Written by Sulaiman Razvi
Caste system is one of the evils of Hindu religion that still exists in the society. Caste system is nothing but isolating the low castes from the society. It divides people within the Hindu fold. The condition of low caste people has been miserable. Low castes people suffered the Brahminical oppression. The Untouchables were not allowed within the gates of Pune city under the reign of Peshwas and Marathas. In Gujarat the Untouchables were forced to wear horns. In Bombay they were not allowed to wear clean and untorn clothes. Read the article Manu and the Shudras for more information on the condition of low castes in ancient India. Low caste women were not allowed to cover their breasts. This was abolished by Tipu Sultan. But was again reinforced after his death. In the 18th century, Low caste women lead Channar revolt which resulted in many low caste Hindus converting to Christianity. Oppression by Brahmins made low castes people embrace other faiths especially Islam. Swami Vivekananda wrote,
“Why amongst the poor of India so many are Mohammedans? It is nonsense to say, they were converted by the sword. It was to gain their liberty from the . . . zemindars and from the . . . priest” [ Source ]
Islam came in India as a savior to the low castes. The low castes were attracted towards the equality given in Islam unlike Hinduism which discriminated people based on their birth. Although the Indian constitution guarantees equal right to every citizen irrespective of religion or caste. The menace of caste system still exists in India. A temple was washed after Bihar chief minister Jitan Ram Manjhi visited it , Dalits threatened the priests that they will convert to Islam if they are prohibited from entering the temple , a Dalit man was set afire for fetching water at a hand pump , another Dalit man was killed for ringtone praising Dr. B.R. Ambedkar , honor killings due to inter-caste marriage is well known.
The National Human Rights Commission Report on the Prevention of Atrocities against Scheduled Castes says that, “every 18 minutes a crime is committed against a Dalit. Every day 3 Dalit women are raped, 2 Dalits are murdered and 2 Dalits Houses are burnt in India, 11 Dalits are beaten. Every week: 13 Dalits are murdered, 5 Dalits home or possessions are burnt, 6 Dalits are kidnapped or abducted.”
“…in 27.6% of India’s villages, Dalits are prevented from entering police stations. In 25.7% of the country’s villages, Dalits are prevented from entering ration shops. In 35% of villages, Dalits are barred from selling produce in local markets. In 47% of villages with milk cooperatives, Dalits are prevented from selling milk, and in 25% of such villages, they are prevented from buying milk altogether.
Further, according to official Indian crime statistics, 27 atrocities against Dalits are committed every day. 13 Dalits are murdered every week. 3 Dalit women are raped every day. A crime is committed against a Dalit every 18 minutes. This, despite the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989. Worse, these crimes are on the rise. According to data released by NACDOR, a total of 3,198 cases related to atrocities on dalits have been registered between 2004 and 2013 as against 1,305 from 1994 to 2003. These crimes rose by another 19 percent in 2014. According to statistics compiled by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), crimes against SCs rose to 47,064 in 2014 from 39,408 in 2013. In 2012 there were 33,655 crimes against dalits, about the same as in 2011…”
There have been thousands of caste related violence in India, you can refer to Wikipedia’s article Caste-related violence in India. All these caste based violence perpetrated by higher caste people is wholly inspired by religious doctrine. Hindu god Rama is said to have beheaded a Shudra named Shambuka just because he was practising religious rite. With such kind of stories is sure to inspire radicals. Some apologists try to show that there is no caste system in Hinduism, that it is actually is based on profession one acquires. I would have appreciated their effort if they really wanted to emancipate the low castes. But there is actually a motive behind it. Politicians try to befriend Dalits only to garner votes and to use low caste people in riots. While religious leaders do it to get as many followers as they can, because more followers means more donations and popularity. One such Hindu reformer was Dayanand Saraswati who said that Veda treats all castes alike. But he said this only to get followers. He didn’t abolish the caste system, but upheld the caste system. He discriminated between the castes. He opined that the duty of a Shudra is to serve the Dvijas and held Manu Smriti has authoritative text, read the article Mulshankar and Casteism for more information. Hindu terror organizations conducts Ghar Wapsi programs, rallies against minorities but they never conduct any event or program for the betterment of the low caste Hindus. Purusha Sukta is said to be the root of caste system in Hinduism, it is mentioned in Veda,
Rig Veda 10.90.12 The Brahman was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rājanya made. His thighs became the Vaiśya, from his feet the Śūdra was produced.
Table of Contents
Birth based caste system
As we all know, caste system in Hinduism is birth based and not based on the profession acquired by the individual.
Apastamba Dharma Shastra 184.108.40.206-5 [There are] four castes Brahmana, Kshatriyas, Vaishya, and Shudra. Among these, each preceding (caste) is superior by birth to the one following.
Mahabharata 13.143.6 “The illustrious one said, ‘The status of a Brahmana, O goddess, is exceedingly difficult to attain. O auspicious lady, one becomes a Brahmana through original creation or birth. After the same manner the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra, all become so through original creation.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Kisari Mohan Ganguli writes,
”Nisargat is literally through creation or original nature, or birth. Of course, what is implied is that one becomes a Brahmana, or Kshatriya, or Vaisya or Sudra, through original creation as such, by the Self-born, that is, birth.” [ Source ]
Narada Purana I.24.7-9 “Those castes are said to be four, viz., the Brahmans, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras. Among these the Brahmana is the foremost. The Brahmanas, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas- these three are called Dvijas (the twice-born), because at first they are born of their mothers and later on, they are consecrated by means of sacred thread with due repetition of the Mantras (which constitute the second birth). Thus twice-born-ness is attained by these three classes. All holy rites and duties must be performed by these castes in accordance with the specific duties prescribed for their castes. By failing to perform the holy duties prescribed for one’s own caste, one is called a heretic by learned men.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
It is mentioned in Bhagavat Purana,
Srimad Bhagavatam 11.5.5 “But Brahmanas, Ksattriyas and Vaisyas, by virtue of their original birth, and second birth through their Upanayana (investiture of the sacred thread) ceremony (become eligible for studies, performance of sacrifices, etc.)…” Tr. G.V. Tagare, edited by J.L. Shastri
Manu 10.5 In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal (in caste and married as) virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers).
Acharya Medhatithi writes on Manu Smriti 2.148
“Jati stands for ‘Janma’, birth.”
Shiva Purana, Uma Samhita 44.13 ”O excellent sage, birth as a man is very difficult to obtain; especially that as a Brahmin…” Tr. Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri
Padma Purana II.38.20b-24 “[The Sages said:] The three castes viz. brahmanas, ksatriyas and vaissyas are twice born. This (i.e. the Veda) is an ancient sacred text meant for all the castes. The beings behave according to the Vedic practices; therefor they (continue to) live. You are born in the family of Brahman. (So) you are a brahmana only.” Tr. N.A. Deshpande
Agni Purana 162.3-7 “…By reading the Vedas and practicing equally to all, a man enters the region of paradise. This is the prerogative of the twice born castes, specifically belonging to a Brahamana as his birth right, as he might read the Vedas and realise the truths inculcated therein by living any of the four orders of life. A Brahmana by dwelling in this world, may attain the Supreme Brahma.” Tr. M.N. Dutt-
Vasistha Dharma Shastra 4.1-3 The four castes are distinguished by their origin and by particular sacraments. There is also the following passage of the Veda, ‘The Brâhmana was his mouth, the Kshatriya formed his arms, the Vaisya his thighs; the Sûdra was born from his feet.’ It has been declared in (the following passage of) the Veda that (a Sûdra) shall not receive the sacraments, ‘He created the Brâhmana with the Gâyatrî (metre), the Kshatriya with the Trishtubh, the Vaisya with the Gagatî, the Sûdra without any metre.’
Mahabharata 13.27.3-6 “O best of kings, how may one, if he happens to be a Kshatriya or a Vaisya or a Sudra, succeed in acquiring the status of a Brahmana? It behoveth thee to tell me the means. Is it by penances the most austere, or by religious acts, or by knowledge of the scriptures, that a person belonging to any of the three inferior orders succeeds in acquiring the status of a Brahmana? Do tell me this, O grandsire!’ “Bhishma said, ‘The status of a Brahmana, O Yudhishthira, is incapable of acquisition by a person belonging to any of the three other orders. That status is the highest with respect to all creatures. Travelling through innumerable orders of existence, by undergoing repeated births, one at last, in some birth, becomes born as a Brahmana.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Skanda Purana clearly states that a Shudra must not study, must not sacrifice, he has to stay in the same state as at birth which is contrary to what apologists claim that a Shudra by studying Veda becomes a Brahmin,
Skanda Purana V.iii.122.16 ”A separate duty has not been assigned by Paramesthin to the Sudra. He need not have any Mantra, consecration or pursuit of lores. He need not have any conventional study of the science of words (i.e. Grammar) and special worship of deities. He has to be, day and night, in the same state as at birth.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Manu Smriti 10.3 On account of his pre-eminence, on account of the superiority of his origin, on account of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules, and on account of his particular sanctification the Brahmana is the lord of (all) castes (varna).
Manu Smriti 1.98-99 The very birth of a Brahmana is an eternal incarnation of the sacred law; for he is born to (fulfil) the sacred law, and becomes one with Brahman. A Brahmana, coming into existence, is born as the highest on earth, the lord of all created beings, for the protection of the treasury of the law.
Katyayana Samhita 8.6 “Many wives of the same caste and of other castes existing, the rite of churning, for producing the Fire, should be done by the chaste wives of the same caste, on account of the superiority of birth.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Mahabharata, Santi Parva 12 Section 72 “…Matariswan answered, ‘The Brahmana, O best of kings, has sprung from the mouth of Brahman. The Kshatriya has sprung from his two arms, and the Vaisya from his two thighs. For waiting upon these three orders, O ruler of men, a fourth order, viz., the Sudra, sprung into life, being created from the feet (of Brahman). Originally created thus, the Brahmana takes birth on earth as the lord of all creatures, his duty being the keep of the Vedas and the other scriptures. Then, for ruling the earth and wielding the rod of chastisement and protecting all creatures, the second order, viz., the Kshatriya was created. The Vaisya was created for supporting the two other orders and himself by cultivation and trade, and finally, it was ordained by Brahman that the Sudra should serve the three orders as a menial.’ “Pururavas said, ‘Tell me truly, O god of Winds, to whom, this earth righteously belong. Does it belong to the Brahmana or to the Kshatriya?’ “The god of Winds said, ‘Everything that exists in the universe belongs to the Brahmana in consequence of his birth and precedence. Persons conversant with morality say this. What the Brahmana eats is his own. The place he inhabits is his own. What he gives away is his own. He deserves the veneration of all the (other) orders. He is the first-born and the foremost. As a woman, in the absence of her husband, accepts his younger brother for him, even so the earth, in consequence of the refusal of the Brahmana, has accepted his next-born, viz., the Kshatriya, for her lord…” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Caste is based on Karma and caste of parents
As per Hinduism, a person attains specific caste due to the deeds of past life, Krishna said,
Gita 18.41 “Of Brahmanas, Kshtriyas and Vaishyas, as also the Sudras, O Arjuna, the duties are distributed according to the qualities born of their own nature.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada
Ramanuja Acharya writes on this verse,
”The character of Brahmanas, Ksatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras arise from their various inherent dispositions. In other words their past Karma is the cause of their being born in a specific social group…”
Swami Swarupananda writes on Gita 18.41,
“According to the Karma or habits and tendencies formed by desire, action, and association in the past life manifesting themselves in the present as effects. Or, nature (Svabhava) may here mean the Maya made up of three Gunas, the Prakriti of the Lord”
It is mentioned in Brahma Vaivarta Purana,
Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 74.10 ”According to Karma, some go to heaven or are severally born in the houses of a Brahmin, Ksatriya, Vaisya or a Sudra.” Tr. Rajnedra Nath Sen
Chandogya Upanishad 5.10.7. ‘Those whose conduct has been good, will quickly attain some good birth, the birth of a Brahmana, or a Kshatriya, or a Vaisya. But those whose conduct has been evil, will quickly attain an evil birth, the birth of a dog, or a hog, or a Kandala.” Tr. Swami Nikhilanda
CHILD BORN TO PARENTS OF DIFFERENT CASTES
A Brahmin couple begets a Brahmin child, a Shudra couple begets a Shudra child.
Mahbharata 13.48 The Brahmana may take four wives, one from each of the four orders. In two of them (viz.,the wife taken from his own order and that taken from the one next below), he takes birth himself (the children begotten upon them being regarded as invested with the same status as his own)… A Kshatriya may take three wives… The Vaisya may take two spouses…The Sudra can take only one wife, viz., she that is taken from his own order. The son begotten by him upon her becomes a Sudra….
But if parents belong to different caste then the child will not belong to either his mother or father’s caste,
Manu 10.5 In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal (in caste and married as) virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers).
Vishnu Smriti 16.1-3 Sons [begotten] on women equal in caste [to their husbands] are equal in caste [to their fathers]. [Sons begotten] on women of lower castes, become of the caste of their mothers. Sons begotten on women of higher castes are despised by the twice-born.
Agni Purana 150.9-11 ”The duties which appertain to the Shudra caste, O thou best of the Bhrigus, are to serve the Brahmins and to practice the handicrafts. Since the investiture with the holy thread, a member of the twice born caste is supposed to take a second spiritual birth, and I shall describe the castes which children born of parents not members of the same caste, would respectively belong to. A child born of parents belonging to different castes would get the caste of its mother, but on the contrary a child born of a Shudra father by a Brahmin mother would be a Chandala.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Manu Smriti 10.6. Sons, begotten by twice-born man on wives of the next lower castes, they declare to be similar (to their fathers, but) blamed on account of the fault (inherent) in their mothers.
Manu Smriti 10.16 From a Sudra spring in the inverse order (by females of the higher castes) three base-born (sons, apasada), an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest of men;
Manu Smriti 10.6-23 gives a list of castes that springs up due to inter-caste marriage. It is mentioned in Yajnavalkya,
Yajnavalkya Smriti verse 90 By men of the same caste (Varna) in women of the same caste (Varna) are born sajati (sons of equal birth or caste). In blameless marriages sons (are begotten continuing the line.
Like Manu, Yajnavalkya also goes on mentioning the list of castes from verse 91. However this system mentioned may not be applicable in the case of Niyoga. Because all men of Kshatriya caste were killed so the Kshatriya ladies went to Brahmins for contracting Niyoga and their son were considered Kshatriyas,
Mahabharata “1.104 And the illustrious scion of Bhrigu’s race, by means of his swift arrows annihilated the Kshatriya tribe one and twenty times. “And when the earth was thus deprived of Kshatriyas by the great Rishi, the Kshatriya ladies all over the land had offspring raised by Brahmanas skilled in the Vedas. It has been said in the Vedas that the sons so raised belongeth to him that had married the mother. And the Kshatriya ladies went in unto the Brahamanas not lustfully but from motives of virtue. Indeed, it was thus that the Kshatriya race was revived.”” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Sons born to father of higher caste (like Brahmin) are considered to be Brahmin in quality only, though of low caste than their father. It is mentioned in Manu Smriti,
Manu Smriti 10.67-69 The decision is as follows: ‘He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non-Aryan female, may become (like to) an Aryan by his virtues; he whom an Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan father (is and remains) unlike to an Aryan.’ The law prescribes that neither of the two shall receive the sacraments, the first (being excluded) on account of the lowness of his origin, the second (because the union of his parents was) against the order of the castes. As good seed, springing up in good soil, turns out perfectly well, even so the son of an Aryan by an Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacraments.
Some scholars interpret the ‘Sacraments’ here as minor sacrifice like Pakayajna which can be performed by low caste also. It is mentioned in Mahabharata,
Mahabharata 13.48.5 “The son that is begotten by a Brahmana upon a Sudra wife is called Parasara, implying one born of a corpse, for the Sudra woman’s body is as inauspicious as a corpse. He should serve the persons of his (father’s) race. Indeed, it is not proper for him to give up the duty of service that has been laid down for him.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
So this is yet another proof that caste is based on birth in a particular family, If a baby is born in a Brahmin family then he is a Brahmin but if he is born to a Shudra parents then he is Shudra by default which is his permanent caste for entire lifetime.
Discrimination on the basis of caste
Mahabharata 12.188.5 “The complexion the Brahmanas obtained was white; that which the Kshatriyas obtained was red; that which the Vaisyas got was yellow; and that which was given to the Sudras was black.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Mahbharata 9.38.1-2 “Vaishampayana said, “Then Valadeva, O king, proceeded to Vinasana where the Sarasvati hath become invisible in consequence of her contempt for Sudras and Abhiras. And since the Sarasvati, in consequence of such contempt, is lost at that spot, the Rishis, for that reason, O chief of the Bharatas, always name the place as Vinasana.” Tr. Kisari Mohan Ganguli
Greeting a Shudra is prohibited,
Atri Samhita 1.308 “He, who unknowingly salutes a lowcaste person, should immediately bathe and get [himself] purified by taking clarified butter.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Speaking with a low caste is prohibited
Hinduism the so called most tolerant religion prohibits a Dvija to converse with a low caste,
Apastamba Dharma Shastra 220.127.116.11. As it is sinful to touch a Candala, [so it is also sinful] to speak to him or to look at him. The penance for these [offences will be declared].
