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Inventions in the medieval Islamic world

SOURCE: https://islam.wikia.org/wiki/Inventions_in_the_medieval_Islamic_world

A number of inventions were developed in the medieval Islamic world, a geopolitical region that has at various times extended from Spain and Africa in the west to the Indian subcontinent and Malay Archipelago in the east.[1] The inventions listed here were developed during the medieval Islamic world, which covers the period from the early Caliphate to the later Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires.[2] In particular, the majority of inventions here date back to the Islamic Golden Age, which is traditionally dated from the 8th to the 13th centuries,[3][4] but has been extended to the 15th[5] and 16th[6] centuries by recent scholarship. For later inventions, see Inventions in the modern Islamic world.

Notable Muslim inventors from the 8th to 18th centuries included Muhammad al-Fazari, Geber, the Banū Mūsā brothers, Armen Firman, Abbas Ibn Firnas, al-Razi (Rhazes), Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili, Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Ibn Yunus, Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Arzachel, Ibn Bassal, Ibn Samh, Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), al-Khazini, Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, Hasan al-Rammah, Taqi al-Din, the Çelebi brothers, Tipu Sultan, Sake Dean Mahomet, and especially al-Jazari, who is considered the “father of robotics”[7] and the “father of modern day engineering”.[8]

 

Chemical industries

File:Jabir ibn Hayyan.jpg Al-RaziInGerardusCremonensis1250

Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi (Rhazes) isolated many chemical substances, produced many medications, and described many laboratory apparatus.

File:Steam Distillation.JPG File:Aqua regia in NMR tubes.jpg File:Hydrochloric acid 05.jpg File:Nitric acid lab.jpg File:Sulfuric acid burning tissue paper.jpg File:As,33.jpg File:Nasirolmolk.jpg

See also: Alchemy and chemistry in Islam

Early forms of distillation were known to the Babylonians and Egyptians since ancient times, but it was Muslim chemists who first invented pure distillation processes which could fully purify chemical substances. They also developed several different variations of distillation (such as dry distillation, destructive distillation and steam distillation) and introduced new distillation aparatus (such as the alembic, still, and retort), and invented a variety of new chemical processes and over 9,000 chemical substances.[9]

Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith:

Chemistry as a science was almost created by the Muslim; for in this field, where the Greeks (so far as we know) were confined to industrial experience and vague hypothesis, the Saracens introduced precise observation, controlled experiment, and careful records. They invented and named the alembic (al-anbiq), chemically analyzed innumerable substances, composed lapidaries, distinguished alkalis and acids, investigated their affinities, studied and manufactured hundreds of drugs. Alchemy, which the Moslems inherited from Egypt, contributed to chemistry by a thousand incidental discoveries, and by its method, which was the most scientific of all medieval operations.”[10]

Robert Briffault wrote in The Making of Humanity:

“Chemistry, the rudiments of which arose in the processes employed by Egyptian metallurgists and jewellers combining metals into various alloys and ‘tinting’ them to resemble gold, processes long preserved as a secret monopoly of the priestly colleges, and clad in the usual mystic formulas, developed in the hands of the Arabs into a widespread, organized passion for research which led them to the invention of distillation, sublimation, filtration, to the discovery of alcohol, of nitric and sulphuric acids (the only acid known to the ancients was vinegar), of the alkalis, of the salts of mercury, of antimony and bismuth, and laid the basis of all subsequent chemistry and physical research.”[11]

  • Chemical element classification: The work of Jabir ibn Hayyan gave the seeds of the modern classification of elements into metals and non-metals as could be seen in his chemical nomenclature.[12]
  • Chemical equivalents: The origins of the idea of chemical equivalents might be traced back to Jabir ibn Hayyan, in whose time it was recognized that “a certain quantity of acid is necessary in order to neutralize a given amount of base.”[13]
  • Conservation theory: An early theory on the conservation of matter was stated by Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī. He wrote that “A body of matter cannot disappear completely. It only changes its form, condition, composition, color and other properties and turns into a different complex or elementary matter.”[14]

Chemical processes

The following chemical processes were invented by Muslim chemists:

