who also had illicit relationship with her.

Soma

Rig Veda 10.85.7-10 “…Her treasury was earth and heaven ẉhen Sūrya went unto her Lord…Soma was he who wooed the maid: the groomsmen were both Aśvins, when The Sun-God Savitar bestowed his willing Sūrya on her Lord…Bright were both Steers that drew it when Sūrya approached her husband’s, home.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO WERE THE PARENTS OF MARUTS?

    Maruts are self-born

Rig Veda 1.168.2 “Surrounding, as it were, self-born, self-powerful, they spring to life the shakers-down of food and light…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rudra

Rig Veda 1.114.6 “To him the Maruts’ Father is this hymn addressed, to strengthen Rudra’s might…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 2.33.1 “Father of Maruts, let thy bliss approach us: exclude us not from looking on the sunlight. Gracious to our fleet courser be the Hero may we transplant us, Rudra, in our children.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Sacrificing through Agni gendered the Maruts

Rig Veda 1.31.1 “Thou, Agni, wast the earliest Aṅgiras, a Seer; thou wast, a God thyself, the Gods’ auspicious Friend. After thy holy ordinance the Maruts, sage, active through wisdom, with their glittering spears, were born.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Vayu from womb of heaven

Rig Veda 1.134.4 “…The Marut host hast thou engendered from the womb, the Maruts from the womb of heaven.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Dyaus

Rig Veda 10.77.2 “The youths have wrought their ornaments for glory through many nights,—this noble band of Maruts. Like stags the Sons of Dyatis have striven onward…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Prisni is mother

Rig Veda 2.34.2 “…Since the strong Rudra, O Maruts with brilliant chests, sprang into life for you in Pṛśni’s radiant lap.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 6.66.3 “They who are Sons of the rain-pouring Rudra, whom the long-lasting One had power to foster: The Mighty Ones whose germ great Mother Pṛśni is known to have received for man’s advantage.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Ocean is their Mother

Rig Veda 10.78.6 “Born from the stream…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO WERE THE PARENTS OF ASVINS?

Vivasvan and Saranyu

Rig Veda 10.17.2 “From mortal men they hid the Immortal Lady, made one like her and gave her to Vivasvān. Saranyu brought to him the Aśvin brothers, and then deserted both twinned pairs of children.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Dyaus (Heaven)

Rig Veda 1.181.4 “Here sprung to life, they both have sung together, with bodies free from stain, with signs that mark them; One of you Prince of Sacrifice, the Victor, the other counts as Heaven’s auspicious offspring.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO WERE THE PARENTS OF INDRA?

Kashyap & Aditi

Rig Veda 3.48.2 “On the day on which thou wast born, thou didst drink at will the mountain-abiding nectar of this Soma plant, for thy youthful parent mother (Aditi), in the dwelling of thy great sire (Kasyapa), gave it to thee before she gave the breast.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Dyaus is the father

Rig Veda 4.17.4 “Thy Father Dyaus esteemed himself a hero: most noble was the work of Indra’s Maker, His who begat the strong bolt’s Lord who roareth, immovable like earth from her foundation.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Kusika is the mother

Rig Veda 1.10.11 “O Indra, Son of Kusika, drink our libation with delight…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Purusa is the father

Rig Veda 10.90.13 “The Moon was gendered from his mind, and from his eye the Sun had birth; Indra and Agni from his mouth were born…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Soma is the father

Rig Veda 9.96.5 “Father of holy hymns, Soma flows onward the Father of the earth, Father of heaven: Father of Agni, Sūrya’s generator, the Father who begat Indra and Viṣṇu.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Ekashtaka the daughter of Prajapati

Atharva Veda 3.10.12-13 “Ekashtaka, burning with zealous fervour, brought forth her babe the great and glorious Indra…Indra’s and Soma’s mother! thou art daughter of Prajapati.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Tavastar is the father

Rig Veda 2.17.6 “Fit for the grasping of his arms is what the Sire hath fabricated from all kind of precious wealth. The thunderbolt, wherewith, loud-roaring, he smote down, and striking him to death laid Krivi on the earth.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.61.6 “Even for him hath Tvaṣṭar forged the thunder, most deftly wrought, celestial, for the battle…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO CREATED AGNI/WHO WERE THE PARENTS OF AGNI?

Twishtar is the father

Rig Veda 1.95.2 “The vigilant and youthful Ten beget, through the wind, this embryo Agni…” Tr. H.H Wilson

Dyaus is the father

Rig Veda 10.45.8 “…Agni by vital powers became immortal when his prolific Father Dyaus begat him.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Various Gods

Rig Veda 8.91.16-17 “Blazing with splendour, Agni, God, through pious gifts of sacred oil, Bring thou the Gods and worship them. The Gods as mothers brought thee forth, the Immortal Sage, O Aṅgiras, The bearer of our gifts to heaven.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Purusa

Rig Veda 10.90.13 “The Moon was gendered from his mind, and from his eye the Sun had birth; Indra and Agni from his mouth were born…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Ekashtaka the daughter of Prajapati

Atharva Veda 3.10.12-13 “Ekashtaka, burning with zealous fervour, brought forth her babe the great and glorious Indra…Indra’s and Soma’s mother! thou art daughter of Prajapati.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Ila is the mother

Rig Veda 3.27.3 “With his red pillar radiant is his splendour in our skilled task is born the son of Ila.” Tr. H.H Wilson

Water is the mother

Rig Veda 10.91.6 “Him, duly coming as their germ, have plants received: this Agni have maternal Waters brought to life…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Atharvan

Rig Veda 10.21.5 “Skilled in all lore is Agni, he whom erst Atharvan brought to life…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Agni is called son of so and so not in the sense on who ignited the fire (Agni) but on account of his origin.

 

  • WHO IS THE FATHER OF MARUTS?