Usana Samhita Chapter 2, Verse 4-6 “After conversing with a Chandala or a Mlechchha, after talking with abandoned women or with Sudras…drinking or touching urine and excreta, one should rinse his mouth again, even if he has rinsed it once…” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Vishnu Smriti 71.58-59 “Nor converse with a woman in her flow. Nor with the degraded and low-caste men.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
One shouldn’t even look at the Shudra
Satapatha Brahmana 14:1:1:31 And whilst not coming into contact with Sûdras and remains of food; for this Gharma is he that shines yonder, and he is excellence, truth, and light; but woman, the Sûdra, the dog, and the black bird (the crow), are untruth: he should not look at these, lest he should mingle excellence and sin, light and darkness, truth and untruth.
Usana Samhita 9.53 “By taking food, out of ignorance, after seeing a Mahapatakin, a Chandala, or a woman in [her] menses, one is purified [by fasting] for three nights.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Parashara Smriti 6.22 Having seen a Chandala, a Brahmana should cast look at the sun; having touched a Chandala a Brahaman should bathe with all his wearing apparels on.
One should avoid journey if one sees a Chandala,
Agni Purana chapter 230 “…A pregnant woman, a widow, drugs such as the Pinyaka, etc., a Chandala, a member of the Shvapacha or any other vile caste, a butcher, or a killer of birds, should be removed from the presence of a man, about to start a journey…” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Hinduism also says that one should avoid the sight of a person who cooks for Shudra, who burns corpses of Shudra, a Chandala and equates them to bastard, theives etc,
Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 78.33-41 “O father, now I am going to describe to you things whose sight is sinful. Bad dream is the root of sin and sole cause of calamity. The sight of the following…the cook of a S’udra, one who burns the corpse of a S’udra, a Brahmin who eats food prepared in connexion with the funerals of a S’udra…a S’udra, a widow, a Candal…a bastard, a thief, a liar…a Brahmin who is the husband of a barren woman, a S’udra who commits adultery with a Brahmin woman…” Tr. Rajendra Nath Sen
Manu Smriti 4.140. Let him not journey too early in the morning, nor too late in the evening, nor just during the midday (heat), nor with an unknown (companion), nor alone, nor with Sudras.
Even stepping on Shadow of low caste is prohibited
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar wrote, “Under the rule of the Marathas and the Peshwas the Untouchables were not allowed within the gates of Poona city, the capital of the Peshwas between 3 p. m. and 9 a. m. because, before nine and after three, their bodies cast too long a shadow; and whenever their shadow fell upon a Brahmin it polluted him, so that he dare not taste food or water until he had bathed and washed the impurity away. So also no Untouchable was allowed to live in a walled town ; cattle and dogs could freely enter but not the Untouchables.”
Usana Samhita 9.89 “By getting on the shadow of a lowcaste person, one should drink clarified butter after bathing. By looking at the Sun in an impure state, one should recite the Mantram Agnindraja.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Kurma Purana II.34.80 “…On treading the shadow of a Candala, one shall take bath and drink ghee.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Some other verses about discriminating the low caste
Skanda Purana III.ii.40.63 “The Sudras who become antagonistic to those Brahmanas who were honoured by Brahma, Visnu and Siva go to the Raurava hell.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Narada Purana I.12.12 “Whatever is given in charity to one who habitually partakes of Sudra’s food or to one who cremates the corpses of Sudras or to one who takes food prepared by an unchaste woman, becomes futile.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Narada Purana I.23.26 “The observer of the holy rite should never talk to one who nourishes his progeny through a Sudra woman, to the husband of a Sudra woman and to one who performs sacrifices on behalf of those who are not eligible for the same.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
PROHIBITED FOR A SHUDRA SERVANT TO MAKE WEALTH
Mahabharata 12.60.28-29 “A Sudra should never amass wealth, lest, by his wealth, he makes the members of the three superior classes obedient to him. By this he would incur sin. With the king’s permission, however, a Sudra, for performing religious acts, may earn wealth.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Mahabharata 12.166.8 “The Shudra is not competent to celebrate a sacrifice. The king should, therefore, take away (wealth for such a purpose) from a Shudra’s house.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
So a Shudra servant cannot even amass wealth and rather has to seek permission from the king for making wealth.
Mahabharata 12.60.36 “The Sudra should never abandon his master, whatever the nature or degree of the distress into which the latter may fall. If the master loses his wealth, he should with excessive zeal be supported by the Sudra servant. A Sudra cannot have any wealth that is his own. Whatever he possesses belongs lawfully to his master.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Manu Smriti 8.417 Let a Brahmana unhestitangly appropriate to himself whatever (his) Sudra (Slave) has earned, inasmuch as nothing can be belong to the latter, he being himself an enjoyable good of the Brahmana.
Manu Smriti 10.129 No collection of wealth must be made by a Sudra, even though he be able (to do it); for a Sudra who has acquired wealth, gives pain to Brahmanas.
Penance for killing a Shudra
The penance for killing a Shudra is as same as killing animals in many Hindu texts while Manu Smriti prescribes death penalty for killing a Brahmin,
Mahabharata 12.165.56 “Having slain a dog or bear or camel, one should perform the same penance that is laid down for the slaughter of a Sudra.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Agni Purana 169.25-32 “…A man having killed a cat, a mongoose, a frog, a dog, a Godha, an owl, and a crow, should practice the penance he ought to have done, if he had killed a Shudra…” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Following is the punishment to be meted out to a Shudra if he kills a Brahmin,
Narada Purana I.30.17-18 “On killing an ordinary Brahmana (by birth only who has not studied the Vedas, etc.), he should perform the expiatory rite for one year. O Brahmana, thus the mode of expiating for killing a Brahmana has been stated. The expiation for a Ksatriya is twice this and that for a Vaiya is thrice: Learned men know that the Sudra who kills a Brahmana is to be pounded to death with a club.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Touching low castes makes on impure
Hindu text prohibits a Dvija (Brahmin, Kshatriya & Vaishya) to touch low castes especially Chandalas. And the penance for touching low castes is to consume Panchagavya which is a mixture of five products of cow like Cow Urine, Cow Dung, Milk, Curd and Clarified Butter. Which means that low castes in Hinduism are considered worse than cow dung and urine. There are four castes in Hinduism and there is no fifth caste. Groups like Chandala, Musahar… are outcasts i.e., they are outside the pale of four Varnas. They are called Achoots (Untouchables) in Hinduism. This may be because it is prohibited for Dvijas to touch them. Hindu text mentions Low castes, women in her menses on par with dogs and pigs and states by by touching this a Dvija ought to get cleansed. Hindu text goes on to say that a low caste intentionally touching a high caste person must be put to death,
Vishnu Smriti 5.104 If one who (being a member of the Kandala or some other low caste) must not be touched, intentionally defiles by his touch one who (as a member of a twice-born caste) may be touched (by other twice-born persons only), he shall be put to death.
Another clear translation,
Vishnu Smriti 5.103 “A man belonging to a caste that is not touched, and willingly touching the three [higher] castes, shall be killed.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Angiras Samhita 1.39 “When [a Brahmana] is touched by a woman in [her menses], by a dog or by a Sudra, he becomes purified by the Panchagavya after fasting for a night.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Angiras Samhita 1.9-10 “If he on any occasion, touched by a Sudra who has not washed his mouth after taking meals, he should bathe and recite [the Gayatri] and shall become purified by [fasting for] half a day. If a Vipra is [similarly] touched by a Vaisya, a dog or a Sudra, he shall after fasting for one night become purified with the Panchagavya” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dath
Parasara Smriti 7.22 “A Brahmana, who touched a dog, or a Sudra before washing his mouth, after eating, should fast for a day, and take the compound known as Panchagavyam in order to recover his cleanness.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Yama Samhita verse 41 “A twice-born person, who has the leavings of food in his mouth, on being touched by such a person, a dog, or a Sudra become purified with the Panchagavya, after fasting for a night.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Apastamba Samhita 5.1-2 “What would be the form of expiatory penance for a twice-born one, who, touched by a Chandala, drinks water before performing an A’chamanam? A Brahmana under the circumstance, should regain his purity by fasting for three nights and by taking Panchagavyam, while the term of the penance is two days only for a Kshatriya, its other factors remaining the same.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Apastamba Samhita 7.5 “A woman in her menses, happened to be touched by a S’vapak or a Chandala, should fast for three nights and recover her purity by taking Panchagavyam, thereafter.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Apastamba Samhita 7.19 “A Brahmana-woman in her menses, happening to be touched by a S’udra woman, similarly circumstanced as herself, should regain her purity by fasting for a whole day and night, and by taking Panchagavyam.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Usana Samhita 8.75 “By touching a Chandala, a woman who has given birth to a Child, a dead body, a woman in [her] menses or those touched by her, or any outcaste, one should bathe for purification. If, out of mistake, one touches an article touched by a Chandala, a woman who has given birth to a child, or a dead body, purification is attained by bathing, rinsing the mouth and [thereafter] reciting the Gayatri.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Atri Samhita 1.263-4 “By touching a Chandala, an outcaste, a Mlechchha, a wine-bowl, or a woman in [her] menses, a twice-born person should not take his meals. If [he is touched by any of these] while taking [his] meals, [he must at once stop.] Thereafter he should not take his meals; and giving up his food, he should bathe. And being commanded by the Brahmanas, he should fast for three nights. And taking Yavaka (food prepared from barley) together with clarified butter, he should complete the sacrifice” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Atri Samhita 1.185 “…if a twice-born person being anointed with oil or clarified butter, touches a Chandala; he should, after fasting for a day and night, purify [himself] with the Panchagavya.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Atri Samhita 1.233 “The foremost of the twice-born, when, having still the leavings of food in his mout, touched by a caste outside [the pale of the recogniged castes], should, after fasting for five nights, get purified with the Panchagavya.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Atri Samhita 1.273 “By being touched by dogs, Chandalas, or crows, a woman in her menses should remain fasting till [the menstrual period] and should get herself purified by bathing in time.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Samvarta Samhita verses 178 “By touching Chandala, an outcaste, a dead-body, a lowcaste, a woman in her menses, and a woman in a state of impurity consequent on child-birth, one should bathe with the cloth on.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Apastamba Samhita Chapter 4 Verse 5 “…While the term of the penance should be extended to six days in case where he might have touched a Chandala before rinsing his mouth with water, after a meal.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Usana Samhita Chapter 5 Verse 30-32 “…One should not touch a person of grim visage, a Mlechchha and a woman in menses.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Angiras Samhita 1.37-38 “One does not become of pure conduct so long as the menstrual flow continues. When the menses is stopped, a woman may be employed in domestic works and known for sexual purpose. On the first day [of the menses], she is a Chandala woman; on the second, she is the murderer of a Brahmana; on the third, she is called a washer-woman; and on the fourth day, she becomes purified.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dath
Narada Purana I.14.2-3 “I shall mention the atonement to the person who, while taking food, touches an impure or a fallen person or a Candala, either out of anger or due to ignorance. Such a person shall perform bath three times a day (trisavana snana) either for three days or for six days. A Brahmana becomes pure by sipping paca-gavya (the five products of the cow taking collectively, viz. milk, curds, clarified butter, urine, and cowdung).” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Vishnu Smriti 23.41 Mire and water in the ruts on a high road, defiled by the touch of a dog, of a crow, or of a low caste person, as well as buildings constructed of baked bricks are purified by the winds.
Kurma Purana II.34.65 “A Brahmana, while Ucchista (with particles of food in the mouth or on hand) willfully touches Candalas or fallen persons (outcastes) should observe the Prajapatya vow for purification.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Garuda Purana 1.222.20-21 “…A brahmin defiled by the touch of a dog or a Sudra defiled by Ucchista shall fast for a night and drink Pancagayva. He shall become pure. Touched by an outcaste he shall fast for five nights.” Tr. J.L. Shastri
Torturing the low caste
Agni Purana 227.21-31 “…a Shudra using force to a Kshatriya should have his tongue cut off. A Shudra who would aspire to give moral instructions to a Brahmana, should be punished by the king…” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Vishnu Smriti 5.24 “If one delivers religious instructions with haughtiness, the king shall pour hot oil into his mouth.” Tr. Manmath Nath Dutt
Manu Smriti 8.282-3 If out of arrogance he spits (on a superior), the king shall cause both his lips to be cut off; if he urines (on him), the penis; if he breaks wind (against him), the anus. If he lays hold of the hair (of a superior), let the (king) unhesitatingly cut off his hands, likewise (if he takes him) by the feet, the beard, the neck, or the scrotum.
Manu Smriti 8.272. If he arrogantly teaches Brahmanas their duty, the king shall cause hot oil to be poured into his mouth and into his ears.
Manu Smriti 8.270-1 A once-born man (a Sudra), who insults a twice-born man with gross invective, shall have his tongue cut out; for he is of low origin. If he mentions the names and castes (gati) of the (twice-born) with contumely, an iron nail, ten fingers long, shall be thrust red-hot into his mouth.
Matsya Purana 227.73-75 “A Sudra should be deprived of his tongue if he abuses violently a twice-born, if his offence be moderate; if his offence be highest, he is to be fined Uttama Sahasa. A king should be put a red, hot iron spike twelve Angulas long in the mouth of a Sudra who vilifies violently one, taking his name, caste and house. A Sudra who teaches Dharma to the twice born should also be punished by a sovereign by getting hot oil poured into his ears and mouth.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, edited by B.D. Basu
The irony is that a Shudra is given corporal punishment for abusing Dvijas (Twice-born) while a Brahmin or other castes are not,
Gautama Dharma Shastra 12.11-13 But a Brahmana (who abuses) a Kshatriya (shall pay) fifty (Karshapanas), One half of that (amount if he abuses) a Vaisya, (and if he abuses) a Sudra, nothing.
Matsya Purana 227.67-68 ”A Ksatriya who abuses a Brahmana should be fined 100 Panas, a Vaisya doing so should be fined 200 Panas, and a Sudra if he does so should be sentenced to capital punishment. A Brahmana who abuses a Ksatriya should be fined 50 Panas, if he abuses a Vaisya, he should be fined 25 Panas and if he abuses a Sudra the fine should be 12 Panas.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, edited by B.D. Basu
Manu Smriti 8.279-280 With whatever limb a man of a low caste does hurt to (a man of the three) highest (castes), even that limb shall be cut off; that is the teaching of Manu. He who raises his hand or a stick, shall have his hand cut off; he who in anger kicks with his foot, shall have his foot cut off.
If a Shudra is accused of committing some crimes, then he should prove his innocence by drinking poison, by means of fire ordeals etc.,
Agni Purana 255.32-47 “The accused should fast and bathe at sunrise with all his clothes on the day of the test, and pass through his ordeal in the presence of the king and the Brahmanas. An old, infant, blind, lame, invalid, or a female accused should be tested with the ordeal by scale, while the innocence of a Shudra, should be ascertained by means of the ordeal by fire, water, or the seven Yava (barley) weights of poison… In the ordeal by fire, the palms of the accused, should be first examined as to whether it had not been plastered over with clay… Then the accused should address the fire god as follows:- ”Thy seat is in the inside of all creatures, O Fire, and thou art the witness of acts of merit and demerit. I have held thee in my palms, speak truth, O god, as a witness of my innocence.” Then a red hot iron ball, weighing fifty Palas should be placed on his palms, covered as above and the accused or the person suspected, should be asked to slowly walk over seven Mandalas or rings… In an ordeal by poison, the accused should first address the poison to be imbibed… Thus having addressed the poison (born of a hill), he should imbibe the same in the presence of the assembled Brahmanas. His innocence should be established, if he could assimilate the poison safely without rethcing or vomiting.” Tr. M.N Dutt
Manu Smriti 9.248. But the king shall inflict on a base-born (Sudra), who intentionally gives pain to Brahmanas, various (kinds of) corporal punishment which cause terror.
Discrimination on food
Most of the crimes against Dalits is inspired by Hindu religious texts. There have been numerous cases where Dalit cooks were fired from their job because upper caste Hindus refused to eat food cooked by them, such as school children refusing to eat food cooked by a Dalit cook and then threw the food, another Dalit cook was fired after caste Hindu parent protested, a Dalit man was set afire for fetching water from a well, a Dalit boy was beaten up for touching utensils of upper caste Hindus.
Forget about a Shudra eating with upper castes, a Shudra isn’t even allowed to eat cow dung and drink cow urine,
Apastamba Samhita 5.4 “Sudras should not be enjoined to drink Panchagavyam, inasmuch as they are not privileged to utter any Mantras. A Sudra, guilty of any delinquency, should regain his purity by confessing it to a Brahmana and by making gifts.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Eating remnants of Dvija master’s meal
As per Hindu text the Shudra servant or slave must eat the remnants of his Dvija master’s meal,
Manu Smriti 10.125 The remnants of their food must be given to him, as well as their old clothes, the refuse of their grain, and their old household furniture.
Mahabharata 13.143.29 “As regards food, he should eat that which remains after the needs of all persons have been satisfied.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Manu Smriti 5.140. Sudras who live according to the law, shall each month shave (their heads); their mode of purification (shall be) the same as that of Vaisyas, and their food the fragments of an Aryan’s meal.
Shudra here refers to those Shudras who are servants in the house of Dvijas and it also refers to Slaves. The Dvijas are not even allowed to give the leavings of their food to other Shudras,
Manu Smriti 4.80-81; Vasistha 18.14 Let him not give to a Sudra advice, nor the remnants (of his meal), nor food offered to the gods; nor let him explain the sacred law (to such a man), nor impose (upon him) a penance. For he who explains the sacred law (to a Sudra) or dictates to him a penance, will sink together with that (man) into the hell (called) Asamvrita.