  • Assation (or roasting), cocotion (or digestion), ceration, lavage, solution, mixture, and fixation.[15]
  • Calcination (al-tashwiya): Invented by Geber.[16][17]
  • Cocotion (or digestion), ceration, lavage, and mixture.[18]
  • Distillation, pure (al-taqtir): Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan) was the first to fully purify chemical substances through distillation, using the alembic, in the 8th century.[11]
  • Crystallization (al-tabalwur): Invented by Geber in the 8th century.[19]
  • Distillation, pure (al-taqtir): Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan) was the first to fully purify chemical substances through distillation, using the alembic, in the 8th century.[11]
  • Destructive distillation: Invented by Muslim chemists in the 8th century to produce tar from petroleum.[20]
  • Dry distillation
  • Filtration (al-tarshih): Invented by Geber in the 8th century.[11]
  • Liquefaction, purification, oxidisation, and evaporation (tabkhir): Invented by Geber in the 8th century.[7]
  • Purification and oxidisation: Invented by Geber in the 8th century.[7]
  • Reflux distillation and rectification: Invented by Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) in the 8th century, anticipating modern developments. [3]
  • Solution (al-tahlil), sublimation (al-tas’id), amalgamation (al-talghim), ceration (al-tashmi), and a method of converting a substance into a thick paste or fusible solid.[16]
  • Steam distillation: Invented by Avicenna in the early 11th century for the purpose of producing essential oils.[21][22] Ibn Sīnā developed steam distillation to produce essential oils such as rose essence, which he used as aromatherapeutic treatments for heart conditions.[23][24]
  • Takwin and synthetic life hypothesis: Takwin, the concept of the artificial creation of life in the laboratory, was first introduced as a hypothesis in Islamic alchemy, and was first explicitly discussed in the Kitāb Al-Tajmi attributed to Jabir ibn Hayyan.[25]
  • Water purification: See Food and drink section below.

Chemical substances

  • Alkali and the salts of mercury: Isolated by Geber.[11]
  • Alum and the salts and spirits of mercury: Isolated by Geber.[17]
  • Ammonium carbonate: Knowledge of the ammonium carbonate date back to Arabic texts circa 875.[26]
  • Arsenic, alkali, alkali salt, borax, and pure sal ammoniac: Isolated by Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan) in the 8th century.[17]
  • Cheese glue and plated mail: Invented by Geber.[27]
  • Classification of seven classical metals: Theory of the seven classical metals (gold, silver, tin, lead, mercury, iron and copper) was formulated by Geber.[17]
  • Derivative and artificial chemical substances: In the 10th century, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi wrote that he and his Muslim predecessors (Calid, Geber and al-Kindi) invented the following derivative and artificial substances: lead(II) oxide (PbO), red lead (Pb3O4), tin(II) oxide (Isfidaj), copper acetate (Zaniar), copper(II) oxide (CuO), lead sulfide, zinc oxide, bismuth oxide, antimony oxide, iron rust, iron acetate, Daws (a contituent of steel), cinnabar (HgS), arsenic trioxide (As2O3), alkali (al-Qili), sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and Qalimiya (anything that separates from metals during their purification).[28]
  • Dyestuff: Muslim chemists.[29]
  • Ethanol: Isolated by Arabic chemists.[30] The Persian physician, alchemist, polymath and philosopher Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (854–925)[31] is credited with the discovery of ethanol.[32][33]
  • Lead carbonatic (Cerussite): Isolated by Geber.[34]
  • Medicinal substances: Muslim chemists discovered 2,000 medicinal substances.[9]
  • Mercuric chloride and corrosive sublimate: First used by Arab physicians in the Middle Ages to disinfect wounds.Template:Year needed[35]
  • Pomade[30]
  • Potassium nitrate, pure: Isolated by Hasan al-Ramah in the 1270s.[17]
  • Rice vinegar: Geber.[17]
  • Rose water: First produced by Muslim chemists in the medieval Islamic world through the distillation of roses, for use in the drinking and perfumery industries.[17]
  • Rose water distillation: The process of creating rose water through steam distillation was developed by Persian and Arab chemists in the medieval Islamic world which led to more efficient and economic uses for perfumery industries.[36]
  • Sal nitrum: Isolated by Geber.[17]