VAYU

Rig Veda 1.134.4 “…thou begettest the Maruts, of the firmament, for (the purpose of) showering rain…” Tr. H.H Wilson

Rudra produced Maruts from udder of Prisni

Rig Veda 2.33.1 “FATHER of Maruts, let thy bliss approach us: exclude us not from looking on the sunlight. Gracious to our fleet courser be the Hero may we transplant us, Rudra, in our children.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 5.60.5 “None being eldest, none among them youngest, as brothers they have grown to happy fortune. May their Sire Rudra, young and deft, and Pṛśni pouring much milk, bring fair days to the Maruts.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.114.6 “To him the Maruts’ Father is this hymn addressed, to strengthen Rudra’s might…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 2.34.2 “Since, golden-breasted Maruts, the vigorous (Rudra) begot you of the pure womb of Prisni…” Tr. H.H Wilson

Rig Veda 7.56.1-4 “Who are these radiant men in serried rank, Rudra’s young heroes borne by noble steeds? Verily no one knoweth whence they sprang: they, and they only, know each other’s birth… A sage was he who knew these mysteries, what in her udder mighty Pṛśni bore” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO WERE THE PARENTS OF VAYU?

Earth and Heaven

Rig Veda 7.90.3; Yajur Veda 23.24 “The God whom both these worlds brought forth for riches, whom heavenly Dhiṣaṇā for our wealth appointeth, His team of harnessed horses waits on Vāyu, and, foremost, on the radiant Treasure-bearer.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Born from breath of Purusha

Rig Veda 10.90.13 “…Vāyu from his breath. Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO WERE THE PARENTS OF YAMA-YAMI?

Vivasvat & Saranyu

Rig Veda 10.14.5 “Come, Yama, with the Aṅgirases the Holy, rejoice thee here with children of Virūpa. To sit on sacred grass at this our worship, I call Vivasvān, too, thy Father hither.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 10.17.1-2 “TVASTAR prepares the bridal of his Daughter: all the world hears the tidings and assembles. But Yama’s Mother, Spouse of great Vivasvān, vanished as she was carried to her dwelling. From mortal men they hid the Immortal Lady, made one like her and gave her to Vivasvān. Saranyu brought to him the Aśvin brothers, and then deserted both twinned pairs of children.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Gandharva & Water nymph (Apya Yosa)

Rig Veda 10.10.4 “(Yama speaks). We have not done what was done formerly; for how can we who speak truth, utter now that which is untrue? Gandharva (the sun) was in the watery (firmament), and the water was his bride. She is our common parent, hence our near affinity.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • HOW MANY SOLDIERS OF ASURA KRISHNA DID INDRA KILL?

Fifty thousand

Rig Veda 4.16.13 “Thou hast subjugated Pipru and the mighty Mrigaya for the sake of Rijsiwan the son of Vidathin, thou hast slain the fifty thousand Krishnas; and, as old age (destroys) life, thou hast demolished the cities (of Sambara).” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Ten thousand

Rig Veda 8.86.13 “The swift-moving Krishna with ten thousand (demons) stood on the Amsumati; by his might Indra caught him snorting (in the water); he, benevolent to man, smote his malicious (bands).” Tr. H.H. Wilson

This verse occurs in Rig Veda 8.85.13 of Griffith’s translation.

 

  • WHO HAS TASTED SOMA ON EARTH?

No one has ever tasted Soma on the earth

Rig Veda 10.85.3-4 One thinks, when they have brayed the plant, that he hath drunk the Soma’s juice; Of him whom Brahmans truly know as Soma no one ever tastes. Soma, secured by sheltering rules, guarded by hymns in Brhati, Thou standest listening to the stones none tastes of thee who dwells on earth.

Even non-Aryan tribes possessed Soma

Rig Veda 3.43.14 states that Kikatas brings no Soma mixed with milk to the Vedic deities which suggests that even non-Aryan Kikatas inhabiting in present day Bihar possessed Soma and tasted Soma. Moreover there are also verses stating that Soma was with the Gandharvas and there are many such verses which states Soma was drunk on earth which contradicts above verse which says that no one has ever tasted Soma on earth.

 

  • WHERE DO THE MARUTS DWELL?

In the Heaven

Rig Veda 5.60.6 “Whether, O blessed Maruts, ye be dwelling in highest, midmost, or in lowest heaven…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

In the Mountains

Rig Veda 8.83.12 “That vigorous band of Maruts that abidetb in the mountains, I Invoke to drink this Soma juice.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • AGNI IS REGARDED AS OF TAKEN HOW MANY BIRTHS?

Three Births

Rig Veda 4.1.7 “Three are those births, the true, the most exalted, eagerly longed-for, of the God, of Agni…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.95.3 “Three several places of his birth they honour, in mid-air, in the heaven, and in the waters…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Two Births

Rig Veda 1.149.4 “He, doubly born, hath spread in his effulgence through the three luminous realms, through all the regions…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 8.43.28 “O Agni, made by strength! be thou born in the heavens or born in floods, As such we call on thee with songs.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW MANY ADITYAS ARE THERE?

Seven

Rig 9.114.3 “Seven regions have their several Suns; the ministering priests are seven; Seven are the Āditya Deities…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Eight

Atharva Veda 8.9.21 “…Eight are the wombs of Aditi, eight her children…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Six

Rig Veda 2.27.1 “THESE hymns that drop down fatness, with the ladle I ever offer to the Kings Ādityas. May Mitra, Aryaman, and Bhaga hear us, the mighty Varuṇa Dakṣa, and Aṁśa.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

In later texts the number of Adityas given are twelve. But we are dealing only with the Vedas which gives varying numbers. Rig Veda 10.72.8 is much clear about number of Adityas, it states that there were total number of eight Adityas of whom Martanda died and was later brought back to life. Rig Veda 2.27.1 mentions six Adityas by their names, they are Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Varuṇa, Dakṣa and Aṁśa. Atharva Veda 11.6.2 mentions all these with Vivasvan also, Rig Veda verse quoted earlier mentions Martanda as an Aditya, so now we know eight Adityas by name.