It’s the highest level of hypocrisy, a Brahmin should feed his Shudra servant with the remnants of his meal but if a Brahmin accidentally eats the remnants of the food partaken by a Shudra or even in the company of a Shudra then he is to perform penance,
Manu Smriti 11.153. But he who has eaten the food of men, whose food must not be eaten, or the leavings of women and Sudras, or forbidden flesh, shall drink barley (-gruel) during seven (days and) nights.
The penance for eating the remnants of Shudra meal is as follows
Garuda Purana ch 231 “Articles of Indian bell metal, smelled by kine or defiled by the touch of residue of a Sudra’s meal, or by the contact of a dog or a crow, are purified by being rubbed with ten kinds of ashes. Having partaken his meal out of the saucer of a Sudra, a Brahmana shall regain his purity by fasting for a day, and by taking Panchgavya as well.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Garuda Purana 1.222.2 “If inadvertenly a brahmin takes food defiled by the Ucchista (residual of food partaken) of a Sudra he should fast for a day and night and drink Pancagavya. He shall be purified.” Tr. J.L. Shastri
Atri Samhita 1.72 “By taking forbidden food, the residue of a food partaken of by a Sudra or a woman, or by eating forbidden meat, one should drink the extract of barley for seven nights.  By being touched by castes that should not be touched, one should bathe. He, who takes the residue of their food, should perform a distressing penance for six months.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Vishnu Smriti 51.57-58 “Having eaten the food of a Chandala, one shall fast for three nights. A Paraka penance is the expiation for eating the cooked food of a Chandala.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
For those who don’t know about Panchagavya. Let me tell you Panchagavya is the mixture of five products of cow, they are cow dung, urine, milk, curd and ghee. The leavings of a Shudra is considered so worst, And ironically it is cleansed by consuming cow urine and dung. Shudras are much worst than animal’s dung and urine as per Hindu text. Apastamba allows Dvija to partake the food cooked by a Shudra. Dayanand Saraswati had also used this verse from Apastamba to support his view that food cooked by a Shudra in the house of a Brahmin may be eaten. But Dayanand is said to have refused to partake the food in a Brahmin’s house that was cooked by a Shudra. So he didn’t practice it himself then how can he advocate this to others. As I said earlier, trying to give rights to low castes was a drama just to get followers. Dayanand didn’t abolish the evil Vedic caste system but upheld it. Read the article Mulshankar and Casteism. As Dayanand had used the verse from Apastamba to support his view, let me quote a verse from Apastamba prohibiting it,
Apastamba Dharma Sutra 1.6.18. According to some (food offered by people) of any caste, who follow the laws prescribed for them, except that of Sudras, may be eaten.
Eating food in the company or in the house of a low caste is prohibited
Mahabharata 13.136.20-22 “The Brahmana who takes his food in the company of Sudras is purged from all impurity by duly observing the ceremonies of purification. The Brahmana who takes his food in the company of Vaisyas is absolved from sin by living on alms for three successive nights. If a Brahmana takes his food with Kshatriyas, he should make expiation by bathing with his clothes on.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Angiras Samhita 1.4 “When one drinks water lying stale in a vessel in the house of a lowcaste person, he should perform a penance.  By drinking, unknowingly, water from degraded castes, a Brahmana, fasting for a day and night, becomes purified with the Panchagavya.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dath
Likhita Samhita verse 70 “By unwillingly partaking of boiled rice (lit. any kind of food) in a Chandala’s house, as well as of that prepared by a fallen or degraded person, one should live on water alone for a fortnight. The term of the penance should be extended to a month in cases where the delinquency has been knowingly committed.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Eating food cooked by low caste
Other Hindu texts doesn’t prohibit a Brahmin from partaking food in the company of upper three castes (Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaishya) but it clearly prohibits them from partaking food with Shudra (Anarya) and Mleccha (Non Hindus).
Angiras Samhita 1.48 “He, who continually partakes of a Sudra’s food for one month, becomes a Sudra in this birth and is born as a dog after death.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Brahma Purana 115.24 ”The food cooked by a Sudra is despised by gods and noble men, O goddess. That which is uttered by Brahma is authoritative.” Tr. J.L. Shastri
Manu Smriti 4.223. A Brahmana who knows (the law) must not eat cooked food (given) by a Sudra who performs no Sraddhas; but, on failure of (other) means of subsistence, he may accept raw (grain), sufficient for one night (and day).
Garuda Purana 1.115.7. ”Women perish due to their beauty, penance due to fury, the way due to an undue length and pious brahmana by taking sudra’s food.” Tr. J.L. Shastri
Kurma Purana II.17.1 ”A Brahmana should not eat food offered by a Sudra whether out of delusion or otherwise. He who eats it, except an emergency, is born as a Sudra.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Narada Purana I.26.33 “One should avoid even from a distance, the wind from the winnowing basket, the smoke from the burning corpse, eating the cooked food of a Sudra and the contact with the paramour of a Sudra woman.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Atri Samhita 1.195-6 “A washerman, a cobbler, an actor, a Varuda, a Kaivarta, a Meda, and a Bhilla these seven are known in the Smriti, as degraded castes. By knowing their women, taking their food and accepting gifts from them, if willingly one should perform Prajapatya for a year; and, if unknowingly, two Chandrayanas.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Atri Samhita 1.168-173 “A twice-born person, who take food from a washer-man or from an actor, or from one who lives on bamboo work, should perform a Chandrayana. By knowing women of lowcastes, taking their meals and lying with them on the same bed, one should get [himself] purified with a Paraka. By drinking the water [that lies’ in a Chandala’s vessel, the foremost of the twice-born should live, for thirty-seven days, on barley and the urine of a cow. A Brahmana, who unknowingly partakes of cooked food touched by outcastes or by women in [their] menses, should perform half a Prajapatya. The [following are the means of] expiation for the four castes when they [happen to] partake of a Chandala’s food. A Brahmana should perform a Chandrayana; and a Kshatriya, a Santapanam. A Vaisya should perform a penance and live on the Panchagavya for six nights. A Sudra should perform [the same] for three nights and purify [himself] by making gifts.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Atri Samhita 1.248 “By knowingly drinking water from the Sudras, a Brahmana should fast for a day and night and [then] after bathing, should get [himself] purified with the Panchagavya.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Atri Samhita 1.208 “The celestials do not partake of the food nor drink the water offered by the foremost of the twice-born, who eats the food of a drunkard or of a Chandala.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Apastamba Samhita 9.40 “A Brahmana, drinking water in touch with a Chandala, should regain his purity by fasting for a day and night and by bathing thrice during the fast.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Angiras Samhita 1.53-55 “If a twice-born person, being fed by a Sudra’s food, procreates sons, those sons belong to him (i.e., the Sudra who gives the food): for semen originates from food. Any article touched by a Sudra, or any residue of his food, should not be given to a twice-born out of carelessness or with the one palm. So the ascetic Apastamva has said. One may always take a Brahmana’s food; a Kshatriya’s, on Parva-days; a Vaisya’s, in times of calamity; but never a Sudra’s.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
A Dvija is punished for dying with the food of a Shudra in his stomach
Mahabharata 13.143.18 “The food of a Sudra, O goddess, is always disapproved of by the high-souled deities. Even this, I think, is the authority enunciated by the Grandsire with his own mouth. If a Brahmana, who has set up the sacred fire and who performs sacrifices, were to die with any portion of a Sudra’s food remaining undigested in his stomach, he is sure to take birth in his next life as a Sudra.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Vasistha Dharma Shastra 6.27-28 If a Brahmana dies with the food of a Sudra in his stomach, he will become a village pig (in his next life) or be born, in the family of that (Sudra). For though a (Brahmana) whose body is nourished by the essence of a Sudra’s food may daily recite the Veda, though he may offer (an Agnihotra) or mutter (prayers, neverthless) he will not find the path that leads upwards.
Vyasa Samhita 4.64 “He, who dies with a Sudra’s boiled rice in his stomach, is sure to be reborn as a hog, and all his progeny will belong to the same genus, after death.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Skanda Purana VII.I.223.50 “If a Brahmana dies with the food offered by a Sudra remaining undigested within his belly he certainly becomes a Preta even if he has learned all the six Angas of the Vedas.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Preta means ghost.
Skanda Purana V.iii.11.30-31 ”Brahamana’s food is (regarded as) Amrta (Nectar); Ksatriya’s food is remembered as milk; Vaisya’s food is mere food, and Sudra’s food is proclaimed as blood. Those excellent Brahmanas who get nourished with Sudra’s food and juice and later die, become deprived of Tapas and knowledge and are born as crows and vultures.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Varaha Purana 174.42 ”He who dies with the food given by a Sudra within him, becomes a ghost.” Tr. Venkitasubramonia Iyer, edited by J.L. Shastri
Mahabharata 13.141.38 “Another duty of the Brahmana consists in avoiding the food prepared by the Sudra.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Vasistha Dharma Sutra 10.31; 20.17; Skanda Purna V.iii.50.6-8 also prohibits the twice born from partaking the food of Shudras.
Vessels touched by low caste becomes unclean & also prohibition to use utensils of Shudras
Usana Samhita 9.49 “By drinking water touched by a Chandala, the foremost of the twice-born becomes purified [by fasting] for three nights or by taking the Panchagavyam.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Samvarta Samhita verse 30 “He, who takes his food or drink from a Sudra’s hands, should get himself purified with the Panchagavya after fasting for a day and night.  By taking food in a vessel belonging to a Sudra or in a broken plate, one should get himself purified with the Panchagavya after fasting for a day and night.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Parasara Smriti 7.24 Vessels of bell metal, smelled by kine, or defiled by the touch of dogs, crows, etc., or out of which Sudras have taken their food, should be purified by rubbing them with ten kings of ashes.
Vyasa Samhita 3.53 “Boiled rice procured with one’s own earnings, or kept in a vessel which is not defiled by the touch of wine, nor licked by a dog, nor smelled by a cow, nor touched by a crow or a Sudra, is always pure.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Samvarta Samhita verse 194 “By taking food from the vessel of a degraded caste, or from that of a woman in menses, one would become purified, in half-a-month, by living upon barley and the urine of a cow.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Samvarta Samhita verses 182 “By drinking well water contaminated by a Chandala’s vessel, one becomes purified by living on barley and the urine of a cow for three nights.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar lead Mahad Satyagraha in 1927 to allow untouchables to use public water tanks, this discrimination can be found in Hindu texts,
Parasara Smriti 6.24 “Having drunk the water of a well which has been defiled by the touch of a Chandalas water pot, a Brahmana should live on barley and cow’s urine for three days, whereby he would regain his personal cleanness.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Apastamba Samhita 2.2 “Having drunk water in a Prapa, or that lieing accumulated in a forest or in the furrows of a ploughed field, as well as that which is flowing out of a pond, or is owned by a Svapak or a Chandala, one should regain one’s purity by drinking Panchagavyam.  Having drunk water out of, or bathed in, a well or tank, caused to be excavated by another, one should regain one’s purity by drinking Panchagavyam.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Leftover food of Shraddhas to Shudras
Guess what? Hinduism doesn’t even permit the Shudras to eat the leavings of a Shraddha,
Manu Smriti 3.249 The foolish man who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the leavings to a Sudra, falls headlong into the Kalasutra hell.
Brahmanda Purana 18.104.22.168 ”The leavings of food from a Sraddha should not be given to women or Sudras.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Out of compassion a Brahmin may give the fragments of his Shraddha meal to his Shudra servant but never to other Shudras.
A sacrifice called Bhuta Yajna can be performed with the remaining food (not leftover food) and this is to be given to dogs, pigs and Chandalas,
Markandeya Purana 29.45-46 “Having done reverence to the gods, and the pitri and guests, relatives likewise, and female relations, and gurus also, the griha stha who has substance should scatter the fragments on the ground for both dogs and low caste men and birds.”
Kurma Purana II.18.105-6 “With the cooked food that remains after the offering unto Devas, one should offer Bhuta Bali. This should be known as Bhuta Yajna. It is the bestower of prosperity unto all embodied beings. O excellent Brahmanas, the cooked food should be given to dogs, cooker of dogs (i.e. Candalas), fallen persons (i.e. outcastes) and birds, on the ground outside.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Manu Smriti 3.92. Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, Kandalas (Svapak), those afflicted with diseases that are punishments of former sins, crows, and insects.
Shudra’s food at sacrifices
It is mentioned in Smritis that the food offered to gods and manes will not be accepted if the sacrifice is assisted by the Shudra wife,
Manu Smriti 3.18 ”The oblations, offered by a twice-born one who is assisted by a Sudra woman in the capacity of his principal married wife in the rite of a Pitri or Daivaa Sraddha ceremony, neither the manes, nor the divinity partake of. Even by practicing hospitality to Atithis, he cannot ascend to heaven, after death.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Vishnu Smriti 26.7 The gods and Pitris do not accept the oblations offered to them by (twice born ones), who perform the Daiva and Pritri (sacrifices), or propitiate the Atithis, in the company of their Sudra wives; such men go to hell.
Barred from sacrifices
It is mentioned in Veda,
Krishna Yajur Veda 22.214.171.124 [After it the Anustubh metre] was created, the Vairaja Saman, of men the Çudra, of cattle the horse. Therefore the two, the horse and the Çudra, are dependent on others. Therefore the Çudra is not fit for the sacrifice, for he was not created after any gods.
Shudra is prohibited to participate in sacrifice just because of his birth in a Shudra family and one of the main reason behind Shudra been prohibited to participate in sacrifice is because it includes recitation of Vedic mantras and Shudras are clearly prohibited from uttering any Vedic mantra. Adi Shanakaracharya writes,
”But this scriptural ability is denied by the prohibition of the right to study. As for the text, ”The Sudra is unfit for performing a sacrifice” (Tai. S.VII.i.1.6), since it is based on a logic having common application, it suggests that the Sudra has no right to knowledge as well, for the logic applies both ways.” Shankaracharya on Brahma Sutra 1.3.34, Tr. Swami Gambhiranand
It is mentioned in Brahmana,
Pancavimsa Brahmana 6.1.11 Out of his feet, his firm support, he created the twenty one fold (stoma); along with it of the metres the anustubh came into existence, of the deities none, of the men the Sudra. Therefore the Sudra is, it is true, rich in cattle, but excluded from the sacrifice, for he has no deity, as no deity had come into existence after him.
Shiva Purana, Kailasa Samhita 6.12.22 ”The Vedas enjoin rituals for the first three castes. The Sudras are excluded since their only activity is service.” Tr. J.L. Shastri
Mahabharata 5.29.26 “The following are the duties declared for a Sudra from the olden times. He should serve the Brahmanas and submit to them; should not study; sacrifices are forbidden to him; he should be diligent and be constantly enterprising in doing all that is for his good. The king protects all these with (proper) care, and sets all the castes to perform their respective duties. He should not be given to sensual enjoyments. He should be impartial, and treat all his subjects on an equal footing.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Manu Smriti 11.13. (Or) the (sacrificer) may take at his pleasure two or three (articles required for a sacrifice) from the house of a Sudra; for a Sudra has no business with sacrifices.
Mahabharata 12.165.8 “The Sudra has no competence for performing a sacrifice. The king should, therefore, take away (wealth for such a purpose) from a Sudra house of ours.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Varaha Purana 211.4 ”Three castes participate in sacrifices and share their benefits in general. The Sudras are kept out by Brahmins from those that are purified by Vedas.” Tr. Venkitasubramonia Iyer, edited by J.L. Shastri
Mahabharata 13.91.43-44 “From the place where the Sraddha is being performed, the Chandala and the Swapacha should be excluded, as also all who wear clothes steeped in yellow, and persons affected with leprosy, or one who has been excasted (for transgressions), or one who is guilty of Brahmanicide, or a Brahmana of mixed descent or one who is the relative of an excasted man. These all should be excluded by persons possessed of wisdom from the place where a Sraddha is being performed…” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Vayu Purana Part 2, 16.24 ”The naked and similar (apostates and non-Vedic sects) people should not see the Sraddha rite. This is the rule. Such Sraddhas as are seen by these, do not reach PItrs or Pitamahas.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare writes,
”…The text not only includes non Vedic sects like Jains and Buddhists but includes apostate Brahmins, atheists, committer of gross sins (maha-patakas).
Brahmanda Purana 126.96.36.199 ”The following should always be avoided in the Sraddha ceremonies; Sudras, milk of Avi (a variety of sheep), the varieties of grass named Balbaja, Virana and Otuvala, pebbles and Laddus (a sweetmeat?)” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Kurma Purana II.16.54 ”Instructions regarding observance of holy vows should not be given to a Sudra; a learned man should not expound Dharma unto him. No one should submit to anger and avoid hatred and passion.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Kurma Purana I.12.25b-26 ”The Almighty Lord created Brahamanas from his mouth and the Ksattriyas from his arms. The Lord created Vaisyas from both of his thighs. The grand-sire of the universe created Sudras from the pain of his feet. Brahma created all castes excepting the Sudras, for the purpose of (performance of) sacrifices.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Likhita Samhita verse 6 “The [three] twice-born castes have equal rights in both Ishta and Purtta works. A Sudra is entitled to [perform] Purtta [works] but not Vedic rites.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Manu 10.126. A Sudra cannot commit an offence, causing loss of caste (pataka), and he is not worthy to receive the sacraments; he has no right to (fulfil) the sacred law (of the Aryans, yet) there is no prohibition against (his fulfilling certain portions of) the law.