Acids

  • Aqua regia: Isolated by Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan) in the 8th century.[17]
  • Carboxylic acids: Geber isolated Acetic acid from vinegar.[19][37] He is also credited with the discovery and isolation of Citric acid, the sour component of lemons and other unripe fruits.[19]
  • Mineral acids: The mineral acids—nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid—were first isolated by Geber. He originally referred to sulfuric acid as the oil of vitriol.[30][38]
  • Organic acids: Geber isolated Tartaric acid from wine-making residues.[19]
  • Sulfuric acid: Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (854–925) is credited with being the first to produce sulfuric acid.[32][33]

Elements

Cuisine / Food / Drink

  • Biryani: The dish originates from the Mughal Empire,[41] as a mixture of the native spicy rice dishes of India and the Persian pilaf.[42]
  • Cağ kebab: In the Ottoman Empire at least as far back as the 17th century, stacks of seasoned sliced meat were cooked on a horizontal rotisserie, similar to the cağ kebab.[43]
  • Coffee: The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia.[44] The most important of the early writers on coffee was Abd al-Qadir al-Jaziri, who in 1587 compiled a work tracing the history and legal controversies of coffee entitled Umdat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa (عمدة الصفوة في حل القهوة).[45][46] He reported that one Sheikh, Jamal-al-Din al-Dhabhani (d. 1470), mufti of Aden, was the first (circa 1454) to adopt the use of coffee: “He found that among its properties was that it drove away fatigue and lethargy, and brought to the body a certain sprightliness and vigour.” Sufis used it to keep themselves alert during their night-time devotions. A translation[47] traces the spread of coffee from Arabia Felix (present day Yemen) northward to Mecca and Medina, and then to the larger cities of Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and Constantinople. It was in Yemen that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed as they are today. From Mocha, coffee spread to Egypt and North Africa,[48] and by the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, and Turkey. From the Muslim world, coffee drinking spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the Dutch to the East Indies and to the Americas.[49] tories exist of coffee originating in Ethiopia, but the earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia.[44][50] It was in Yemen that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed as they are today. From Mocha, coffee spread to Egypt and North Africa,[51] and by the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia and Turkey. From the Muslim world, coffee drinking spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the Dutch to the East Indies and to the Americas.[49]
  • Coffeehouse / Cafe: The Ottoman chronicler İbrahim Peçevi reports in his writings (1642–49) about the opening of the first coffeehouse in Istanbul: “Until the year 962 [1555], in the High, God-Guarded city of Constantinople, as well as in Ottoman lands generally, coffee and coffee-houses did not exist. About that year, a fellow called Hakam from Aleppo and a wag called Shams from Damascus came to the city; they each opened a large shop in the district called Tahtakale, and began to purvey coffee.[52] Various legends involving the introduction of coffee to Istanbul at a “Kiva Han” in the late 15th century circulate in culinary tradition, but with no documentation. In 1530, the first coffee house was opened in Damascus,[53] and not long after there were many coffee houses in Cairo. The 17th century French traveler Jean Chardin gave a lively description of the Persian coffeehouse scene: “People engage in conversation, for it is there that news is communicated and where those interested in politics criticize the government in all freedom and without being fearful, since the government does not heed what the people say. Innocent games… resembling checkers, hopscotch, and chess, are played. In addition, mollas, dervishes, and poets take turns telling stories in verse or in prose. The narrations by the mollas and the dervishes are moral lessons, like our sermons, but it is not considered scandalous not to pay attention to them. No one is forced to give up his game or his conversation because of it. A molla will stand up in the middle, or at one end of the qahveh-khaneh, and begin to preach in a loud voice, or a dervish enters all of a sudden, and chastises the assembled on the vanity of the world and its material goods. It often happens that two or three people talk at the same time, one on one side, the other on the opposite, and sometimes one will be a preacher and the other a storyteller.[54]
  • Confectionery: Due to advances in sugar production and the invention of sugar refineries, this led to the production of early confectioneries by the Arabs.[55]
  • Distilled alcohol, pure alcohol, ethanol: First isolated by Al-Kindi (Alkindus) in the 9th century.[17][56] Ahmad Y Hassan wrote: “The distillation of wine and the properties of alcohol were known to Islamic chemists from the eighth century. The prohibition of wine in Islam did not mean that wine was not produced or consumed or that Arab alchemists did not subject it to their distillation processes. Jabir ibn Hayyan described a cooling technique which can be applied to the distillation of alcohol.”[57]
  • Distilled water and water purification: Purified by Muslim chemists.[30] Al-Muwaffaq’s The Foundations of the True Properties of Remedies in the 10th century described the distillation of sea-water for drinking.[58]