So let’s assume that number of Adityas given in Vedas are eight but it makes the situation more complex because apart from those eight Adityas, Veda mentions various other deities as Adityas. In Atharva Veda 13.2.29, 37 Surya is called Aditya and son of Aditi. In Atharva Veda 8.2.15 Sun & Moon are called two sons of Aditi, Rig Veda 8.90.11 calls Surya (sun) as Aditya. Rig Veda 8.18.3 also mentions Savitar as Aditya but for the sake of argument lets count Savitar as sun here. Indra is considered Aditya along with Varuna in Rig Veda 7.85.4, however in Rig Veda 5.51.10 Indra is mentioned separately from Adityas.

 

  • WHO IS THE MOTHER OF ADITYAS?

Madhukasa

Atharva Veda 9.1.4 “Daughter of Vasus, mother of Ādityas, centre of Amrit breath of living creatures. The Honey-whip, gold-coloured, dropping fatness, moves as a mighty embryo ‘mid mortals.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Madhukasa is translated as Honey-whip by Griffith.

Aditi

Rig Veda 10.72.8 “Eight are the Sons of Adid who from her body sprang to life. With seven she went to meet the Gods she cast Martanda far away.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO IS THE FATHER OF MADHUKASA?

Vasus

Atharva Veda 9.1.4 “Daughter of Vasus, mother of Ādityas, centre of Amrit breath of living creatures. The Honey-whip, gold-coloured, dropping fatness, moves as a mighty embryo ‘mid mortals.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Maruts

Atharva Veda 9.1.3 “…For she, the first-born daughter of the Maruts, derives her origin from Wind and Agni…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • USHA AWAKENS ASVINS OR USHA IS BORN AFTER ASVINS YOKE THEIR CAR?

Usha (Dawn) awakens Asvins

Rig Veda 8.9.17 “Awake the Aśvins, Goddess Dawn! Up Mighty Lady of sweet strains! Rise, straightway, priest of sacrifice! High glory to the gladdening draught!” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Asvins yokes their car thence Usha is born

Rig Veda 10.39.12 “Come on that Chariot which the Ṛbhus wrought for you, the Chariot, Aśvins, that is speedier than thought, At harnessing whereof Heaven’s Daughter springs to birth.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

When Usha (dawn) is born after Asvins yokes their car then how come Usha awakens Asvins?

 

  • WHO AWAKENS WHO?

Usha (Dawn) awakens humans for worship

Rig Veda 1.113.9 “As thou, Dawn, hast caused Agni to be kindled, and with the Sun’s eye hast revealed creation. And hast awakened men to offer worship, thou hast performed, for Gods, a noble service.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.124.10 Rouse up, O Wealthy One, the liberal givers; let niggard traffickers sleep on unwakened: Shine richly, Wealthy One, on those who worship, richly, glad.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Worshippers awakens Usha (Dawn)

Rig Veda 4.52.4 “With praises we awaken thee, thou who art endowed with truth; thee, the baffler of animosities, the restorer of consciousness.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • WHO GENERATED DAWN OR DISCOVERED HER?

Indra

Rig Veda 2.12.7 “…he who gave birth to the sun and to the dawn: and who is the leader of the waters; he, men, is Indra.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Soma

Rig Veda 6.9.3 This Soma, Indra, (quaffed by thee), has lighted up the unlustrous nights, and days and nights, and years: (the gods) of old have established it as the ensign of days, and it has made the dawns generated in light.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Ancient Fathers

Rig Veda 7.76.4 “Those ancient sages, our ancestors, observant of truth, rejoicing together with the gods, discovered the hidden light, and reciters of sincere prayers, they generated the Dawn.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • INDRA’S THUNDERBOLT WAS OF WHICH METAL?

Iron (Ayasa)

Rig Veda 10.48.3 “For me hath Tvaṣṭar forged the iron thunderbolt: in me the Gods have centred intellectual power…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.52.8 “When, Indra, thou whose power is linked with thy Bay Steeds hadst smitten Vṛtra, causing floods to flow for man, Thou heldst in thine arms the metal thunderbolt.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Gold (Hiranyamay/Hiranya)

Rig Veda 1.85.9 “When Tvaṣṭar deft of hand had turned the thunderbolt, golden, with thousand edges, fashioned more skilfully…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 10.23.3 “When, with the Princes, Maghavari, famed of old, comes nigh the thunderbolt of gold…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.57.2 “When the well-loved one seems to rest upon the hill, the thunderbolt of Indra, shatterer wrought of gold.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Elsewhere it has been described as yellow coloured and golden coloured. But above verses doesn’t describe colour of the thunderbolt but describes the metal.

Stone

Rig Veda 7.104.5 “Indra and Soma, cast ye downward out of heaven your deadly darts of stone burning with fiery flame… [19] Hurl down from heaven thy bolt of stone, O Indra…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Bones of Dadhyachi

Rig Veda 1.84.13 “With bones of Dadhyach for his arms, Indra, resistless in attack, Struck nine-and-ninety Vṛtras dead.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • INDRA’S THUNDERBOLT WAS OF HOW MANY EDGES?

Four Edged

Rig Veda 4.22.2 “Bull, hurler of the four-edged rain-producer with both his arms…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Hundred Edged

Rig Veda 6.17.10 “Yea, Strong One! Tvaṣṭar turned for thee, the Mighty, the bolt with thousand spikes and hundred edges…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO IS MATARISVAN?

Agni

Rig Veda 3.5.9 “…May Agni, Friend, adorable Mātariśvan, as envoy bring the Gods unto our worship.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.93.6 states that Matarisvan brought Agni from heaven, if Agni was Matarisvan then how would he bring himself from heaven? Rig Veda 3.2.13 further strengthens the argument that Agni and Matarisvan are two separate entities. Moreover Nirukta 7.26 considers Matarisvan as Vayu (air).