Manu Smriti 4.81 “The Brahmana, who gives religious instructions to a Sudra, or advises him to practise a religious vow, is drowned with that Sudra in the hell of Asamvritam (unrestrained darkness).” Tr. Manmath Nath Dutt
Prohibition to perform sacrifice for low castes
A good reply to apologists from Mahabharata,
Mahabharata 13.128.5 “That man who thinks it all right when a Sudra ignites the fire upon which he is to pour libations or who does not see any fault when women who are incompetent to assist at Sraddhas and other rites are allowed to assist at them, really becomes stained with sin.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Varaha Purana 112.16-22 ”One who receives Kapila as a gift from a Sudra should be considered as most lowly like a Candala. Therefore let not a Brahmin receive the offering from Sudras. They are to be kept far away like dogs during sacrifices. They are discarded by the manes during new moon and full moon. They should not be spoken to and nothing should be received from them because they do only sinful deeds. Those (Sudras) who drink (the milk of) Kapila make their forefathers eat the filth in the earth for long. Note what happens to the Sudraas who feed on the milk, ghee and butter of the Kapila’s cows. They go to the terrible hell called Raurava. After living there for a hundred crores of years, they are born as dogs.” Tr. Venkitasubramonia Iyer, edited by J.L. Shastri
Mahabharata 13.23.16 “Those Brahmanas who pour libations on the sacred fire for Sudras, or who are preceptors of Sudras, or who as servants of Sudra masters, do not deserve to be invited.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Narada Purana I.15.32b-34 “The Brahman who, on being invited by a Sudra, partakes of his food, should be known as a wine addict. He is excluded from all holy rites. That mean fellow who does the work of an attendant with the permission of a Sudra, incurs a sin equal to drinking of wine…” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Markandeya Purana 14.83 By receiving favours from an outcaste, by performing sacrifices for an outcaste, by constant attendance on an outcaste a man ever reaches the condition of an insect that lives among stones.
Markandeya Purana 15.1 For accepting anything of value from an outcaste, let a dvija be born an ass; but let him who sacrifices for the outcaste become a worm, on his release from hell.
Vamana Purana 12.86 “He who accepts Daksina from Candalas or Sudras, the priest and the person employing the priest to perform a sacrifice, every one of them is born as a big insect inside stone slabs.” Tr. Anand Swarup Gupta
Brahma Purana 108.37 “A Brahmana though well versed in the Vedas is born as an ass if he receives charity from a fallen person. [40-43]If he officiates at a sacrifice performed by a low person, he is born a worm and in the form of a worm he lives for fiteen years. Released from the form of worm he is born an ass and in the form of an ass he lives for five years; in the form of a cock for five years; in the form of a jackal for five years; then he is born in the form of man; then a jealous person; then an animal…” Tr. Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri
Yama Samhita verse 29-32 “…one who officiates as a priest for those to whom no such service should be given…all these should be carefully shunned at a Sraddha and [while making gifts].” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Gautama Dharma Shastra 20.1 Let him cast off a father who assassinates a king, who sacrifices for Sudras, who sacrifices for his own sake (accepting) money from Sudras…
Usana Samhita 4.23-30 “The following are disqualified to be present at the Sraddha ceremony:- Those, who sell the Sruti; those who marry widows; those, who enter in to a locked room without the permission of the owner; and those, who officiate as priests for inferior castes; are described as out-castes.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Usana Samhita 9.56 “By officiating as a priest for servants, [or by helping] others (i.e., other castes) in other rites, by performing rites causing death to another person, and other unworthy deeds, [a Brahmana] becomes purified by three distressing penances.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Proof that Shudras were kept away from sacrifices
Mahabharata 2.35.8-10 ”That (sacrificial) platform, crowded with the celestials, Brahmanas and the great Rishis, all endued with the Vedas, looked as beautiful as the sky studded with the stars .O king there was no sudra or any man without vows near the inner (sacrificial) platform of Yudhisthira’s palace. Seeing the prosperity of the prosperous and intelligent Dharmaraja, which was the result of that sacrifice, Narada became exceedingly happy.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Shudras are not allowed to participate in sacrifice or perform it. However Hinduism allows Shudra to perform minor sacrifices but without uttering any Mantra, they are to be kept away from sacrifices due to the fact that Shudras are not allowed to hear any Mantra,
Mahabharata 12.60 “Sacrifice has been laid down as a duty of the three other orders. It has been ordained for the Sudra also, O Bharata! A Sudra, however, is not competent to utter swaha and swadha or any other Vedic mantra. For this reason, the Sudra, without observing the vows laid down in the Vedas, should worship the gods in minor sacrifices called Paka-yajnas.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Other than the sacrifice to Manes, Shudras cannot perform any other sacrifice. As it is said that serving the twice born (Dvija) is equivalent to sacrifice for the Shudras,
Vayu Purana Part 1, 57.50 “Aranbha (expedition or enterprise) was a sacrifice for Ksattriyas. Havis (offering of ghee etc.) was the Yajna of Vaisyas. Sudras had service as Yajna and excellent Brahmanas had Japa (chanting of Mantras) as their Yajna.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Above verse from Vayu Purana is talking about the Treta Yuga. Treta Yuga is the second Yuga among the four Yugas or ages of mankind in Hinduism. It says that service to Dvija was the Yajna of the Shudras which shows that Shudras were not allowed to perform sacrifice in such earlier period also. However this is not just limited to the Treta Yuga but also applicable in the present Kali Yuga, it is mentioned in Mahabharata,
Mahabharata 12.232 “The growing of corn is the sacrifice laid down for the Vaisyas. Serving the three other orders is the sacrifice laid down for the Sudras.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Touch of dogs, pigs and low castes invalidates a sacrifice
Manu Smriti 3.240-1 What (any of) these sees at a burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a dinner (given to Brahmanas), or at any rite in honour of the gods and manes, that produces not the intended result. A boar makes (the rite) useless by inhaling the smell (of the offerings), a cock by the air of his wings, a dog by throwing his eye (on them), a low-caste man by touching (them).
Difficult for a Shudra to worship
Skanda Purana II.iv.3.35-37 ”He who worships and bows to the idols installed by Sudras, goes to hell along with ten ancestors and ten descendants. If one touches the idol worshipped by a Sudra, he will burn (get burnt) his family up to the seventh generation. Hence one must enquire and worship an idol that has been installed by Brahmanas.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Varaha Purana 186.49-50 “But a Salagrama should not be touched by men of inferior caste or by women and Sudras. If a woman or Sudra touches it even out of curiosity, the result will be torment in hell till deluge.” Tr. Venkitasubramonia Iyer, edited by J.L. Shastri
Narada Purana III.67.33 “One should not worship an idol if it crooked, burnt, or broker, if its head is split, or if it is looking upwards, or if it is touched by an amyaja (outcaste) and others.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
A Shudra is not even allowed to utter Om.
Narada Purana III.70.72-73 “This is called Visnu Gayatri which removes all sins. Tara=om., hrt=namah, then bhagavan ending in the dative case, then vausdevaya. This great mantra consisting of twelve syllables gives enjoyment and salvation. This is to be used without tara=om by women and sudras but by the twice born it is used with tara=om.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
A Shudra should also avoid Vedic Japa,
Narada Purana, Uttarabhaga 61.51-53 “The procedure for the holy dip and the repetition of Japas is, in regard to the three castes, the same as mentioned in the Vedas. O fair lady, in regard to the Sudras and the women the repetition of the Vedic texts is to be avoided…” Tr. G.V. Tagare
It is mentioned in Mahabharata,
Mahabharata 13.23.7 “Food that has been eaten by a person incompetent to utter the syllable Om, or that has been eaten by a person bearing arms, O Bharata, or that has been eaten by a wicked person should be known to form the portion of Rakshasas*.” Tr. Kisari Mohan Ganguli
Kisari Mohan Ganguli writes in the footnote,
”* i.e., any food, a portion of which has been eaten by any of these persons, is unworthy of being given away. If given, it is appropriated by Rakshasas. One incompetent to utter Om is, of course, a Sudra.” [ Source ]
Skanda Purana V.iii.228.9 “The following six things cause downfall of women and Sudras: japa, penance, pilgrimage, renunciation of the world, practice of Mantras and initiation for the adoration of a deity” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Barred from studying Vedas
Not even a single Hindu text permits a Shudra to study Vedas. Puranas explicitly says that since Vedas cannot be learned by Shudra and women, the God composed Itihasa (Ramayana, Mahabharata) and Puranas for them,
Srimad Bhagavatam 1.4.25 ”The degenerated twice-borns, the Sudras and women are barred from the holy truths of the Vedas, and, out of compassion for them, Maharshi Vyasa composed the Mahabharata.” Tr. J.M. Sanyal
Devi Bhagavatam 1.3.18-24 “…knowing this in every Dvâpara Yuga Bhagavân expounds the holy Purâna Samhitas. The more so because women, S’udras, and the lower Dvijas are not entitled to hear the Vedas; for their good, the Purânas have been composed…” Tr. Swami Vijnananda
But Shudras should hear Puranas behind a screen,
Garuda Purana I.20.13-14 “None of the other classes (Vaisya or Sudra) is authorized to hear the Purana. If, by mistake, he narrates it to an unworthy person, he becomes the object of censure. But, if he narrates the Purana from behind the screen, then both the deserving and the undeserving person become worthy to hear.” Tr. J.L. Shastri
Same is repeated in Natya Shastra, Gods along with Indra approached Brahma and said,
Natsya Shastra 1.12-13 As the Vedas are not to be listened to by those born as Sudras, be pleased to create another Veda which will belong to all the Colour-groups (Varna). ‘Let it be so’, said he in reply and then having dismissed the king of gods (Indra) he resorted to yoga (concentration of mind) and recalled to mind the four Vedas.”
Brahma Purana 64.19 ”In regard to the people of the first three castes the rite of holy bath and the reception of Mantras is in the manner mentioned in the Vedas. The utterance of the Vedic passage is to be avoided by women as well as Sudras.” Tr. J.L. Shastri
Garuda Purana gives an accounts of sins that will lead to hell in chapter 4 and it says that if a Shudra studies Vedas then he will go to hell,
Garuda Purana 4.22 “The Śūdra who studies the letter of the Vedas, who drinks the milk of the tawny cow, who wears the sacred thread or consorts with Brāhmiṇ women.  Having come all along the path the sinful reach the abode of Yama, and having come, by command of Yama, the messengers hurl them into that river again.” Tr. Ernest Wood and S.V. Subrahmanyam
Parasara Smriti 1.64 “Drinking the milk of a Kapila cow, knowing a Brahmana woman, and reciting the Vedas are the acts, by doing which a Sudra is punished with hell.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Apastamba Dharma Shastra 188.8.131.52 (For all these), excepting Sudras and those who have committed bad actions, (are ordained) the initiation, the study of the Veda, and the kindling of the sacred fire; and (their) works are productive of rewards (in this world and the next).
It is mentioned in Bhagavat Purana that twice born men only are entitled for performing sacrifices and to learn Vedas,
Srimad Bhagavatam 11.17.40 “All twice-born men — brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas and vaiśyas — must perform sacrifice, study the Vedic literature and give charity. Only the brāhmaṇas, however, accept charity, teach the Vedic knowledge and perform sacrifice on behalf of others.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada
Srimad Bhagavatam 7.11.13 “He is called a dvija or twice-born one whose (sixteen) purifying rites (accompanied by recitation of mantras) have been performed without any break in succession, and to whom god Brahma has designated as such. Performance of sacrifices, study of scriptures and charity are prescribed for all twice-born classes (viz. Brahmana, Ksattriya and Vaisya) who are of pure birth and conduct. It is for these that duties incumbent on different stages of life (asrama) are prescribed.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
But a Brahmin alone can teach the Vedas,
Manu Smriti 1.103. A learned Brahmana must carefully study them, and he must duly instruct his pupils in them, but nobody else (shall do it).
Manu Smriti 10.1. Let the three twice-born castes (varna), discharging their (prescribed) duties, study (the Veda); but among them the Brahmana (alone) shall teach it, not the other two; that is an established rule.
If all the three castes have learned the Vedas then why does it differentiates the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas? As apologists claim that one who is learned in the Vedas is a Brahmin. And when Kshatriya and Vaishya are conversant with the Vedas then why a Brahmin alone should teach it why cannot a Kshatriya or a Vaishya teach the Veda?
Scholars prohibiting teaching of Vedas to Shudras
Acharya Medhatithi writes on Manu Smriti 2.241,
“Though the term ‘non Brahmana’ denoting all the three castes, except the Brahmana, stands for all men, yet the Shudra could not be meant here; for the Shudra is not entitled to learn the Veda; and it is only when one has learn something that he can teach it. ‘But by transgressing the scriptural ordinance, the Shudra also might learn the Veda, just as the Ksattriya and the Vaishya do the work of teaching (which is not permitted).’ This also cannot be; because it has been laid down that is the Shudra happens to learn the Veda, his body should be cut up. And since the penalty is so severe, it follows that the act if a grievous sin.”
Adi Shankaracharya writes in the commentary of Gita 18.41,
“Sudras are separated from others who are all mentioned together in one compound word, because Sudras are of one birth and are debarred from the study of the Vedas…” Tr. Mahadeva Shastri
Adi Shankaracharya also writes on Brahma Sutra 1.3.38
“38. And on account of the prohibition, in Smriti, of (the Sûdras’) hearing and studying (the Veda) and (knowing and performing) (Vedic) matters.
The Sûdras are not qualified for that reason also that Smriti prohibits their hearing the Veda, their studying the Veda, and their understanding and performing Vedic matters. The prohibition of hearing the Veda is conveyed by the following passages: ‘The ears of him who hears the Veda are to be filled with (molten) lead and lac,’ and ‘For a Sûdra is (like) a cemetery, therefore (the Veda) is not to be read in the vicinity of a Sûdra.’ From this latter passage the prohibition of studying the Veda results at once; for how should he study Scripture in whose vicinity it is not even to be read? There is, moreover, an express prohibition (of the Sûdras studying the Veda). ‘His tongue is to be slit if he pronounces it; his body is to be cut through if he preserves it.’ The prohibitions of hearing and studying the Veda already imply the prohibition of the knowledge and performance of Vedic matters; there are, however, express prohibitions also, such as ‘he is not to impart knowledge to the Sûdra,’ and ‘to the twice-born belong study, sacrifice, and the bestowal of gifts.’–From those Sûdras, however, who, like Vidura and ‘the religious hunter,’ acquire knowledge in consequence of the after effects of former deeds, the fruit of their knowledge cannot be withheld, since knowledge in all cases brings about its fruit. Smriti, moreover, declares that all the four castes are qualified for acquiring the knowledge of the itihâsas and purânas; compare the passage, ‘He is to teach the four castes’ (Mahâbh.).–It remains, however, a settled point that they do not possess any such qualification with regard to the Veda.”
Ramanuja Acharya writes on Brahma Sutra 1.3.38,
“38. And on account of the prohibition of hearing, studying, and performance of (Vedic) matter.
The Sûdra is specially forbidden to hear and study the Veda and to perform the things enjoined in it. ‘For a Sûdra is like a cemetery, therefore the Veda must not be read in the vicinity of a Sûdra;’ ‘Therefore the Sûdra is like a beast, unfit for sacrifices.’ And he who does not hear the Veda recited cannot learn it so as to understand and perform what the Veda enjoins. The prohibition of hearing thus implies the prohibition of understanding and whatever depends on it.”
Madhvacharya first tries to say that Shudra can also study scriptures but later clearly prohibits a Shudra from studying Vedas,
“…For, in the text, ‘Let the Brahmana be initiated at the age of eight and let him be taught scripture,’ the ceremony of purification is mentioned as the immediate preliminary condition to teaching scripture. And in the case of the Sudra, the absence of this ceremony of purification is spoken of in the Paingin’s Sruti. ‘The Sudra has no consecrated fire, no sacrifice, no prayers, no ceremonies (to be performed); no process of purification, no austerities (to be practised). Hence the Sudra is not eligible for the study of Scripture…Haridrumata having (first) concluded that ‘A non-brahmin is not capable of such truthful answer,’ (ib), and consequently Satyakama was not a Sudra, proceeded to perform the ceremony of initiation for him. Hence the Sudra is not eligible for the study of the Vedas. For the Sudra is prohibited (from the study of the Vedas) as in the Gautama Dharma Sastra, ‘The ears of him (the Sudra) who hears the Veda are to be filled with molten lead and lac, his tongue is to be slit if he pronounces it, his heart is to be cut open, if he attempts to know its meaning.’ And Smriti says, ‘the Sudra has no (consecrated) fire (to be maintained), no sacrifices (to be performed); so possibly he could not study the Vedas; however, free service to the three higher classes is prescribed for the Sudra, as the means of higher life’…” Madhvacharya on Brahma Sutra 1.3.36-38, Tr. S.Subba Rau
Vijnanesvara writes in Mitakshara,
“Manu has also shown that the twice born alone are entitled to study the Dharma Sastras and a Brahmana alone can teach them and no one else.” Vijnanesvara in his book Mitakshara on Yajnavalkya Smriti verse 3
Keshava Kashmiri writes on Bhagavad Gita 18.41
“…The Brahmins the priestly class, the ksatriyas or royal warrior class and the vaisya’s the mercantile and agricultural class are all spoken of in unison because they only have the right to initiation making them qualified to study the Vedic scriptrures, engage in yagnas or ritualistic propitiation and worship. Whereas the sudra or servant class are mentioned separately as they have not the qualification for initiation and study of the Vedic scriptures but all are factually the product of their own innate natures.