  • Doner kebab and Cağ kebab: The doner kebab originated from the Cağ kebab in medieval Turkish cuisine.
  • Halva and halwa: First mentioned in the 13th-century Arabic text Kitab al-Tabikh (The Book of Dishes).[59]
  • Ice cream: Arabs were perhaps the first to use milk as a major ingredient in the production of ice cream. They sweetened it with sugar rather than fruit juices, and perfected means of commercial production. As early as the 10th century, ice cream was widespread among many of the Arab world’s major cities, including Baghdad, Damascus, and Cairo. It was produced from milk or cream, often with some yogurt, and was flavoured with rosewater, dried fruits and nuts. It is believed that the recipe was inspired by older Ancient Arabian recipes, which were, it is presumed, precursors to Persian faloodeh. In the 16th century, the Mughal emperors used relays of horsemen to bring ice from the Hindu Kush to Delhi, where it was used in fruit sorbets.[60]
  • Jalebi: The earliest written references to the sweet are found in a 13th-century cookbook by Muhammad bin Hasan al-Baghdadi. In Iran, where it is known as zulbia, the sweet was traditionally given to the poor during Ramadan.
  • Juiced soft drink, Sherbet, and Sharab: The Sherbet and Sharab were the first juiced soft drinks, and originated in the Islamic world.[61][62]
  • Kebab: Originated in the medieval kitchens of Persia and Turkey.[63] In Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq’s 10th-century Baghdadi cookbook Kitab al-Tabikh, there are descriptions of kabāb as cut-up meat, either fried in a pan or grilled over a fire.[64]
  • Kulfi: The dessert originated from the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. Ain-i-Akbari, a detailed record of the Mughal emperor Akbar’s administration, mentions use of saltpeter for refrigeration as well as transportation of Himalayan ice to warmer areas.[65]
  • Pilaf and pilau: The earliest documented recipe for the pilaf/pilau rice dish comes from the tenth-century Persian scholar Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā), who in his books on medical sciences dedicated a whole section to preparing various dishes, including several types of pilaf.[66]
  • Restaurant and three-course meal: The earliest restaurants came into existence throughout the Islamic world from the 10th century, shortly before restaurants appeared in China in the 11th century. The Islamic world had “restaurants where one could purchase all sorts of prepared dishes.” These restaurants were mentioned by Al-Muqaddasi (born 945) in the late 10th century.[67] Restaurants in medieval Islamic Spain served three-course meals, which was earlier introduced in the 9th century by Ziryab, who insisted that meals should be served in three separate courses consisting of soup, the main course, and dessert.[68]
  • Rose water: See Chemical substances above.
  • Sherbert, juice, soft drink: Sherbet, a juiced soft drink of crushed fruit, herbs, or flowers has long existed as one of the most popular beverages from and of the Muslim world, winning over Western figures such as Lord Byron. Muslims developed a variety of juices to make their sharab, an Arabic word from which the Italian sorbetto, French sorbet and English sherbet were derived. Today, this juice is known by a multitude of names, is associated with numerous cultural traditions, and is produced by countries ranging from India to the United States of America. The medieval Muslim sources also contain a lot of recipes for drink syrups that can be kept outside the refrigerator for weeks or months.[69] In the 12th century, Persian book of Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi, Gorgani describes different types of Sharbats in Iran, including Ghoore, Anar, Sekanjebin, etc. It was popularised in the Indian subcontinent by the Mughal rulers, one of whom sent for frequent loads of ice from the Himalayas to make a cool refreshing drink. In the gardens of the Ottoman Palace, spices and fruits to be used in sherbet were grown under the control of pharmacists and doctors of the Palace.
  • Sharbat and soft drink: The origins of soft drinks lie in the development of fruit-flavored drinks. In the medieval Middle East, a variety of fruit-flavoured soft drinks were widely drunk, such as sharbat, and were often sweetened with ingredients such as sugar, syrup and honey. Other common ingredients included lemon, apple, pomegranate, tamarind, jujube, sumac, musk, mint and ice. Middle Eastern drinks later became popular in medieval Europe, where the word “syrup” was derived from Arabic.[70]
  • Samosa: The samosa originated in the Middle East and Central Asia.[71] A praise of samosa can be found in a 9th-century poem by the Persian poet Ishaq al-Mawsili. Recipes for the dish are found in 10th–13th-century Arab cookery books.[72]
  • Sugar refinery: See Industrial milling below.
  • Syrup: Sugar-sweetened syrups were an invention of Arabic physicians that reached Europe in the Middle Ages. The word “syrup” is derived from the Arabic word sharab.[73] Muslims produced recipes for drink syrups that can be kept outside the refrigerator for weeks or months.[62] The medieval Muslim sources also contain a lot of recipes for drink syrups that can be kept outside the refrigerator for weeks or months.[74]
  • Tikka and chicken tikka: Introduced to India by the Mughal dynasty.[75]
  • Vertical rotisserie, doner kebab, shawarma: The vertical rotisserie was invented in the 19th-century Ottoman Empire, and doner kebab inspired similar dishes such as the Arab shawarma, Greek gyros, and Mexican al pastor.[43][76][77]