Brihaspati

Rig Veda 1.190.2 “…Bṛhaspati—for he laid out the expanses—was, at the sacrifice, vast Mātariśvan.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO IS THE MESSENGER OF VIVASVAT?

Matarisvan

Rig Veda 6.8.4 “…As envoy of Vivasvān Matarisvan brought Agni Vaiśvānara hither from far away.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Agni

Rig Veda 1.58.1 “NE’ER waxeth faint the Immortal, Son of Strength, since he, the Herald, hath become Vivasvān’s messenger…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • IS INDRA THE STRONGEST/GREATEST?

Yes! He is! There is none like him

Rig Veda 4.18.4 “No peer hath he among those born already, nor among those who shall be born hereafter…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 7.32.23 “None other like to thee, of earth or of the heavens, hath been or ever will be born. Desiring horses, Indra Maghavan…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 5.42.6 “…None of old times, O Maghavan, nor later, none of these days hath reached thy hero prowess.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Agni is as strong as Indra

Rig Veda 7.6.1 “…I laud his deeds who is as strong as Indra, and lauding celebrate the Fort-destroyer.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Sinivali is equal to Indra

Atharva Veda 7.46.3 “Thou who as Queen of men art Indra’s equal, a Goddess coming with a thousand tresses…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

There is none above Yama

Atharva Veda 18.2.32 “Yama is higher and Vivasvān lower: nothing whatever do I see above him…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

There is no match for Kama

Atharva Veda 9.2.19 “First before all sprang Kāma into being. Gods, Fathers, mortal men have never matched him.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW MANY HEADS DOES AGNI HAVE?

He is Headless

Rig Veda 4.1.11 “…Footless and headless, both his ends concealing, in his Bull’s lair drawing himself together.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Three heads

Rig Veda 1.146.1 “I LAUD the seven-rayed, the triple-headed, Agni…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • AGNI HAS HOW MANY TONGUES?

Three tongues

Rig Veda 3.20.2 “…Three are thy powers, O Agni, three thy stations, three are thy tongues.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Seven tongues

Yajur Veda 17.79 “Seven fuel logs hast thou, seven tongues, O Agni…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • AGNI’S TEETH ARE?

Of Iron

Rig Veda 10.87.2 “Jatavedas, who hast teeth of iron, consume the Yatudhanas flame when kindled…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Gold

Rig Veda 5.2.3 “I have seen him from a near place, golden-toothed, bright-coloured, wielding (flames like) weapons…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • AGNI HAS HOW MANY EYES?

Four

Rig Veda 1.31.13 “Agni, thou art a guard close to the pious man; kindled art thou, four-eyed! for him who is unarmed…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Thousand

Rig Veda 1.79.12 “Keen and swift Agni, thousand-eyed, chaseth the Rākṣasas afar: He singeth, herald meet for lauds.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • DOES AGNI GROW OLD?

He doesn’t grow old

Rig Veda 1.128.2 “…Through presentation of our food he grows not old in this his from…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

He grows old but becomes young again

Rig Veda 2.4.5 “…Known is he by his bright delightful splendour, and waxing old renews his youth for ever.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO IS THE HUSBAND OF ADITI?

Vishnu

Yajur Veda 29.60 “…a mess of boiled rice is to be made for Prajâpati; the same for Vishnu’s Consort Aditi…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Kashyapa

Rig Veda 3.48.2 clearly indicates that Aditi and Kashyapa were married to each other. In later texts it is much more clear but this article deals only with the Vedas.

It is a contradiction unless it is a case of Polyandry.

 

  • WHO WERE PARENTS OF RIBHUS? WHAT WERE THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH INDRA?

Friends of Indra, They are children of a man named Sudhanvan

Rig Veda 3.60.3 “Friendship with Indra have the Ṛbhus, fully gained: grandsons of Manu, they skilfully urged the work. Sudhanvan’s Children won them everlasting life, serving with holy rites, pious with noble acts.

Rig Veda 4.35.7 “Lord of Bay Steeds, at dawn the juice thou drankest: thine, only thine, is the noonday libation. Now drink thou with the wealth-bestowing Ṛbhus, whom for their skill thou madest friends, O Indra.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Sons of Indra

Rig Veda 4.37.4 “Strong, with fair chains of gold and jaws of iron, ye have a splendid car and well-fed horses. Ye Sons of Strength, ye progeny of Indra, to you the best is offered to delight you.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

In Rig Veda 1.161.1 Ribhus are considered brother of Agni.

 

  • WHO PLACED AGNI FOR MEN TO WORSHIP/WHO FIRST STARTED THE FIRE WORSHIP?

Bhrigus

Rig Veda 1.58.6 “The Bhṛgus established thee among mankind for men, like as a treasure, beauteous, easy to invoke; Thee, Agni, as a herald and choice-worthy guest, as an auspicious Friend to the Celestial Race.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

MANU

Rig Veda 1.36.19 “Manu hath stablished thee a light, Agni, for all the race of men…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW MANY DASYUS DID INDRA KILL TO PROTECT RISHI DABHITI?

Two Dasyus namely Chumuri and Dhuni

Rig Veda 10.113.9 “Proclaim his many friendships, met with friendship, made with singers, with the skilful and the eloquent. Indra, when he subdues Dhuni and Cumuri, lists to Dabhīti for his faithful spirit’s sake.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 2.15.9 “Thou, with sleep whelming Cumuri and Dhuni, slewest the Dasyu, keptest safe Dabhīti…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Thirty thousand Dasyus

Rig Veda 4.30.21 “The thirty thousand Dāsas he with magic power and weapons sent To slumber, for Dabhīti’s sake.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

110 Dasyus

Rig Veda 2.13.9 “Thou boundest up the Dāsa’s hundred friends and ten, when, at one’s hearing, thou helpest thy worshipper. Thou for Dabhīti boundest Dasyus not with cords; Thou wast a mighty help. Worthy of lauds art thou.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW DID TVASHTAR REACT WHEN RIBHUS MULTIPLIED THE CUPS?