To study the Vedic scriptures and perform yagna the prerequisite of initiation essential and required. A sudra is a fourth class citizen who may perform unauthorised activities without sin because they are only once born from the womb not twice born by the spiritual master. It is prohibited in the Vedic scripture to initiate a sudra. If done it will bring calamity upon the spiritual master, his dynasty and the whole kingdom. There are direct references in the Vedic scriptures prohibiting sudras from initiation. Such passages as: The sudra carries the dead body to the cremation ground that is a sudra and if a sudra hears a mantra his ears should be filled with wax, if he recites a mantra his tongue should be cut out and if he memorises a mantra his life should be taken. So it can be understood that in ancient times the prohibitions of a sudra were strictly enforced…” Keshava Kashmiri on Bhagavad Gita 18.41
Sridhara Swami writes on Bhagavad Gita 18.41
“…Now Lord Krishna commences a new theme with this verse explaining that the duties of the different classes of Vedic society such as brahmana or priestly class, ksatriya or royal and warrior class, vaisya or agricultural and mercantile class as well as sudra or menial worker class which is the only one not qualified to take part in any Vedic activity as they serve the other three classes. The duties enjoined for all the classes are clearly delineated and itemised with distinct divisions…” Sridhara Swami on Bhagavad Gita 18.41
It is mentioned in Bhagvad Gita,
Gita 9.32 ”For those who take refuge in Me. O Partha, though they be of sinful birth- women, Vaisyas, and Sudras even they attain the Supreme Goal.” Tr. Swami Nikhilananda
Hindu scholar named Swami Swarupananda writes,
”Of inferior birth…Shudras because by birth, the Vaishyas are engaged only in agriculture, etc., and the women and Shudras are debarred from the study of the Vedas.” Source
Swami Nikhilananda writes,
”The Vaisyas are engaged in agriculture and trade; women and Sudras are debarred from the study of the Vedas. Therefore all these classes of people remain outside the Vedic scheme of salvation…” [Swami Nikhilananda on The Bhagwad Gita 9.32, page 233, Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, 1944, Printed in USA by The Haddon Craftsmen, Inc.] Source
Another scholar named Swami Sivananda writes,
“…Women and Sudras are debarred by social rules from the study of the Vedas…”
Now no one can claim that they know Hinduism more than these scholars especially a scholar of such calibre like Adi Shankaracharya.
Prohibtion to teach Vedas
Skanda Purana III.ii.6.79 ”One should never teach a Vedic Mantra to a Sudra. (Thereby) the Brahmana becomes deficient in his Brahmanical powers and the Sudra in his merit” Tr. G.V. Tagare
It is mentioned in Manu Smriti that sacrificing for a lower castes, or assisting them in sacrifice and teaching them is prohibited,
Manu Smriti 10.109-111 On (comparing) the acceptance (of gifts from low men), sacrificing (for them), and teaching (them), the acceptance of gifts is the meanest (of those acts) and (most) reprehensible for a Brahmana (on account of its results) in the next life. (For) assisting in sacrifices and teaching are (two acts) always performed for men who have received the sacraments; but the acceptance of gifts takes place even in (case the giver is) a Sudra of the lowest class. The guilt incurred by offering sacrifices for teaching (unworthy men) is removed by muttering (sacred texts) and by burnt offerings, but that incurred by accepting gifts (from them) by throwing (the gifts) away and by austerities.
Manu Smriti 11.181 “By sharing the same bed, or cushion, or by riding in the same car with, or by eating in the company of a degraded person for a year, a man becomes degraded’ by teaching the Vedas to such a person, or by officiating as a priest at a sacrifice instituted by him, or by contracting any marital relation with him, one becomes degraded on the same day.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Same is repeated in Vasishta,
Vasistha Dharma Shastra 1.22 Now they quote also (the following verse): He who during a year associates with an outcast becomes (likewise) an outcast; not by sacrificing for him, by teaching him or by (forming) a matrimonial (alliance with him), but by using the same carriage or seat.
Vishnu Smriti 71.48-52 “Let him not teach lessons to a Sudra. Nor give the leavings of his plate or the residue of clarified butter he has drunk to a Sudra. Nor sesame. Nor instructions in religion. Nor in the mode of practising Vratas.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Skanda Purana V.iii.228.8-9”One should not give knowledge, leavings of food or Havis to a Sudra. He should not be taught righteous and pious rites nor should he be initiated in Vratas. The following six things cause downfall of women and Sudras: japa, penance, pilgrimage, renunciation of the world, practice of Mantras and initiation for the adoration of a deity” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Mahabharata 13.10.66-70 “Unto Sudras, therefore, the Brahmanas should never give instructions. Hence, O king, the Brahmana should avoid imparting instructions (to such as are low-born), for it was by imparting instruction to a low-born person a Brahmana came to grief. O best of kings, the Brahmana should never desire to obtain instruction from, or impart instruction to, a person that belongs to the lowest order. Brahmanas and Kshatriyas and Vaisyas, the three orders, are regarded as twice-born. By imparting instruction unto these, a Brahmana does not incur any fault. They, therefore, that are good, should never discourse on any subject, for imparting any instruction, before persons of the inferior order.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Vasistha Dharma Shastra 20.45. Property received from outcasts, after forming alliances with them either by (teaching) the Veda (and by sacrificing) or by marriage, must be relinquished. Let him not associate with such (men).
Shudras studying Vedas is one of the evils
Shudras studying the Veda and performing sacrifice are some of the evils of Kali Yuga predicted in Hindu scriptures,
Linga Purana Section I.40.40-41 ”Some sell Vedas and others sell Tirthas (holy waters) i.e. make illegal gain out of these. When Kali yuga begins heretics will be born who will be opposed to the system of four castes and stages of life. Sudras will learn the Vedas and will become experts in the meaning of Dharma.” Tr. J.L. Shastri
Tulsi Ramayana, Uttara Kanda, Doha 98A-B.1 Dominated by women, my lord, all me dance to their tune like a monkey controlled by its trainer. Sudras instruct the twice born in spiritual wisdom and, wearing the sacred thread, accept the worst type of gifts.
Kurma Purana I.30.21-22 ”In Kaliyuga, the Brahmanas, dependent on the Sudras, hover round and serve the Sudras seated in their vehicles and eulogise them by songs of praise and prayer. Dependent on Sudras, they teach them Vedas. Due to the calamity of appeasing those without Vedas, they resort to terrible atheism.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Matsya Purana 273.46-47 ”Thenceforward all this world will fall upon very bad times. Men will be liars, greedy, and destitute of righteousness, affection and wealth. The religion of Srutis and Smritis will become very lax, and so also will be destroyed the orders and castes. The people will be of mixed origin, weak in body and will be led astray and deluded. Brahmanas will sacrifice for Sudras (or will study under Sudraas) and Sudras will take to teaching Mantras.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, edited by B.D. Basu
Matsya Purana 144.40-42 ”Many with them profess to be Brahmajnanis, because, thereby, they will easily earn their livelihood. Some hypocrites will mark their bodies with Vedic symbols also. In the Kaliyuga any body will study the Vedas; Sudraas will be experianced in the Vedas. So there will be many false religionists.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, edited by B.D. Basu
Narada Purana I.41.54-55 “The Sudras will not serve the twice-born. Assuming the airs of heretics, the base-born assume and practice holy rites of the Brahmanas. The Sudras will clothe themselves in ochre-robes; they will have matted hair; they will smear ashes all over their bodies. Thus equipped and employing deceptive arguments, they will begin to expatiate on Dharma. [58-] Occupying excellent seats, Sudras will expatiate on Dharma-religious duties-to Brahmans who habitually destroy Dharma. These and many other heretics such as nude ascetics (Digambaras), red-roled mendicants, will roam about; most of whom will be decrying the Vedas.  After the advent of the Kali age, Sudras and outcastes will become kings and the Brahmans will be engaged in rendering service to them. They will be begging for alms” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Vayu Purana Part 1, 58.46 “Then, when the end of the age approaches, even the great goddess like the earth will yield but little fruit. Sudras will begin to perform penance” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Mahabharata 13.94.11 “[Rishi Agastya said] That Time has come upon us. Hence, Righteousness is afflicted. It is meet that I should go to heaven for good, before unrighteousness assails the world and establishes itself here! Before the time comes when Brahmanas, loudly uttering the fully Vedas, within the precincts of villages and inhabited places, cause the Sudras to hear them, before the time comes when kings often against the rules of Righteousness from motives of policy, I shall go to heaven for good.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Shudras hearing or reciting the sacred text
Hinduism prohibits Dvijas (upper three castes) from reciting Vedas in the presence of Shudras,
Narada Purana I.15.100-1 “I shall mention the fruits of sins accruing to those who engage themselves in the recitation and study of the Vedas in the vicinity of women and Sudras. Listen to it attentively. They are compelled to stand with their heads down and legs upwards. Thus, they are nailed to two pillars and are compelled to inhale smoke continuously in this posture. They stay thus for the period of year of god Brahma.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Manu Smriti 4.99. Let him not recite (the texts) indistinctly, nor in the presence of Sudras; nor let him, if in the latter part of the night he is tired with reciting the Veda, go again to sleep.
Usana Samhita 3.65 “No study [is allowed] in a village inhabited by low-caste people, near an irreligious person, when cries are heard and where there is a multitude of men.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Vasistha Dharma Shastra 18.11-14 Some call that Sudraa race a burial-ground. There (the Veda) must not be recited in the presence of a Sudra. Now they quote also the (following) verses, which Yama proclaimed: ‘The wicked Sudra-race is manifestly a burial ground. Therefore (the Veda) must never be recited in the presence of a Sudra. Let him not give advice to a Sudra’…
Apastamba Dharma Shastra 184.108.40.206 He shall never study in a burial ground nor anywhere near it within the throw of a Samya. [8-9] But if that place is known to have been a burial ground he shall not study (there). A Sudra and an outcast are (included by the term) burial ground, (and the rule given, Sutra 6, applies to them.)
Linga Purana Section I.85.161 ”The repeater of the mantras shall not perform japa in the open street, or in the presence of the Sudras or in a ground smeared with blood, or sitting in a cot.” Tr. J.L. Shastri
Usana Samhita 8.72 “By reciting the Vedas, dharma-Sastras and the Puranas before the Chandalas, one is purified by the Chandrayana. There is no other means of redemption for him.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Vishnu Smriti 30.4-15 “For the whole day and night the Vedas should not be studied on the eighty or the fourteenth day of the moon’s (wane or increase)…Nor near the Sudras and the degraded.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
It is prohibited for a Shudra to hear the Vedas,
Devi Bhagavatam 11.15.11-20 “As a man of a lowest caste acts contrary and incurs a sin if he hears the Veda mantra…” Tr. Swami Vijnananda
Mahabharata 2.44.15 “Desirous of speedy death, this fool had desired Rukmini. But the fool obtained her not, like a Sudra failing to obtain the audition of the Vedas.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
If the Shudra somehow manages to hear the Vedas then he is punished in the following way,
Katyayana Smriti verse 486 “The king should punish a sudra, who forsakes the order of sannyasins (after having entered it) and who intently practises japa (silent muttering of prayers) and homa, with death (or corporal punish) or he should be punished with double the fine.” Tr. P.V. Kane
If a Shudra pronounces the Vedic text then his tongue should be clipped off and body must be mutilated,
Gauatama Dharma Shastra 12.4-6 Now if he listens intentionally to (a recitation of) the Veda, his ears shall be filled with (molten) tin or lac. If he recites (Vedic texts), his tongue shall be cut out. If he remembers them, his body shall be split in twain.
Atri Samhita 1.19 “The Sudra who engages in the recitation [of the Gayatri] and the offering of oblations to the Sacred Fire, should be killed by the king; for by that he becomes the destroyer of the kingdom as the water is of fire.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Skanda Purana V.iii.200.6 ”It has been decided that for merely pronouncing the Veda (Vedic text by a Sudra) the tongue of that Sudra should be cut off by Ksatriyas who are the protectors of Dharma” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Brihaspati Smriti 20.12 (A Sudra) teaching the precepts of religion, or uttering the words of the Veda, or insulting a Brahman, shall be punished by cutting out his tongue.
Proof that Veda was not taught to Shudras
Skanda Purana III.i.10.32 ”The Sudra named Drdhamati came to the hermitage and was honoured by the ascetics. He prostrated in front of them with the eight limbs (touching the ground). [34-44] Then he felt inclined to perform an excellent penance. So he approached the Kulapati (Head sage of the hermitage) and spoke these words… O sage of good holy rites, initiate me in the Yaga rite. O Brahmana, I belong to the Sudra community, O excellent one. I wish to render services to you. Be pleased with me who have sought refuge in you. When this was spoken by the Sudra, the Brahmana spoke to him: A Sudra being low low birth cannot be initiated in a sacrifice. Be pleased to listen. If you are so inclined, be engaged in service. No (religious) instructions is to be given to one of low caste. In instructing him, the preceptor incurs great sin. A learned man shall not teach a Sudra, nor should he perform a Yaga on his behalf… If a Brahmana were to teach a Sudra these subjects, the other Brahmanas shall banish him from the village, from Brahmana community. One shall abandon like a Candala, the Brahmana who instructs a Sudra. One should avoid from afar a Sudra who is literate. Hence, welfare unto you. Render service unto Brahmanas with reverence. Service to the twice-born has been prescribed by Manu and others (as the duty) of a Sudra.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Drdhamati was not taught Vedas just because he belonged to Shudra caste.
Ramanuja Acharya and Adi Shankaracharya writes that Gautama Rishi started teaching Vedas to Jabala only after he ascertained that Jabala was not a Shudra. They also prohibit teaching Veda to Shudras
Acharya Ramanuja writes in the commentary of Brahma Sutra 1.3.37
“37. And on account of the procedure, on the ascertainment of the non-being of that.
That a Sûdra is not qualified for knowledge of Brahman appears from that fact also that as soon as Gautama has convinced himself that Gâbâla, who wishes to become his pupil, is not a Sûdra, he proceeds to teach him the knowledge of Brahman.”
Shankaracharya writes on Brahma Sutra 1.3.37,
” 37. And on account of (Gautama) proceeding (to initiate Gâbâla) on the ascertainment of (his) not being that (i.e. a Sûdra).
The Sûdras are not qualified for that reason also that Gautama, having ascertained Gâbâla not to be a Sûdra from his speaking the truth, proceeded to initiate and instruct him. ‘None who is not a Brâhmana would thus speak out. Go and fetch fuel, friend, I shall initiate you. You have not swerved from the truth’ (Kh. Up. IV, 4, 5); which scriptural passage furnishes an inferential sign (of the Sûdras not being capable of initiation).”
Gautama Rishi started teaching Vedas to Jabala only after knowing that he was not a Shudra, this shows that Veda was not taught to Shudras.
Teaching Vedas to Shudras was considered a taboo
Sita the wife of Rama said,
Ramayana of Valmiki, Sundara Khanda 28.5 “I may be slain by that dreadful monster but I can no more give him my affection than a brahmin can impart the teachings of the Veda to one of low caste.” Tr. Hari Prasad Shastri
Srimad Bhagavatam 9.18.14 “And we are even more respectable because we are in the dynasty of Bhṛgu. Yet although this woman’s father, being among the demons, is our disciple, she has put on my dress, exactly like a śūdra taking charge of Vedic knowledge.” Tr. Swami Prabhupada
Srimad Bhagavatam 4.2.13 “To this proud, impious fellow who has given up performance of religious acts, and has violated all the bounds (of religious prosperity), I gave my young daughter though reluctant to do so, as one would be to impart the sacred beautiful word (Vedas) to a Sudraa (who is not eligible to receive Vedic lore).” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Srimad Bhagavatam 10.38.4 “Just as recitation and study of the Vedas is impossible to a person born in the Sudra class, I consider that gaining even the sight of Krsnaa of excellent renown is very difficult for me, inasmuch as my mind is addicted to sensual pleasures.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Mahabharata, Adi Parva 1.160 “How shall I be able to place this sole daughter of thy house–this innocent girl–in the way along which her ancestors have always walked? How shall I then be able to impart unto this child every desirable accomplishment to make him virtuous as thyself, in that season of want when I shall become masterless? Overpowering myself who shall be masterless, unworthy persons will demand (the hand of) this daughter of thine, like Sudras desiring to hear the Vedas.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Duty of a Shudra
Garuda Purana ch 96 ”the sole duty of a Shudra is to render personal service to the foremost of the twice born castes.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Yajur Veda 30.5 For Brahman (Priesthood) he binds a Brahman to the stake; for Kshatra (Royalty) a Râjanya; for the Maruts a Vaisya; for Penance [service] a Sudra;
Vamana Purana, Saromahatmya 22.38-39 “In its middle is a mighty Banyan tree, the embodiment of Sthanu. From Him have issued the castes, Brahmans, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas, and Shudras were born from Him to render service to the twice born…” Tr. Anand Swarup Gupta
Vishnu Purana 3.8.33-34 “Attendance upon the three regenerate castes is the province of the Śúdra, and by that he is to subsist, or by the profits of trade, or the earnings of mechanical labour. He is also to make gifts; and he may offer the sacrifices in which food is presented, as well as obsequial offerings.” Tr. H.H. Wilson
Narasima Purana 58.10-13 “The Sudra should serve all these three varnas and serve the Brahmanas like a slave. He should donate from his earning without asking for anything form others. He should do agriculture for survival. He should worship the stars every month as per the religion and justice and always wear old apparel. He should clean the pots used by the Brahmanas keep attachment with his own wife.” Tr. Joshi K.L. Shastri and Bindiya Trivedi
Sankha Samhita 1.5 Serving the Brahmanas, and performance of different handicrafts should be the specific duties of a Sudra. Practice of forbearance, truthfulness, and self-control, and cleanliness of body and spirit are equally obligatory on all, without any distinction of caste.