Glass industry

  • Artificial gemstone: Geber (d. 815) first described the production of high-quality coloured glass cut into artificial gemstones.[78][79]
  • Artificial pearl and purification of pearls: In his Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl), Jabir described the first recipes for the manufacture of artificial pearls and for the purification of pearls that were discoloured from the sea or from grease.[80]
  • Clear, colourless and high-purity glass: The earliest examples of clear, colourless and high-purity glass were produced by Muslims in the 9th century, such as the quartz glass invented by Abbas Ibn Firnas. The Arabic poet al-Buhturi (820-897) describes the clarity of such glass as follows: “Its colour hides the glass as if it is standing in it without a container.[78] Extensive experimentation was carried out at the factory complex in Ar-Raqqah, Syria, in the 8th century, and a variety of innovative high-purity glass were developed there. Two other similar complexes have also been discovered, and nearly three hundred new chemical recipes for glass were produced at all three sites.[81]
  • Coloured stained glass windows: Muslim architects in Southwest Asia were the first to produce stained glass windows using coloured glass rather than stone producing a stained glass-like effect, as was the case in early churches. In the 8th century, the Arab chemist Geber scientifically described 46 original recipes for producing high-purity coloured glass in Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl), in addition to 12 recipes inserted by al-Marrakishi in a later edition of the book.[78][79]
  • Concave, convex and spherical mirrors: Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) gave the earliest accurate descriptions of concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries,[82] and he also gave the earliest accurate desciption of spherical mirrors.[83]
  • Dying and artificial colouring of gemstones and pearls: In The Book of the Hidden Pearl, Geber described the first recipes for the dying and artificial colouring of gemstones and pearls.[80]
  • Fine glass: The art of fine glass production was developed by Muslims. The Venetians later learnt it from Syrian artisans during the 9th and 10th centuries.[20]
  • Glass factory: The first industrial complex for glass and pottery production was built in Ar-Raqqah, Syria, in the 8th century. Extensive experimentation was carried out at the complex, which was two kilometres in length, and a variety of innovative high-purity glass were developed there. Two other similar complexes have also been discovered, and nearly three hundred new chemical recipes for glass are known to have been produced at all three sites.[81] The first glass factories were thus built by Muslim craftsmen in the Islamic world. The first glass factories in Europe were later built in the 11th century by Egyptian craftsmen in Corinth, Greece.[84]
  • Glass mirror: Glass mirrors were being used in Islamic Spain from the 11th century.[20]
  • Parabolic mirror: The parabolic mirror was invented by Ibn al-Haytham and described in his Book of Optics (1011-1021).
  • Glasses / Eyeglasses: Abbas Ibn Firnas invented eyeglasses in Islamic Spain during the 9th century, and they were manufactured and sold throughout Spain for over two centuries. Eyeglasses were also described in the work of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965-1040), to whom Roger Bacon frequently referred in his own writings on eyeglasses.[20]
  • Quartz glass: Abbas ibn Firnas was the first to make glass from stones (quartz).[85]
  • Quartz glass (fused quartz) and silica glass: The production of glass from stone (including quartz) and sand, was pioneered by Abbas Ibn Firnas in the 9th century.[85]
  • Refracting parabolic mirror: Invented by Ibn Sahl in the 10th century.[86] These observations were repeated by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics (1021).[83]