He applauded their act

Rig Veda 4.33.5-6 “The eldest said, let us make two ladles; the youngest said, let us make three: Twashtri, Ribhus has applauded your proposal. The men, (the Ribhus), spake the truth, for such (ladles) they made, and thereupon the Ribhus partook of that libation: Twashtri, beholding the four ladles, brilliant as day, was content.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

The Sanskrit word mentioned in verse 5 is Panyat which means Praise, the Sanskrit word mentioned in verse 6 is Avenat which means desire or approve.

He was angry and wanted to kill Ribhus

Rig Veda 1.161.4-5 “So doing, Ribhus, you inquired, Where, indeed, is he who came to us a messenger? when Twashtri observed the one ladle become four, he was immediately lost amongst the women. When Twashtri said, Let us slay those who have profaned the ladle, (designed) for the drinking of the gods; then they made us of other names for one another, as the libation was poured out…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • HOW MANY GANDHARVAS ARE THERE?

6333

Atharva Veda 11.5.3 “…After him too have the Gandharvas followed, thirty and three, three hundred, and six thousand. He satisfies all Gods with his devotion.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

27

Yajur Veda 9.7 “It was the wind, or it was thought, or the Gandharvas twenty-seven…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO STOLE CATTLE OF PANI?

Indra

Rig Veda 10.67.6 “…Seeking the milk-draught with sweatshining comrades he stole the Paṇi’s kine and left him weeping.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Agni-Soma

Rig Veda 1.93.4 “Agni and Soma, famed is that your prowess wherewith ye stole the kine, his food, from Paṇi…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO FOUND TREASURE/COWS OF PANIS?

Sages/Angirases

Rig Veda 2.24.6 “They who with much endeavour searching round obtained the Panis’ noblest treasure hidden in the cave,-Those sages, having marked the falsehoods, turned them back whence they had come, and sought again to enter in.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Sarama assisted Angirases and Indra

Rig Veda 1.62.3 “When Indra and the Aṅgirases desired it, Saramā found provision for her offspring. Bṛhaspati cleft the mountain, found the cattle: the heroes shouted with the kine in triumph.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Sarama, Sages, Brihaspati, Indra and Angirases
Rig Veda 10.108.9-11 “Even thus, O Saramā, hast thou come hither, forced by celestial might to make the journey. Turn thee not back, for thou shalt be our sister: O Blest One, we will give thee of the cattle. Brotherhood, sisterhood, I know not either: the dread Aṅgirases and Indra know them. They seemed to long for kine when I departed. Hence, into distance, be ye gone, O Paṇis. Hence, far away, ye Paṇis! Let the cattle lowing come forth as holy Law commandeth, Kine which Bṛhaspati, and Soma, Ṛṣis, sages, and pressing-stones have found when hidden.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 5.45.7 “Here, urged by hands, loudly hath rung the press-stone wherewith Navagvas through ten months sang praises. Saramā went aright and found the cattle. Aṅgiras gave effect to all their labours. ” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Angirases alone

Rig Veda 1.83.4 “First the Aṅgirases won themselves vital power, whose fires were kindled through good deeds and sacrifice. The men together found the Paṇi’s hoarded wealth, the cattle, and the wealth in horses and in kine.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO DISCOVERED HIDDEN SOMA?

Indra

Rig Veda 3.44.5 “The bright, the well-loved thunderbolt, girt with the bright, Indra disclosed, Disclosed the Soma juice pressed out by tawny stones, with tawny steeds drave forth the kine.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Pushan

Rig Veda 1.23.14 “The resplendent Pushan has found the royal (Soma juice), although concealed, hidden in a secret place, strewed amongst the sacred grass.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • WHO IS THE MESSENGER OF YAMA?

Bird

Rig Veda 1.165.4 “The screeching of the owl is ineffective and when beside the fire the Dove hath settled, To him who sent it hither as an envoy, to him be reverence paid, to Death, to Yama.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Two Dogs

Rig Veda 10.14.10-12 “Run and outspeed the two dogs, Saramā’s offspring, brindled, four-eyed, upon thy happy pathway. Draw nigh then to the gracious-minded Fathers where they rejoice in company with Yama. And those two dogs of thine, Yama, the watchers, four-eyed, who look on men and guard the pathway,—Entrust this man, O King, to their protection, and with prosperity and health endow him. Dark-hued, insatiate, with distended nostrils, Yama’s two envoys roam among the People; May they restore to us a fair existence here and to-day, that we may see the sunlight.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO SUSTAINS/SUPPORTS EARTH AND HEAVEN?

Mitra

Rig Veda 3.59.1 “MITRA, when speaking, stirreth men to labour: Mitra sustaineth both the earth and heaven…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Savitar

Rig Veda 4.53.2 “Sustainer of the heaven, Lord of the whole world’s life, the Sage, he putteth on his golden-coloured mail…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Varuna

Rig Veda 6.70.1 “…The Heaven and the Earth by Varuṇa’s decree, unwasting, rich in germs, stand parted each from each.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 8.42.1 “LORD of all wealth, the Asura propped the heavens, and measured out the broad earth’s wide expanses. He, King supreme, approached all living creatures. All these are Varuṇa’s holy operations.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra-Soma

Rig Veda 6.72.2 “Ye, Indra-Soma, gave her light to Morning, and led the Sun on high with all his splendour. Ye stayed the heaven with a supporting pillar, and spread abroad apart, the Earth, the Mother.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Soma

Rig Veda 9.87.2 “…Father, begetter of the Gods, most skilful, the buttress of the heavens and earth’s supporter.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Hiranyagarba

Rig Veda 10.121.5 “By him the heavens are strong and earth is stedfast, by him light’s realm and sky-vault are supported: By him the regions in mid-air were measured. What God shall we adore with our oblation?” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW DID INDRA KILL ARBUDA?