Katyayana Smriti verse 722 “One may make the sudra work as a slave, whether he be purchased or not purchased; the creator himself created him for slavery.” Tr. P.V. Kane
Mahabharata 13.141 “The service of the three regenerate classes constitutes the high duty of the Sudra. That Sudra who is truthful in speech and who has subdued his senses is regarded as having acquired meritorious penances. Verily, the Sudra, who having got a guest, discharges the duties of hospitality towards him, is regarded as acquiring the merit of high penances. That intelligent Sudra whose conduct is righteous and who worships the deities and Brahmanas, becomes endued with the desirable rewards of righteousness.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Manu Smriti 10.123. The service of Brahmanas alone is declared (to be) an excellent occupation for a Sudra; for whatever else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit.
The same is repeated in Apastamba Dharma Shastra 220.127.116.11; Vishnu Smriti 2.8; Manu Smriti 10.334 and Yajnavalkya Smriti 1.120. Shudra’s duty is to serve the twice born but it is prohibited for twice born to serve low caste people,
Padma Purana V.9.40-47 …A brahmana should always avoid serving low people….
Punishment for not carrying out his duties
Parasara Smriti 2.16 By not in any way serving the Brahmanas, and by doing heinous acts, a Sudra becomes short lived, and goes to hell, after death. These duties are imperatively obligatory on the men of four castes.
Skanda Purana III.ii.40.56 ”If a Sudra created for service does not serve Brahmanas, nor does he give the means of sustenance (to them), Hanuman becomes angry with him.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Prohibition to intermingle
Satapatha Brahmana 3:1:1:10. Let him not commune with every one; for he who is consecrated draws nigh to the gods, and becomes one of the deities. Now the gods do not commune with every one, but only with a Brahman, or a. Râganya, or a Vaisya; for these are able to sacrifice. Should there be occasion for him to converse with a Sûdra, let him say to one of those, ‘Tell this one so and so! tell this one so and so!’ This is the rule of conduct for the consecrated in such a case.
Samvarta Samhita verses 197 “By associating with an outcast for a month or a half, one would become purified, in half-a-month, by living upon barley and the urine of cow.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Parasara Smriti 6.43 “One should immediately come out of the room in which a Chandala has entered, and throw away all the earthen pots kept therein.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Angiras Samhita 1.49-50 “[Partaking of] a Sudra’s food, associating with a Sudra, sitting with a Sudra, acquiring knowledge from a Sudra, degrade even one burning with Brahma-energy. The twice-born person, who utters benediction before a Sudra and salutes him, that Brahmana as well as the Sudra go to hell.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Kurma Purana II.16 28-29 “The following eleven defects caused by mingling of the castes are called sins of intermixture (Samkarya Dosas) viz. sharing the same bed, sharing a common seat, sitting in the same row, sharing of the same vessel, partaking of the cooked food together, presiding over the sacrifices, teaching, marriage alliance, taking of food together, studying together, and jointly presiding over the sacrifices.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Inter-dining, sharing the same seat and doing other things together is a sign of civilization and a humane act while the Hindu scriptures views it as an evil thing.
Kurma Purana II.16.26-27 ”An excellent Brahmana shall not stay anywhere else except within half a Krosa of the holy river (1 Krosa=3 Km). He shall not stay near the village of the Sudras. He should not live in the same place with that of fallen castes, Candalas, Pukkasas, foolish fellows, arrogant persons, Sudras and the people of the lowliest castes called Antavasayins.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Vishnu Smriti 35.2-4 “He, who associates with an outcaste, for a year, becomes himself an outcast. Likewise, by riding in the same carriage, by sharing the same bed, and by eating (in the same row) with him.” Tr. Manmatha Nath dutt
Skanda Purana III.ii.6.76-77 ”Close association with fallen people is but conducive to one’s own fall. One should never offer a higher seat or rostrum to a Sudraa. (Thereby) a Brahmana becomes deficient in his Brahmanical powers and a Sudraa in his merits. Instruction in Dharma to Sudras shall obstruct one’s own progress and glory.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
A Shudra is punished if he sits on the same seat with a Brahmin
Manu Smriti 8.281. A low-caste man who tries to place himself on the same seat with a man of a high caste, shall be branded on his hip and be banished, or (the king) shall cause his buttock to be gashed.
Vishnu Smriti 5.20 “If one (i.e., a low-caste man) sits on the same seat [with a superior caste] he, having his hip branded, shall be banished.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Varaha Purana 112.25-27 ”Once a Brahmin receives a gift from a Sudra, his ancestral manes fall into filth. No other Brahmin shall speak with him or share a seat with him. He is to kept afar. The Brahmin who, however, chances to speak with him or share a seat, shall perform Prajapatyakrcchra ceremony for purification.” Tr. Venkitasubramonia Iyer, edited by J.L. Shastri
Vamana Purana, Saromahatmya 28.43-44 “At the time of creation Sankara was worshipped by the Lord on the northern bank of the Sarasvati known by the name Caturmukha. Having saluted Him with faith, a man is absolved of all sins, arising out of lustful intermixture of castes and interdining.” Tr. Anand Swarup Gupta
Narada Purana I.41.33-38 “The Brahmanas and other castes get mixed with other castes mutually; all castes will be more or less like the Sudras, overwhelmed by lust and fury, confounded and afflicted by unncessary distress. In the Kali Yuga the excellent men become mean and the base men rise to excellence…Brahmanas become the pall-bearers of the Sudras…” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Narada Purana I.14.60b-62a “If one is touched by persons belonging to Candala and Svapaca castes, ablution (for purification) is enjoined even at night, but he shall not stay there with those low castes, at night, he will regain purity immediately after taking bath. If unknowingly a person had been careless enough to stay there (with low castes) at night, his sin is increased a hundred-fold.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Following verse shows prevalence of caste system under the reign of Rama,
Skanda Purana III.ii.30.93-94 “Ther was neither mental anguish nor illnes, O king, in the kingdom of Rama. All the women were chaste; all the men were devoted to their parents. Brahmanas were devoted to the (study of) Vedas always; Ksatriyas served Brahmanas. Men of Vaisya caste continued to be devoted to Brahmanas and cows. There was no mixture of castes and no transgression of duties. There was no barren or wretched woman; no woman had only a single child or had her child dead.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
This was the so called ideal state (Ram Rajya) of Rama.
Skanda Purana VII.I.206.6-7 “[Isvara said] If a Brahmana cooks food on behalf of a Sudra in the manner of Upaniksepa that food shall also be Abhojya (unfit for consumption) and the Brahmana falls down. The food of a Sudra, the association of a Sudra, occupying the same seat as the Sudra, and learning a lore from a Sudra – these will cause the fall of even the resplendent one.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Intermingling of castes is evils of Kali Yuga
Linga Purana Section I.40.6-8 “Men perish. Ksatriyas and Vaisyas decline gradually. In Kali Sudras claim kinship with brahmins through their learning through interdining and sharing seats and beds. Kings become mostly Sudras and they harass brahmins. Killing of foetus and murder of heroes become prevalent. Sudras adopt the conduct of life prescribed for the Brahmins and the brahmins adopt the ways of Sudras.” Tr. Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri
Brahmanda Purana 18.104.22.168 “Span of life, intellect, strength, beauty and prestige of the family dwindle down and become extinct. The Sudraas take to the conduct of life of the Brahmanas and the Brahmanas behave and act like Sudras.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Kurma Purana I.30.18 ”O tormentor of enemies, Sudras will be occupying lofty seats in the middle of Brahmanas. In Kali age, as a result of the influence of times, the king will dishonour the Brahmins.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Narasima Purana 54.44-46 “The Brahmanas, Ksatriyas, Vaisya and Sudra all will have over excitement and sensuality and reproduce a hybrid generation by mixing with one another. In the state of such a hybrid generation, relations like teacher and student, father and son, husband and wife will be kicked off…” Tr. Joshi K.L. Shastri and Bindiya Trivedi
Inter-caste marriage is prohibited
Hinduism prohibits inter-caste marriage to an extent. It permits a Brahmin to take wives of all four castes, but at the same time also prohibits to take a Shudra wife, Yajnavalkya and Vasishta are of the same view. However this has been interpreted by some scholars as, a Brahmin can take a Shudra wife but he should not have sexual intercourse with her in her ‘courses’ which can impregnate her, in other words it prohibits a Brahmin from begetting child on a Shudra wife, a Shudra wife is taken only for sexual gratification. As per Hindu scriptures a Dvija should take his first wife from his own caste and then of succeeding castes. A Kshastriya can take wives of his own caste, a Vaishya and a Shudra wife, a Vaishya can marry women from Vaishya and a Shudra caste while a Shudra can take only one wife from his own caste.
Gita 1.41-43 “By the prevalence of impiety, O Krishna, the women of the family becomes corrupt. Women corrupted, there will be intermingling of castes (Varna-Samkara), O descendant of Vrishnis. Confusion of castes leads the family of these destroyers of families also to hell; for, their forefathers fall (down to hell), deprived of the offerings of pinda (rice-ball) and water. By these evil deeds of the destroyer of families which cause the intermingling of castes, the eternal dharmas of castes and families are subverted.” Tr. A. Mahadeva Sastri
Madhavacharya writes on Gita 1.41 “When there is a resultant intermixture of castes due to the destruction of the family structure; those who are responsible are damned to hell; but not only these ruinous family members. Their forefathers are also sent to hell as well due to the cessation of the ritual offerings of food and water that are no longer given due to the fact that there no longer exist any male descendants to perform such rites”
Sridhar Swami writes on Gita 1.41 “When this happens there is an intermingling of castes and the ancestors of these destroyers of the family fall from heaven as they are deprived of their periodic ritual offerings of food and water.”
Kesava Kasmiri writes on Gita 1.41-42 “In regard to the result of undesirable progeny. The intermixture of castes that follow the family customs and honor the age-old Vedic traditions with those that do not causes a degradation in society and leads the family to a hellish existence. Not only this but the anscestors of such a family also suffer as well because there is no descendant qualified to perform the propitiatory rites prescribed in Vedic scriptures such as sraddha and tarpana. . Being deprived of these oblations due to the absence of qualified progeny as a result of destruction of the family structure the ancestors fall down from heaven and go directly to the hellish planets. In the previous verse the effects of the intermixture of castes as described in the Vedic scriptures regarding the ancestors has been determined. Now Arjuna describes the misery experienced for those who are responsible for causing this intermixture of castes beginning with dosair etaih. Due to these evils the essential duties prescribed in the Vedic scriptures for the four castes which are the authorised and proven means leading humanity to the highest good and which are faithfully instructed by holy sages and spiritual masters are all forsaken.”
Swami Nikhilananda writes on Gita 1.41-42 “…Mixing of castes – One of the evil consequences of the depletion of the number of men in society is that the women break the caste rules and traditions as regards marriage. Marriage outside one’s caste is considered irregular by the Hindu law-givers. Rice-balls and water- The reference is to the Hindu religious rites for the dead, known as the Sraddha ceremony, in which rice-balls and water are offered by the eldest son for the satisfaction of the soul of the deceased. This ceremony cannot be performed by children born of irregular marriages, that is to say, marriage in which husband and wife belong to different caste, Deprived of the rice balls and water, the soul of the deceased, according to Hindu tradition, goes to hell…”
Usana Samita 9.51 “By marrying in another caste (i.e., a Sudra maiden), one (i.e., a Brahmana) becomes a Mahapatakin (great sinner). By associating with such a sinner, one also becomes a sinner.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Agni Purana 150.14-15 A marriage should take place only between the members of the same class, the union of a person belonging to a higher class with one of the lower being always forbidden…” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Devi Bhagavatam 9.34.32-91 “…This is a general remark; now hear everything in particular. O Chaste One! The Brâhmin wives of S’ûdras or the S’ûdra wives of Brâhmanas are Atyâgamyâs (very unfit to be approached) and blameable both in the Vedas and in the society. A S’ûdra going to a Brâhmanî woman commits one hundred Brahmahattyâs; so a Brâhmana woman going to a S’ûdra goes to the Kumbhîpâka hell. As a S’ûdra should avoid a Brahmâni, so a Brâhmana should avoid a S’ûdra woman…” Tr. Swami Vijnananda
Vamana Purana 35.21-27 “…intermixing in all the varnas (castes), abandonment of Omkara…marrying a low-caste woman like a Candala…all these entail suffering in hell.” Tr. Anand Swarup Gupta
Skanda Purana V.i.29.27-33 “…An uncivilized Brahmana who carnally serves a Sudra woman and one who marries a Sudra woman, both of them fall into the hell…” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Death Penalty for Intercaste marriage
If a Shudra wants to marry a Brahmin women then he is given death sentence.
Matsya Purana 227.131 “If a low caste man wants to marry a high caste girl and does so would be punished with death; similarly a high class woman marrying a low caste man should be punished with death.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, edited by B.D. Basu
Hindu texts award lesser punishment for a Brahmin man committing adultery but awards death penalty to Shudra if he commits adultery with high caste woman. It says that the Shudra must be burnt alive,
Vasistha Dharma Shastra Chapter 21 Verses 1-3 If a Sûdra approaches a female of the Brâhmana caste, (the king) shall cause the Sûdra to be tied up in Vîrana grass and shall throw him into a fire. He shall cause the head of the Brâhmanî to be shaved, and her body to be anointed with butter; placing her naked on a black donkey, he shall cause her to be conducted along the highroad. It is declared that she becomes pure (thereby). If a Vaisya approaches a female of the Brâhmana caste, (the king) shall cause the Vaisya to be tied up in Lohita grass and shall throw him into a fire. He shall cause the head of the Brâhmanî to be shaved, and her body to be anointed with butter; placing her naked on a yellowish donkey, he shall cause her to be conducted along the highroad. It is declared in the Veda that she becomes pure (thereby). If a Kshatriya approaches a female of the Brâhmana caste, (the king) shall cause the Kshatriya to be tied up in leaves of Sara grass and shall throw him into a fire. He shall cause the head of the Brâhmanî to be shaved, and her body to be anointed with butter; placing her naked on a white donkey, he shall cause her to be conducted along the highroad. It is declared in the Veda that she becomes pure (thereby).
Arthashastra of Chanayka Book 4 Chapter 13 A Kshatriya who commits adultery with an unguarded Bráhman woman shall be punished with the highest amercement; a Vaisya doing the same shall be deprived of the whole of his property; and a Súdra shall be burnt alive wound round in mats.
Manu Smriti 8.374 “For having sexually visited a woman of any twice-born caste, whether protected or unprotected by her husband, a S’udra shall be punished with the mutilation of his reproductive organ and a confiscation of all his goods and estates in the first named instance (i.e., for knowing an unprotected twice-born woman), and in the last named case he shall pay the penalty with his life and all his goods and estates will be escheated to the sovereign.” Manmatha Natha Dutt
Gautama Dharma Shastra Chapter 23 Verse 14-15 14. A woman who commits adultery with a man of lower caste the king shall cause to be devoured by dogs in a public place. He shall cause the adulterer to be killed (also).
Gautama Dharma Shastra 12.2 If he [Shudra] has criminal intercourse with an Aryan woman, his organ shall be cut off, and all his property be confiscated.
Apastamba Dharma Shastra Prasna II, Patala 10, Khanda 27 Verse 9 A Sûdra (who commits adultery) with a woman of one of the first three castes shall suffer capital punishment
Mahabharata 13.48 “It is only from sexual union of women with persons who should not have such union with them that mixed classes spring up.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Mahabharata 22.214.171.124 “That Sudra who has sexual intercourse with a Brahmana woman, has, after death, to take birth as a hog. As soon as he takes birth in the porcine order he dies of disease, O king. The wretch has next to take birth as a dog. O king, in consequence of his dire act of sin. Casting off his canine form he regains upon the exhaustion of his demerit, the status of humanity. The Sudra who begets offspring upon a Brahmana woman, leaving off his human form, becomes reborn as a mouse.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Garuda Purana ch 95 “A Brahmana is at liberty to take a wife from any of the first three social orders, or to put it more explicitly, a Brahmana shall marry a girl either of his own caste, or one belonging to the warrior (Kshatriya), or to the trading (Vaishya) community. Similarly a Kshatriya shalll marry a Kshatriya or a Vaishya girl, while a Vaishya shall take a wife from his own community, the marriage of a Shudra girl with a member of any of the twice born castes being hereby absolutely forbid.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Manu 3.14. A Sudra woman is not mentioned even in any (ancient) story as the (first) wife of a Brahmana or of a Kshatriya, though they lived in the (greatest) distress.
Some interpret it as, a Brahmin should not take a Shudra wife as his first wife. He can take four wives of succeeding castes i.e., first a Brahmin, second a Kshatriya and so on, His Brahmin wife is considered superior among wives of other castes.
Hindu text goes on to depict Shudra wives as sex objects when it says that a Brahmin can marry a Shudra only for sexual pleasure,
Vasistha Dharma Shastra 18.17-18 Let him not approach a wife of the Sudra caste after he has built the fire altar for a Srauta sacrifice. For a Sudra wife who belongs to the black race, (is espoused) for pleasure, not in order to fulfil the law.
Vishnu Smriti 26.5 ”The Sudra wife of a Brahmana can never be for virtue. She is only the object of enjoyment of a passionate Brahmana.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
The son of a Brahmin born to Shudra mother shall not inherit anything,
Manu Smriti 9.155-6 The son of a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaisya by a Sudra (wife) receives no share of the inheritance; whatever his father may give to him, that shall be his property. All the sons of twice-born men, born of wives of the same caste, shall equally divide the estate, after the others have given to the eldest an additional share.