Crushed head of Arbuda with his foot

Rig Veda 1.51.6 “Thou savedst Kutsa when Śuṣṇa was smitten down; to Atithigva gavest Śambara for a prey. E’en mighty Arbuda thou troddest under foot: thou from of old wast born to strike the Dasyus dead.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Pierced Arbuda with frost

Rig Veda 8.32.26 “He, meet for praise, slew Vṛtra, slew Ahīśuva, Urnavabha’s son, And pierced through Arbuda with frost.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN USHA AND SURYA

Surya is her lover

Rig Veda 1.92.11 “…Diminishing the days of human creatures, the Lady shines with all her lover’s splendour.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Surya is her husband

Rig Veda 7.75.5 “She who is rich in spoil, the Spouse of Sūrya…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • COLOR AND NUMBER OF AGNI’S HORSES

Unsure about color and number of horses

Rig Veda 1.94.10 “When to thy chariot thou hadst yoked two red steeds and two ruddy steeds, wind-sped, thy roar was like a bull’s.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 2.10.2 “May Agni, who is immortal of manifold wisdom, and wonderful splendour, hear my invocation, (preffered) with all laudations: tawny, or red, or purple horses draw his car; he has been borne in various directions.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Tawny horses

Rig Veda 7.5.5 “Agni, the tawny horses, loudly neighing our resonant hymns that drop with oil, attend thee…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Two Red horses

Rig Veda 7.16.2 “His two red horses, all-supporting, let him yoke: let him, well-worshipped, urge them fast… Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 4.1.8 “This envoy joyeth in all seats of worship, borne on his golden car, sweet-tongued Invoker: Lovely to look on, with red steeds, effulgent, like a feast rich in food, joyous for ever.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 8.43.16 O Agni, Brother, made by strength, Lord of red steeds and brilliant sway…

 

  • INDRA KILLED PIPRU WITH RIJISVAN OR FOR RJISVAN?

With Rjisvan, Indra killed Pipru

Rig Veda 1.101.1 “Sing, with oblation, praise to him who maketh glad, who with Ṛjiśvan drove the dusky brood away…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 10.138.3 “…Associate with Ṛjiśvan Indra overthrew the solid forts of Pipru, conjuring Asura.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra killed Pipru alone for Rjisvan

Rig Veda 4.16.13 “Thou hast subjugated Pipru and the mighty Mrigaya for the sake of Rijiswan the son of Vidhathin…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Rig Veda 6.20.7 “Thou, thunder-armed, with thy great might hast shattered Pipru’s strong forts who knew the wiles of serpents. Thou gavest to thy worshipper Ṛjiśvan imperishable Wealth, O Bounteous Giver.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW MANY VRITRAS DID INDRA KILL?

99

Rig Veda 1.84.13 “With bones of Dadhyach for his arms, Indra, resistless in attack, Struck nine-and-ninety Vṛtras dead.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

10,000

Rig Veda 1.53.6 “…What time thou slewest for the singer with trimmed grass ten thousand Vṛtras, thou resistless in thy might.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

  • VISVADEVA WAS A CHILD OF HOW MANY MOTHERS?

Two Mothers

Rig Veda 3.55.7 “Child of two Mothers, Priest, sole Lord in synods…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Three Mothers

Rig Veda 3.56.5 “Streams! the wise Gods have thrice three habitations. Child of three Mothers, he is Lord in synods.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW MANY SPOKES ARE THERE IN THE WHEEL OF SUN?

Five Spokes

Atharva Veda 9.9.11 “Upon the five-spoked wheel revolving ever, whereon all creatures rest and are dependent…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Six Spokes

Atharva Veda 9.9.12 “…These others, later still, say that he takes his stand upon a seven wheeled car, six-spoked, whose sight is clear.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Twelve Spokes

Atharva Veda 9.9.13 “Formed with twelve spokes, too strong for age to weaken…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Spokes here also signify seasons.

 

  • ARE MARUTS SAME AS RUDRAS OR DIFFERENT ENTITIES?

Maruts identified as Rudras

Rig Veda 1.64.2 “They spring to birth, the lofty Ones, the Bulls of Heaven, divine, the youths of Rudra, free from spot and stain; The purifiers, shining brightly even as suns, awful of form like giants, scattering rain-drops down.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 7.56.1-2 “Who are these radiant men in serried rank, Rudra’s young heroes borne by noble steeds? Verily no one knoweth whence they sprang: they, and they only, know each other’s birth.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rudra being the father of Maruts and Maruts being referred as Rudras

Rig Veda 5.60.5-6 “None being eldest, none among them youngest, as brothers they have grown to happy fortune. May their Sire Rudra, young and deft, and Pṛśni pouring much milk, bring fair days to the Maruts. Whether, O blessed Maruts, ye be dwelling in highest, midmost, or in lowest heaven,

Thence, O ye Rudras, and thou also, Agni, notice the sacrificial food we offer.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.114.6 “To him the Maruts’ Father is this hymn addressed, to strengthen Rudra’s might…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.39.4 “Consumers of your foes, no enemy of yours is found in heaven or on the earth: Ye Rudras, may the strength, held in this bond, be yours, to bid defiance even now.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Maruts being mentioned separately from Rudas as different entities

Rig Veda 8.13.28 “Attendants on thy glory, let the Rudras roar assent to thee, And all the Marut companies come to the feast.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 10.92.6 “Straightway the Rudras, Maruts visiting all men, Falcons of Dyaus, home-dwellers with the Asura…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 3.32.2 “…Knit with the prayer-fulfilling band of Maruts, yea, with the Rudras, drink till thou art sated;” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW MANY RUDRAS ARE THERE?