Segregation of humans into castes
Hinduism even discriminates between the style of living. Nothing can be more disgusting than this,
Manu Smriti 10.51-54 But the dwellings of Kandalas and Svapakas shall be outside the village, they must be made Apapatras, and their wealth (shall be) dogs and donkeys. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes, black iron (shall be) their ornaments, and they must always wander from place to place. A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them; their transactions (shall be) among themselves, and their marriages with their equals. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken dish; at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns.
Hinduism also divides the lifestyle of persons belonging to different castes, it says all castes should dress differently, should have different names, should make houses differently, it completely divides their way of living,
Manu Smriti 2.30-32 But let (the father perform or) cause to be performed the Namadheya (the rite of naming the child), on the tenth or twelfth (day after birth), or on a lucky lunar day, in a lucky muhurta, under an auspicious constellation. Let (the first part of) a Brahmana’s name (denote something) auspicious, a Kshatriya’s be connected with power, and a Vaisya’s with wealth, but a Sudra’s (express something) contemptible. (The second part of) a Brahmana’s (name) shall be (a word) implying happiness, of a Kshatriya’s (a word) implying protection, of a Vaisya’s (a term) expressive of thriving, and of a Sudra’s (an expression) denoting service.
Agni Purana 152.2-8; Vishnu Purana 3.10.8-12 ”The name of a Brahmin child should end with the term ”Sharma” (the happy one), the name of a child of the Kshatrya caste should end with the term ”Varma” (the defender or protector) while those of a Vaishya or a Shudra child should respectively end with the terms ”Gupta” and ”Dasa” (slave).” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Manu Smriti 3.8-9 Let him not marry a maiden (with) reddish (hair), nor one who has a redundant member, nor one who is sickly, nor one either with no hair (on the body) or too much, nor one who is garrulous or has red (eyes), Nor one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing the name of a low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named after a bird, a snake, or a slave, nor one whose name inspires terror.
Hinduism also makes discrimination in marriages,
Agni Purana 153.1-4 “…A Kshatriya woman having been duly wedded, should hold an arrow in her hand, a Vaishya bride should hold a paddy measure while a Shudra girl should hold a cotton string in her hand just after the wedding ceremony had been gone through…” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Method of building houses should also be different,
Matsya Purana 253.13-14 ”In laying the foundations of a building or digging a tank or well first it is necessary to test the nature of the soil before commencing the operations and lying Vastua. White earth is lucky for the Brahamanas, red is good for the Ksatriyas, yellow earth for the Vaisyas, and black earth is auspicious for the Sudras. This can be ascertained by digging. The earth tasting sweet is good for the Brahmanas…and astringent earth is good for the Sudras.” Tr. Taluqdar of Oudh, edited by B.D. Basu
Natya Shastra II.46-57 Direction of pillars (first to be raised) should be different as per castes
Garuda Purana 1.213.143 “The procedure of bath has been laid down thus by great men. While taking bath Brahmins, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas have to repeat Mantras. A Sudra has to observe silence during bath and perform Namaskara also silently.” Tr. J.L. Shastri
Garuda Purana chapter 94 ”A member of any of the twice born castes, shall first take two draughts of water to rinse his lips with, and then cleanse his face with undisturbed and frothless water. The twice born shall purify their breasts, throats, palates and umbilical regions with water. It will be enough for women and Shudras to purify their regions of back and umbilicus.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Discrimination even at performing funeral rites,
Manu Smriti 5.92. Let him carry out a dead Sudra by the southern gate of the town, but (the corpses of) twice-born men, as is proper, by the western, northern, or eastern (gates).
Manu Smriti 5.104. Let him not allow a dead Brahmana to be carried out by a Sudra, while men of the same caste are at hand; for that burnt-offering which is defiled by a Sudra’s touch is detrimental to (the deceased’s passage to) heaven.
Agni Purana 158.38-51 ”A Brahmana who has followed the dead body of a Shudra to the burning ground or has joined with friends of such a deceased in mourning his death, becomes pure at the expiry of three days. On a Shudra woman having been delivered of a child in the house of a Brahmana, or a Shudra having, departed his life therein, the master of the house should abstain from making any gift or from undertaking any religious ceremony for the attainment of any object, for that entire day. Cooking pots and other articles of pottery should be thrown away and the flows an walls should be plastered over with a fresh coating of clay, whereby the house would be again clean and pure…” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Vishnu Smriti 29.1-4 “one shall not allow the dead body of a twice-born person to be carried by a Sudra. Nor [that of a] Sudra by a twice-born person…The Sudras [shall never carry the dead body of a] twice-born one even if he be their father.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras should have umbrellas of different colors,
Varaha Purana 128.38 ”The white umbrella is for the Brahmin, red for Ksatriya, yellow for Vaisya, and blue for Sudra.” Tr. Venkitasubramonia Iyer, edited by J.L. Shastri
Low castes are equal to dogs, pigs and other animals
Linga Purana Section I.85.216 “He shall not partake of the cooked rice touched and defiled by pigs, Candalas, wicked people and cock. If he eats it he shall repeat the japa hundred and eight times.” Tr. Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri
Manu Smriti 12.55 The slayer of a Brahmana enters the womb of a dog, a pig, an ass, a camel, a cow, a goat, a sheep, a deer, a bird, a Kandala, and a Pukkasa.
Manu Smriti 3.239 A Kandala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat
Apastamba Dharma Shastra 126.96.36.199. They blame it, if dogs and Apapâtras are allowed to see the performance of a funeral-sacrifice.
Gautama Dharma Shastra 15.24. If (a funeral offering) is looked at by dogs, Kandâlas, or outcasts, it is blemished.
Mahabhara 13.23.5 “Gifts of articles that have been proclaimed before many people or from which a portion has been eaten by a Sudra, or that have been seen or licked by a dog, form portions of Rakshasas.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Agni Purana 168.1-12 ”…The boiled rice smelled by a cow, or dedicated to one’s ancestors, as well as that partaken of by a Shudra or a dog, or that prepared by a fallen man, if eaten by a person, would entail the performance of the pencance known as the Taptakrichchha…” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Narada Purana I.26.30-31 “If he touches a wet bone, leavings of food, a Sudra, a fallen man, a serpent or a dog, he should bath along with the clothes he is wearing. After touching the funeral pyre, a piece of wood thereon, the sacrificial pole, a Candala and a professional worshipper of idols, he should plunge into water along with the clothes he is wearing.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Narada Purana II.51.42 “O Narada, it is laid down (in Smritis) that the sprinkling of the vessels is for the destruction of defects (defilement) due to the glances of Sudras, the fallen ones and donkeys and other beings (at them).” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Vamana Purana 15.19 “By touching a woman in menses, a dog, a naked man, a woman recently delivered, and untouchables, one should take a bath for purification, as also those that carry dead bodies.” Tr. Anand Swarup Gupta
Yajnavalkya Smriti 1.197 “Mud and water lying on a roadside and buildings made of burnt bricks, when touched by Chandalas or by other degraded castes, and by dogs and crows, are purified by air.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Skanda Purana III.ii.5.129 “Food is to be scattered outside for the sake of dogs, fallen persons, Candalas, persons sick with sinful ailments (leprosy etc), crows, worms etc.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Baudhayana Srauta Sutra 28.8 “Now we shall explain the expiation in connection with the defilement of kindling woods. The kindling woods become defiled on account of eight contingencies. The defilement of kindling woods occurs as a result of the contact with an impure object, a dog, a Candala, a Sudra, a crow, a sinner, a donkey, or a woman in her menses. One should discard such kindling woods, and get prepared similar new ones…” Tr. C.G. Kashikar
Sinners will take birth as low castes
Garuda Purana 4.58-63 Thus, it is declared, O Tarksya, that there are many torments for the sinful. Why should I explain them fully, when they are spoken of in all the S’astras? Being tortured thus, men and women by thousands are baked in dreadful hells until the coming of the deluge. Having eaten there their undecaying fruits they are born again. By order of Yama they return to the earth and become unmoving and other creatures: Trees, bushes, plants, creepers, rocks and grasses, these are spoken of as unmoving; enveloped in great delusion, Insects, birds, animals and fish;–it is said that there are eighty-four hundred thousands of fates of birth-fates. All these evolve thence into the human condition; having come back from hell they are born in the human kingdom amongst low outcastes, and even there, by the stains of sin, become very miserable.
Garuda Purana 5.11 Who steals jewels is born in a low caste…
Apastamba Dharma Sutra, Prasna 2, Patala 1, Kanda 2.6 Thus after having undergone a long punishment in the next world, a person who has stolen (the gold of a Brahmana) or killed a (Brahmana) is born again, in case he was a Brahmana as a Kandala, in case he was a Kshatriya as a Paulkasa, in case he was a. Vaisya as a Vaina.
Skanda Purana V.iii.171.14-22 “…O excellent Brahmanas, these people fall into terrible hell and are reborn as Candalas: those who do not take holy bath regularly; those who do not practise Japa, Homa, worship of Suras, hospitality to other people, performance of Pitr Sraddha during Parvas and also regular Dana…” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Skanda Purana V.iii.155.79b-89a “…Those who utter falsehood jeopardising cows and Brahmanas fall into the Kalsutraka hell. The torture therein as per the authors of the scriptural texts is indeed terrible. After experiencing those sufferings those who come back in the human world are born as men of low caste…” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Vishnu Smriti 44.9 Those, who are guilty of committing crimes leading to defilement, are re-born in the wombs of outcast women.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Yajnavalkya Smriti Chapter 3 Verse 213 One, who robs another’s jewel, is born in a degraded caste…” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Hinduism says that whores becomes untouchable woman in their next life,
Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 85.105-116 “…A whore after having suffered the torments of hell called Raurava for a long time attains the form of a useless worm for a century and by turns for seven birth she attain the condition of a widow, a barren woman, an untouchable woman of low class and a woman with her nose cut…” Tr. Rajendra Nath Sen
Response to Apologists
Dalits suffered the Brahmincal oppression for ages then why suddenly some people has to show equality in Hindu scriptures instead of rejecting such anti Human scriptures? If Hindu scriptures really advocated equality for all then why did the Brahmins hid those verses in their dhotis? As I said earlier they have no sympathy towards the low caste people, all they want is votes and followers. In present age they cannot enforce their inhumane Brahmin laws moreover the constitution of India giving equal rights to everyone (including Dalits) is being one of the main reason some have started to show equal status (and also to present Hinduism in good light).
Akhil Bhartiya Kshetriya Brahmin Mahasangh criticized Baba Ramdev’s statement that “I have studied Vedas hence I am a Brahmin”
Nakul Pandey said that one becomes a Veda master by learning the Vedas but not a Brahmin. Birth, education and Karma is the neccisity to be a Brahmin, Pandey said.
Converts to get caste, gotra of Hindu ancestors: Yogi Adityanath
So Hindu scholars are still acknowledging the fact that caste is based on birth. The most common explanation given by Hindu apologists is that,
CLAIM:- Hinduism doesn’t believe in caste system. Caste system was actually based on the profession, by the passage of time this system became caste system. It wasn’t based on their birth but it was wholly based on the profession acquired by the individual. If a Shudra studies the Vedas, he becomes a Brahmin.
I don’t need to refute this point, because the greatest scholar of Hinduism, Adi Shankaracharya had refuted this long ago,
“The pûrvapakshin maintains that the Sûdras also have such a claim… Smriti moreover speaks of Vidûra and others who were born from Sûdra mothers as possessing eminent knowledge.–Hence the Sûdra has a claim to the knowledge of Brahman.
To this we reply that the Sûdras have no such claim, on account of their not studying the Veda. A person who has studied the Veda and understood its sense is indeed qualified for Vedic matters; but a Sûdra does not study the Veda, for such study demands as its antecedent the upanayana-ceremony, and that ceremony belongs to the three (higher) castes only. The mere circumstance of being in a condition of desire does not furnish a reason for qualification, if capability is absent. Mere temporal capability again does not constitute a reason for qualification, spiritual capability being required in spiritual matters. And spiritual capability is (in the case of the Sûdras) excluded by their being excluded from the study of the Veda.–The Vedic statement, moreover, that the Sûdra is unfit for sacrifices intimates, , because founded on reasoning, that he is unfit for knowledge also;”
Shankaracharya on Brahma Sutra 1.3.34
He also said in his commentary of Brahma Sutra 1.3.36,
“36. On account of the reference to ceremonial purifications (in the case of the higher castes) and on account of their absence being declared (in the case of the Sûdras).
That the Sûdras are not qualified, follows from that circumstance also that in different places of the vidyâs such ceremonies as the upanayana and the like are referred to.”
The statement that ‘Shudra becomes a Brahmin if he studies the Vedas’ is a white lie. Because not even a single Hindu scripture allows a Shudra to study Vedas. As Shankaracharya rightly pointed out that a Shudra cannot study the Vedas as learning the Veda requires one to go through the Upanayana ceremony and this ceremony is permitted only for upper three castes. Smritis gives instructions only to Dvija children but they doesn’t even mention about Shudra children, It is mentioned in Manu Smriti,
Manu Smriti 2.35-40 According to the teaching of the revealed texts, the Kudakarman (tonsure) must be performed, for the sake of spiritual merit, by all twice-born men in the first or third year. In the eighth year after conception, one should perform the initiation (upanayana) of a Brahmana, in the eleventh after conception (that) of a Kshatriya, but in the twelfth that of a Vaisya. (The initiation) of a Brahmana who desires proficiency in sacred learning should take place in the fifth (year after conception), (that) of a Kshatriya who wishes to become powerful in the sixth, (and that) of a Vaisya who longs for (success in his) business in the eighth. The (time for the) Savitri (initiation) of a Brahmana does not pass until the completion of the sixteenth year (after conception), of a Kshatriya until the completion of the twenty-second, and of a Vaisya until the completion of the twenty-fourth. After those (periods men of) these three (castes) who have not received the sacrament at the proper time, become Vratyas (outcasts), excluded from the Savitri (initiation) and despised by the Aryans. With such men, if they have not been purified according to the rule, let no Brahmana ever, even in times of distress, form a connexion either through the Veda or by marriage.
As you can see Manu only gives instructions about when Dvija students should be initiated but not about Shudra students, Yajnavalkya is of the same view,
Yajnavalkya Smriti verse 14 In the eighth year of conception or in the eighth (year of) birth, the Upanayana ceremony of the Brahmanas, of the Ksatriyas in the eleventh; of the Vaisyas in eleven plus one. Some say according to family custom. It is mentioned in
It is mentioned in Agni Purana,
Agni Purana 152.2-8 ”The rite of Chudakaranam (binding of the tuff of hair on the crown of a child) together with that of Upanayanam (investiture with the holy thread in the case of a Brahmana child) should be performed in its eighth year or in the eighth year counted from the period of jestation, while the same should be performed in the eleventh and the twelfth year (counterd from the period of gestation) in the case of a Kshatriya, and Vaishya child respectively.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Acharya Medhatithi writes,
“…Of these four, three castes are ‘twice born’, the initiatory rite being prescribed for them. ‘One caste’ is the Shudra; there is no Initiatory Rite for him; since the injunction of this rite contains the distinct mention of the three castes, Brahmanas and the rest; e.g., the Brahmana shall be initiated in the eight year, the Ksattriya in the eleventh and the Vaishya in the twelfth; and nowhere is the name of the Shudra mentioned…” Medhatithi on Manu Smriti 10.4
Vyasa Samhita 1.5-6 “The term ‘twice-born’ denotes the Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaishyas. Only these three orders are entitled to practise religious rites propounded in the Srutis, Smritis and Puranas in exclusion of all other castes. The fourth order is the Sudra, hence the Sudras, are entitled to practise religious rites, but they are not privileged to recite any Vedic Mantras, nor to pronounce the terms Savaha, Svadha and Vashat.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Apastamba Samhita 5.3 “No expiatory penance, vow, Tapassya, or Homa exists for a member of the fourth social order (Sudra).” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Narada Purana I.24.19-27 “(The duties of a Brahmana are:) He should offer charitable gifts to the Brahmans; he should worship the gods by means of sacrifices; for the sake of livelihood he may beg for alms; he should teach others. He should perform sacrifices on behalf of those who are eligible for the same; he should perpetually offer water libations; he should learn the Vedas and maintain sacrificial fires…(The duties of a Ksatriya are): O excellent Brahman, a Ksatriya should give charitable gifts to Brahmanas, he should learn the Vedas; he should worship Devas by performance of sacrifices…O excellent Brahman, breeding of cattle, commerce, agriculture and study of the Vedas are glorified as the duties of the Vaisya also…A Sudra also should give charitable gifts, but he should not perform domestic sacrifices involving cooking. He should render service to the Brahmans, Ksatriyas and the Vaisyas.” Tr. G.V. Tagare
Narada Purana says that Brahmins, Kshatriya and Vaishya should study Vedas but Shudras should engage themselves only in serving the twice-born. As you can see Hindu texts gives instructions on when Brahmin, Kshatria and Vaishya children should be initiated for Vedic study but they don’t mention about Shudra children as Shudra by birth has no right to study the Veda, they are completely barred from the Vedas.
PERFORMANCE OF SACRIFICE IS PERMITTED ONLY FOR THREE CASTES
Manu Smriti 2.16 “He, whose all life, from the rite of Nisheka to that of funeral, is governed by the regulations of the Sastrass, is alone competent to read, or to hear this Sastra, and no other.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Yajnavalkya Smriti verse 10 “The castes are the Brahmanas, the Ksatriyas, the Vaisyas and the Sudras. Only the first three (of these) are twice-born, the performance of the ceremonies beginning with the rite of impregnation and ending (with the funeral rites) in the cremation ground, of these only, is prescribed with sacred formulas.”
Vishnu Smriti 2.2-3 “The first three of these are (called) twice-born. For them the whole number of ceremonies, which begin with the impregnation and end with the ceremony of burning the dead body, have to be performed with (the recitation of) Mantras.
Mahabharata 3.149 “while to serve the twice-born orders is said to be the duty of the Sudra. The Sudras cannot beg alms, or perform homas, or observe vows; and they must dwell in the habitation of their masters.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Another claim is that
If a Brahmin doesn’t study the Vedas then he becomes a Shudra
Brahmin whether learned or illiterate is still a Brahmin due to his birth
It’s true to an extent. If a Brahmin doesn’t study the Vedas then he looses his rank. This is actually quoted out of context. When Hindu text says “loses the rank of a Brahmin”, it connotes degradation and losing the authority to perform rites. It doesn’t literary mean that the Brahmin just by refusing to study the Vedas becomes low caste. However there are expiations for all such sins in which the Brahmin looses his rank but there is absolutely no instruction which can elevate a Shudra to the status of a Brahmin in the same life. Can any apologist quote a single verse which says that if a Shudra studies the Vedas then he can become Brahmin in the very same life? It is mentioned in Upanishad,
Chandogya Upanishad 6.1.1. Harih, Om. There lived once Svetaketu Aruneya (the grandson of Aruna). To him his father (Uddilaka, the son of Aruna) said: ‘Svetaketu, go to school; for there is none belonging to our race, darling, who, not having studied (the Veda), is, as it were, a Brahmana by birth only.’
As you can see, a Brahmin is still considered a Brahmin just on the basis of his birth even if he has not studied the Veda. For detailed explanation on this Brahmin loosing his status issue, read the article Response to Manu Smriti and Shudras. Hindu scripture rather says that a Brahmin whether he has learned the Vedas or not is still a Brahmin. It is mentioned in Mahabharata,
Mahabharata 3.199.88 “Whether the Brahmana be cognisant of the Vedas or ignorant of them, whether they be pure or impure, they should never be insulted, for Brahmanas are like fires.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
How can one remain a Brahmin if is he is ignorant of Vedas? As it is claimed by apologists that one ignorant of Vedas becomes a Shudra.
Mahabharata and Smriti shows that even if one is ignorant of the Vedas then he is still a Brahmin due to his birth (in a Brahmin family). Mahabharata and Maharshi Manu lists learned Brahmin and unlearned Brahmin separately,
Mahabharata 12.180 “Thou, O Kasyapa, art a human being! Amongst human beings, thou art again a Brahmana. Among Brahmanas, thou art again one that is conversant with the Vedas.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Manu Smriti 1.96-97 Of created beings the most excellent are said to be those which are animated; of the animated, those which subsist by intelligence; of the intelligent, mankind; and of men, the Brahmanas; Of Brahmanas, those learned (in the Veda); of the learned, those who recognise (the necessity and the manner of performing the prescribed duties); of those who possess this knowledge, those who perform them; of the performers, those who know the Brahman.
Manu Smriti 9.317. A Brahmana, be he ignorant or learned, is a great divinity, just as the fire, whether carried forth (for the performance of a burnt-oblation) or not carried forth, is a great divinity.
Manu Smriti 2.118. A Brahmana who completely governs himself, though he know the Savitri only, is better than he who knows the three Vedas, (but) does not control himself, eats all (sorts of) food, and sells all (sorts of goods).
This again implies that one need not study Vedas to be a Brahmin as it is all based on one’s birth. A Brahmin whether learned or unlearned is a Brahmin. Hindu apologists should know that a learned Brahmin is called Vipra. There is an example too in Puranas where a man born in a Brahmin family was still considered a Brahmin despite not knowing Vedas and engaged in sinful activities,
Varaha Purana 167.3-4 “Varaha said:- In Ujjayini there was a Brahmin who never cared for the rules of virtuous life. He never worshipped gods and never bowed to the saints. He never bathed in any holy tirtha. He knew neither the Vedas nor the Vedangas. He was lustful and longed for the wives of others.” Tr. Vekitasubramonia Iyer, edited by J.L. Shastri
Vyasa Samhita 4.41-43 “One, born of the seeds of a Brahmana but not purified with any of the purificatory rites or Mantras, and making use of his caste as a means of livelihood, is called a Sama Brahmana. A Brahmana, unto whom all the purificatory rites of Garbhdanam, etc., have been performed, but who has neither read nor taught any part of the Vedas, is called a Vruva Brahmana. A Brahmana, who practises penitential austerities and performs the rite of Homa, every day, and teaches the Vedas with their Kalpas and Rahasyas, is called an Acharyaya.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Parasara Smriti 8.11 “Brahmanas, who are ignorant of the Vedas, and Gayatri and Sandhya, and those who do not cast any oblation in the sacrificial fire and live by agriculture, are only Brahmanas in name.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Vyasa Samhita 4.33 “A gift should be made to an erudiate person living at a distance in preference to an illiterate on living close by one’s house. Nothing can be humiliating (insulting) to an illiterate Brahmana.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Usana Samhita 3.118 “An illiterate Brahmana, accepting funeral cakes, gold, kine, horses, lands and sesame seeds, gets consumed like a wood” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Manu Smriti 2.157-8 “Like unto a wooden elephant or a leathern deer, a Brahmana, who has not studied, bears only the name of a Brahmana. As a eunuch is (sexually) fruitless (unsuccessful) in respect of a woman, as (sexually) fruitless is the meeting of two cows, as fruitless is the gift to an ignorant, so fruitless (is the life of a) Brahmana who has not studied the Riks (i.e., the Vedas).” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Vyasa Samhita 4.37-38 “A Brahmana, who has not studied the Vedas, does, like a wooden elephant, or a leather-deer, but bear the name of the genus he belongs to. Like a deserted hamlet, like a waterless well, a Brahmana, who has not read the Vedas, is a Brahmana only in name.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
The above verses praises a learned Brahmin over an unlearned Brahmin just as it is mentioned in Manu,
Manu Smriti 1.95-99 “Of the created things the animate creatures are the highest; of the animate creatures the intelligent ones are the highest, of the intelligent creatures men are the highest, and among men the Brahmanas are the highest. Among Brahmanas the erudite ones are the highest, among the erudite Brahmanas those, who think it their duty to perform the Sastric rites, are the highest, among the latter those, who perform such rites, are the highest, and among the performers of rites the knowers of Brahma are the highest. The Brahmana has originated as the eternal embodiment of virtue. His origin is for the furtherance of virtue; he becomes of the essence of Brahma. Born as a Brahmana, he wields the supremacy of the world, the ruler of all creatures, the custodian of the treasure of virtue.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Manu Smriti 12.92. After giving up even the above-mentioned sacrificial rites, a Brahmana should exert himself in (acquiring) the knowledge of the Soul, in extinguishing his passions, and in studying the Veda.
Apologists have one more explanation. They say if a Brahmin is of evil behavior or behaves like a Shudra then he becomes a Shudra. This is wrong because it is mentioned in Manu Smriti,
Manu Smriti 10.73 Having considered (the case of) a non-Aryan who acts like an Aryan, and (that of) an Aryan who acts like a non-Aryan, the creator declared, ‘Those two are neither equal nor unequal.’
Above is Rameshvar Bhatt’s Hindi translation. The meaning of this verse is simple, A Sudra by behaving like a Brahmin doesn’t become a Brahmin likewise a Brahmin by behaving like a Shudra doesn’t become a Shudra. This is based on Pundit Tulsiram’s interpretation and various other scholars are of the same view. I am reproducing Pundit Tulsiram’s translation with commentary of Manu Smriti 10.73,
It is mentioned in Mahabharata,
Mahabharata 13.151.20-23 “Even the Brahmana that is destitute of knowledge is a god and is a high instrument for cleansing others. He amongst them, then, that is possessed of knowledge is a much higher god and like unto the ocean when full (to the brim). Learned or unlearned, Brahmana is always a high deity. Sanctified or unsanctified (with the aid of Mantras), Fire is ever a great deity. A blazing fire even when it burns on a crematorium, is not regarded as tainted in consequence of the character of the spot whereon it burns. Clarified butter looks beautiful whether kept on the sacrificial altar or in a chamber. So, if a Brahmana be always engaged in evil acts, he is still to be regarded as deserving of honour. Indeed, know that the Brahmana is always a high deity.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
There is another verse in Manu Smriti which refutes the claim of apologists.
Manu Smriti 10.96 A man of low caste who through covetousness lives by the occupations of a higher one, the king shall deprive of his property and banish.
If caste system is based on profession then why punish the low caste for living the occupation of higher one? Hindu text also says that in time of distress when one cannot make a living with the occupation of one’s caste can live by the occupation of other castes but it doesn’t say that by acquiring the profession of higher caste the Shudra becomes a Brahmin.
Moreover it is prohibited to change profession,
Vasistha Dharma Shastra 19.7-8 Let the king, paying attention to all the laws of countries, (subdivisions of) castes (gati) and families, make the four castes (varna) fulfil their (respective) particular duties. Let him punish those who stray from (the path of duty).
Atri Samhita 1.17 “The king, who punishes them who, renouncing their own religion, follow another’s, becomes glorified in the celestial region. By following his own religion even a Sudra enjoys the celestial region. Another’s religion should be renounced like the most beautiful wife of another person.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
And a Dvija can live by other professions also and that doesn’t change his caste,
Parasara Smriti 2.15 “Even an agriculturist Kshatriya should propitiate the gods and Brahmanas with the produce of his fields. A Vaisya, or a Sudra should always live by trade, agriculture, or handicraft.” Tr. Manmatha Nath Dutt
Gautama Dharma Shastra 7.6-7 On failure of the (occupation lawful for a Brahmana) he may live by the occupations of a Kshatriya. On failure of those, he may live by the occupations of a Vaisya.
Manu Smriti 10.81-82 But a Brahmana, unable to subsist by his peculiar occupations just mentioned, may live according to the law applicable to Kshatriyas; for the latter is next to him in rank. If it be asked, ‘How shall it be, if he cannot maintain himself by either (of these occupations?’ the answer is), he may adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life, employing himself in agriculture and rearing cattle.
Agni Purana 258.80-83 “… A Shudra living like a Brahmana and performing religious rites exclusively belonging to the creed of the latter, should be liable to pay a fine of eighteen hundred Panas…” Tr. M.N. Dutt
Srimad Bhagavatam 7.11.16-17 allows a Brahmin to take Vaishya’s occupation but no where it says that by doing so the Brahmin will become a Vaishya. I don’t have to explain this as this verse speaks for itself. There is another such verse mentioned in Tulsi Ramayana,
Tusli Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Doha 33.1 A Brahmana, even though he curse you, beat you or speak harsh words to you, is still worthy of adoration; so declare the saints. A Brahmana must be respected, through lacking in amiability and virtue; not a Sudra, though possessing a host of virtues and rich in knowledge.
Krishna says in Gita that one should stick to the profession even if they are imperfect in it. Now you tell me if caste was based on profession then why it’s prohibited to change the profession? Have a look at what Krishna says,
Gita 18.41-48 “Of Brâhmanas and Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, as also of Sudras, O scorcher of foes, the duties are distributed according to the Gunas born of their own nature. The control of the mind and the senses, austerity, purity, forbearance, and also uprightness, knowledge, realisation, belief in a hereafter,—these are the duties of the Brâhmanas, born of (their own) nature. Prowess, boldness, fortitude, dexterity, and also not flying from battle, generosity and sovereignty are the duties of the Kshatriyas, born of (their own) nature. Agriculture, cattle-rearing and trade are the duties of the Vaishyas, born of (their own) nature; and action consisting of service is the duty of the Sudras, born of (their own) nature. Devoted each to his own duty, man attains the highest perfection. How engaged in his own duty, he attains perfection, that hear…Better is one’s own Dharma, (though) imperfect, than the Dharma of another well-performed. He who does the duty ordained by his own nature incurs no evil. One should not relinquish, O son of Kunti, the duty to which one is born, though it is attended with evil; for, all undertakings are enveloped by evil, as fire by smoke.” Tr. Swami Swarupananda
It is mentioned in Manu Smriti,
Manu Smriti 8.20-21 ”The Judicial officer of a king must be a Brahmana even if he be a mere Brahmana by birth (and bereft of the virtues of his order), or a mere professional adjudicator of issues, and not a Sudra under any circumstances whatsoever.” Tr. M.N. Dutt
If the Shudra is competent enough, possess all knowledge then why a ignorant Brahmin is still considered superior than him just because of his birth as a Brahmin? Padma Purana VII.23.29 says that king named Nityodaya was a Shudra by caste but being a King didn’t change his caste. Caste system is not based on education, it’s based on birth. Normally a father would give best education to his child but Hindu text says that a son born to Dvija is still not Dvija if the mother belongs to low caste,
Mahabharata 13.47.17 “The son born of the Sudra wife should not be regarded as invested with the status of a Brahmana in consequence of his being unskilled (in the scriptures and the duties ordained for the Brahmana). Only those children that are born of wives belonging to the three higher orders should be regarded as invested with the status of Brahmanas.” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
Apologists misinterpret Hindu text to show that some personalities attained higher castes. It’s true that one attains higher caste in the next life but in no way can one attain higher caste in the same life. As per Hindu text it is only in next birth that a man attains higher caste or is degraded to lower caste.
Apastamba Dharma Sutra 188.8.131.52-11 In successive births men of the lower castes are born in the next higher one, if they have fulfilled their duties. In successive births men of the higher castes are born in the next lower one, if they neglect their duties.
Manu Smriti 10.42. By the power of austerities and of the seed (from which they sprang), these (races) obtain here among men more exalted or lower rank in successive births.
Manu Smriti 9.334-5 But to serve Brahmanas (who are) learned in the Vedas, householders, and famous (for virtue) is the highest duty of a Sudra, which leads to beatitude. (A Sudra who is) pure, the servant of his betters, gentle in his speech, and free from pride, and always seeks a refuge with Brahmanas, attains (in his next life) a higher caste
Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, 13.28 “…If born as human being, he is sure to take birth as a Pukkasa or a Chandala. Verily, one having taken birth in that sinful order of existence, viz., Pukkasa, one, O Matanga, has to wander in it for a very long time. Passing a period of one thousand years in that order, one attains next to the status of a Sudra. In the Sudra order, again, one has to wander for a long time. After thirty thousand years one acquire the status of a Vaisya. There, in that order, one has to pass a very long period. After a time that is sixty times longer than what has been stated as the period of Sudra existence, one becomes a person of the fighting order. In the Kshatriya order one has to pass a very long time. After a time that is measured by multiplying the period last referred to by sixty, one becomes born as a fallen Brahmana. In this order one has to wander for a long period. After a time measured by multiplying the period last named by two hundred, one becomes born in the race of such a Brahmana as lives by the profession of arms. There, in that order, one has to wander for a long period. After a time measured by multiplying the period last named by three hundred, one takes birth in the race of a Brahmana that is given to the recitation of the Gayatri and other sacred Mantras. There, in that order, one has to wander for a long period. After a time measured by multiplying the period last named by four hundred, one takes birth in the race of such a Brahmana as is conversant with the entire Vedas and the scriptures…” Tr. K.M. Ganguli
So no matter what you do, you should perform duties prescribed for your castes and only after few thousand years you can attain higher caste.
Skanda Purana V.ii.22 A Kshatriya king was a Shudra named Somaka in one of his previous birth.
Srimad Bhagavatam 1.13.15 Yama was cursed by Sage Manduka and was born as a Shudra
Srimad Bhagavatam 7.15.72-73 Sage Narada was cursed to become Shudra from the womb of a maidservant and after his birth by serving the Brahmins he took birth as a Brahmana.
Shiva Purana, Kotirudra Samhita 4.9.3 A Brahmin lady named Saumini had become an outcaste in her next birth.
Mahabharata 13.10 In consequence of the merit he acquired by those practices, the Sudra in the next life, took birth in the family of a great king, and in course of time became possessed of great splendour
Prabhupada writes on SB 4.30.48 ” In this connection the word mahad-avajñānāt is significant. King Dakṣa was the son of Lord Brahmā; therefore in a previous birth he was a brāhmaṇa.
But because of his behaving like a non-brāhmaṇa (abrāhmaṇa) by insulting or disrespecting Lord Mahādeva, he had to take birth within the semen of a kṣatriya — that is to say, he became the son of the Pracetās.”
A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Bhagvad Purana 4.30.48 http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_4.30.48
As you can read, all these people attained higher or were degraded to lower caste only in their next birth. As it is mentioned in the Hindu law book Apastamba 184.108.40.206-11 that only in successive births men take higher caste or are degraded to low caste. And why should god assign this? Is Hindu god a job recruiter who commands that people born in specific caste must perform specific job. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was born in a Dalit family but due to his hard work he became the first Minister of Law and Justice and was also the chairman of Constitution drafting committee. It’s not like if a person is born in family of specific should continue to do his family business, people have varied interests. Wasn’t Hindu god aware of this fact? This is my reply to the apologists.
Caste system is an integral part of Hinduism, you cannot be a Hindu and reject caste system. Caste system is an evil which Hinduism has produced and upheld in India. Message of god is eternal it cannot be outdated like Hinduism. It is no different than the racial discrimination fought by Nelson Mandela. Such evil thing surely cannot be from god.