Thousands and innumerable

Yajur Veda 16.54 “Innumerable thousands are the Rudras on the face of earth…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Hundred

Yajur Veda 21.43 “…belonging to the Hundred Rudras…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Eleven

Yajur Veda 34.47 “Come, O Nâsatyas, with the thrice eleven Gods: come…” Tr. Ralph T. H. Griffith

Black Yajur Veda 3.4.9.7 “…the Rudras are eleven…” Tr. Arthur Berriedale Keith

There is no clear mention of 11 Rudras in the Veda. However Yajur Veda verse quoted above seems to explain number of Rudras, Adityas and other group of deities. Later text like Taittriya Samhita (Black Yajur Veda) is clear on number of Rudras.

 

  • WHO WAS THE FIRST ONE TO DRINK SOMA?

Brahman (Supreme God)

Atharva Veda 4.6.1. The Brâhmana was the first to be born, with ten heads and ten mouths. He was the first to drink the soma; that did render poison powerless.

Vayu

Rig Veda 4.46.1 “DRINK the best draught of Soma-juice, O Vāyu, at our holy rites: For thou art he who drinketh first.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 1.134.1 Vayu, let fleet-foot coursers bring thee speedily to this our feast, to drink first of the juice we pour, to the first draught of Soma juice.

Rig Veda 2.11.14 …the Vayus, who drink the first libation of the Soma.

Rig Veda 1.135.4 … Vāyu, to taste the offerings! Drink of the pleasant-flavoured juice: the first draught is assigned to you.

Indra

Atharva Veda 20.99.1; Rig Veda 3.36.8 says that Indra was invited to drink Soma first. These two verses may be in a sense of Indra being invited at sacrifices to drink Soma first but contradiction can’t be ignored. Some verses states that Vayu was the first drinker and some later texts like Aitareya Brahmana elaborating this story says that there was a race between gods on who should partake Soma first, Vayu won the competition and Indra came second. But this story is in contradiction with story of falcon Suparna bringing Soma to Indra. Rig Veda states that the falcon had brought the Soma, Krishna Yajur Veda is more clear in this case wherein it states that the gods didn’t had Soma and Soma was brought by the falcon.

 

  • WHO WAS THE FIRST BORN?

Kama

Atharva Veda 9.2.19 “First before all sprang Kāma into being. Gods, Fathers, mortal men have never matched him.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Brihaspati

Rig Veda 6.73.1 “Served with oblations, first-born, mountain-render, Aṅgiras’ son, Bṛhaspati, the Holy, With twice-firm path, dwelling in light, our Father, roars loudly, as a bull, to Earth and Heaven.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Tvashtar

Rig Veda 9.5.9 “I summon Tvaṣṭar hither, our protector, champion, earliest-born…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Vayu

Rig Veda 10.168.3 “Holy and earliest-born, Friend of the waters, where did he spring and from what region came he…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Brahma

Atharva Veda 19.22.21 “…Brahma was born first of all things existing…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO KILLED SAMBARA?

Maruts helped Indra kill Sambara

Rig Veda 3.47.4 “Drink Soma, Indra, banded with the Maruts who, Maghavan, strengthened thee at Ahi’s slaughter, ‘Gainst Śambara, Lord of Bays! in winning cattle, and now rejoice in thee, the holy Singers.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Brahmanaspati

Rig Veda 2.24.2 “He who with might bowed down the things that should be bowed, and in his fury rent the holds of Sambara: Who overthrew what shook not, Brahmapaspati,-he made his way within the mountain stored with wealth.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra

Rig Veda 1.54.4 “The ridges of the lofty heaven thou madest shake; thou, daring, of thyself smotest through Śambara…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHO PREPARED PATH FOR THE SUN TO TRAVEL?

Varuna

Rig Veda 1.24.8 “King Varuṇa hath made a spacious pathway, a pathway for the Sun wherein to travel…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Several Varuna included

Rig Veda 7.60.3 Your coursers rich in store of sweets have mounted: to the bright ocean Sūrya hath ascended, For whom the Ādityas make his pathway ready, Aryaman, Mitra, Varuṇa, accordant.

Usha (Dawn)

Rig Veda 1.113.16 “Arise! the breath, the life, again hath reached us: darkness hath passed away and light approacheth. She for the Sun hath left a path to travel we have arrived where men prolong existence.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Indra

Rig Veda 10.111.3 “Indra knows, verily, how to hear our singing, for he, victorious, made a path for Sūrya.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHAT WAS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KUTSA AND INDRA?

Friends

Rig Veda 4.16.10 “Come to our home resolved to slay the Dasyu: Kutsa longed eagerly to win thy friendship. Alike in form ye both sate in his dwelling the faithful Lady was in doubt between you.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Enemies

Rig Veda 1.53.10 “Thou hast protected Suśravas with succour, and Tūrvayāṇa with thine aid, O Indra. Thou madest Kutsa, Atithigva, Āyu, subject unto this King, the young, the mighty.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 2.14.7 “Ye ministers, to him who slew a hundred thousand, and cast them down upon earth’s bosom; Who quelled the valiant men of Atithigva, Kutsa, and Āyu,—bring to him the Soma.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

There are also verses wherein Indra aided Kutsa in battle against Kutsa’s enemies suggesting their friendly relationship. Later texts like Brahmanas gives different story that Kutsa was the son of Indra born from his thighs. Though Veda calls Kutsa as son of Arjuna (Rig Veda 8.1.11). If that is applied here then there will be another contradiction because Veda calls Indra and Kutsa as friends so there would be contradiction in their relationship.

 

  • WHO WAS THE FIRST SACRIFICER?

Manu

Rig Veda 10.63.7 “Ye to whom Manu, by seven priests, with kindled fire, offered the first oblation with his heart and soul…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Atharvan

Atharva Veda 19.4.1 “The first oblation that Atharvan oared, earliest sacrifice paid by Jātavedas…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 10.92.10 “For these have spread abroad the fame of human kind, the Bull Bṛhaspati and Soma’s brotherhood. Atharvan first by sacrifices made men sure: through skill the Bhṛgus were esteemed of all as Gods.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Dasagvas

Rig Veda 2.34.12 “They, the Daśagvas, first of all brought sacrifice: they at the break of mornings shall inspirit us…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHATS THE WEAPON OF RUDRA?

Bow and Arrows

Rig Veda 2.33.10 “Worthy, thou carriest thy bow and arrows, worthy, thy many hued and honoured necklace. Worthy, thou cuttest here each fiend to pieces: a mightier than thou there is not, Rudra.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 5.42.11 “Praise him whose bow is strong and sure his arrow, him who is Lord of every balm that bealeth. Worship thou Rudra…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Thunderbolt/Lightning

Rig Veda 2.33.3 “Chief of all born art thou in glory, Rudra, armed with the thunder, mightiest of the mighty…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Atharva Veda 11.2.26 “O’erwhelm us not with Fever or with poison, nor, Rudra! with the fire that comes from heaven. Elsewhere, and not on us, cast down this lightning.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

In Rig Veda 7.6.3 Griffith has translated the word Didyut as bright arrow but the correct word is lightning which is rightly translated by many other translators.

 

  • HOW MANY HORSES DRAW CHARIOT OF THE SUN?

Numerous/Seven

Rig Veda 10.37.3 “No godless man from time remotest draws thee down when thou art driving forth with winged dappled Steeds…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Rig Veda 4.13.3 “…Him who beholds the universe, the Sun-God, seven strong and youthful Coursers carry onward.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

One

Rig Veda 7.63.2 “Sūrya’s great ensign, restless as the billow, that urgeth men to action, is advancing: Onward he still would roll the wheel well-rounded, which Etaśa, harnessed to the car-pole, moveth.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Etasa is the name of horse of the sun.

 

  • INDRA TRAVELS IN WHO’S CHARIOT & HORSES?

In a chariot & horses given by Ribhus

Rig Veda 5.31.4 “The Ribhus have fabricated thy car, Indra the invoked of many, adapted to its horses…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Rig Veda 4.35.5 “…Ṛbhus, rich in treasure, fashioned the two swift Tawny Steeds who carry Indra.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Borne by horses of the Sun

Rig Veda 10.49.7 “I travel round about borne onward in my might by the fleet-footed dappled Horses of the Sun…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Borne by horses of wind god

Rig Veda 10.22.4 “Harnessing to thy car, as God, two blustering Steeds Of the Wind-God, O Thunderer…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • WHERE WAS SOMA? WHERE DID THE FALCON SUPARNA BROUGHT SOMA FROM?

Soma was in Mountain(s)

Rig Veda 9.62.4 “The mountain-born Soma flows for exhilaration, mighty in the (Vasativari) waters: he alights like a falcon on his own place.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Rig Veda 9.46.1-2 “Like able coursers they have been sent forth to be the feast of Gods, joying in mountains, flowing on. To Vāyu flow the Soma-streams…” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Another translation of this verse,

Rig Veda 9.46.1 “Begotten by the stones the flowing (Soma juices) are effused for the banquet of the gods like active horses.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Soma was in the heaven

Rig Veda 1.93.6 “Agni and Soma, the wind brought one of you from heaven; a hawk carried off the other, by force, from the summit of the mountain…” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Rig Veda 9.77.2 “That ancient (Soma) flows, which the hawk, despatched (for the purpose), brought down from heaven passing through the (third) world; he detaches the sweet-flavoured (Soma) flying downwards, with mind full of fear of the archer Krisanu.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Rig Veda 8.100.8 “Suparna, rushing swift as thought, passed through the iron city: then having gone to heaven he brought the Soma to the thunderer.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Surya’s daughter brought Soma

Rig Veda 9.113.3 “The daughter of Surya brought the vast Soma large as a rain-cloud; teh Gandharvas seized upon it and placed the juice in the Soma: flow, Indu for Indra.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

 

  • HOW MANY EARTHS EQUALS THE GREATNESS OF INDRA?

Ten Earths

Rig Veda 1.52.11 “O Indra, were this earth extended forth tenfold, and men who dwell therein multiplied day by day, Still here thy conquering might, Maghavan, would be famed: it hath waxed vast as heaven in majesty and power.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Not even Hundred Earths

Rig Veda 8.59.11 “O Indra, if a hundred heavens and if a hundred earths were thineNo, not a thousand Suns could match thee at thy birth, not both the worlds, O Thunderer.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

Earth and Heaven are equal to half of him

Rig Veda 6.30.1 “…Indra transcendeth both the worlds in greatness: one half of him equalleth earth and heaven.” Tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith

 

  • HOW MANY FOLLOWERS/SOLDIERS OF VARCHINS WERE SLAYED & WHO KILLED THEM?

Indra killed Five hundred thousand (5,00,000) followers of Varchin

Rig Veda 4.30.15 “Thou hast slain the five hundreds and thousands (of the followers) of the slave Varchin, (surrounding) him like the fellies (round the spokes of a wheel).” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Indra killed One hundred thousand (1,00,000) followers of Varchin

Rig Veda 2.14.6 “…and cast down the hundred thousand (descenants) of Varchin.” Tr. H.H. Wilson

Vishnu and Indra killed hundred thousand followers of Varchin

Rig Veda 7.99.5 “Indra and Vishnu, you have demolished the ninety-nine strong cities of Sambara: you have slain at once, without resistance, the hundred thousand heroes of the Asura Varchin.” Tr. H.H. Wilson