Oil industry

  • Essential oil: Invented by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) in the 11th century.[21] The earliest recorded mention of the techniques and methods used to produce essential oils is believed to be that of Ibn al-Baitar (1188–1248), an Al-Andalusian (Muslim-controlled Spain) physician, pharmacist and chemist.[87]
  • Kerosene and kerosene lamp: Invented by Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi in the 9th century.[88]
  • Kerosene lamp and naphtha lamp: The first description of a simple lamp using crude mineral oil was provided by Persian alchemist Al-Razi (Rhazes) in 9th century Baghdad, who referred to it as the “naffatah” (naphtha lamp) in his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets).[89][90]
  • Naphtha oil fields: In Baku (Azerbaijan), oil fields were exploited to produce naphtha in the 9th century, with its output having increased to hundreds of shiploads by the 13th century.[91]
  • Oil field, petroleum industry, naphtha, tar: An early petroleum industry was established in the 8th century, when the streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum through destructive distillation. In the 9th century, oil fields were first exploited in the area around modern Baku, Azerbaijan, to produce naphtha. These fields were described by al-Masudi in the 10th century, and by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of its oil wells as hundreds of shiploads.[20]
  • Oil lamp: Al-Jazari invented water clocks with oil lamps and automatic clocks in the early 13th century.[92]
  • Petrol: Muslim chemists were the first to produce petrol from crude oil.[93]
  • Rose oil and perfume recipies: In the Kitab al-Taraffuq fi al-‘itr (The Book of the chemistry of perfume and distillations), Al-Kindi describes the distillation process for extracting rose oils, and provides the recipes for 107 different kinds of perfumes.[94]
  • Shale oil and oil distillation: As a decorative material, oil shale was used during the Umayyad and Abbasid periods to decorate mosaics and floors of the palaces, churches and mosques.[95][96] Shale oil was used for medical and military purposes,[97] as well as for lighting. In the 10th century, the Arabian physician Masawaih al-Mardini (Mesue the Younger) described methods of distillation of empyreumatic oils, including a method of extracting oil from “some kind of bituminous shale,” the earliest known description of shale oil extraction. It was described in his pharmacopoeia, which was translated into Latin as Antidotarium sive Grabadin medicamentorum in Europe, where it was a popular textbook for centuries.[98] Shale oil is today cited as the next major revolution in worldwide energy production. [4]
  • Shale oil extraction: The earliest known description of shale oil extraction was given by Masawaih al-Mardini.[98]

Pottery

Main article: Islamic pottery

Lustreware

Tin-glazed Hispano-Moresque ware with lusterware decoration, from Spain circa 1475.

  • Albarello: An albarello is a type of maiolica earthenware jar originally designed to hold apothecaries’ ointments and dry drugs. The development of this type of pharmacy jar had its roots in the Islamic Middle East. Brought to Italy by Hispano-Moresque traders, the earliest Italian examples were produced in Florence in the 15th century.
  • Fritware: It refers to a type of pottery which was first developed in the Near East, where production is dated to the late first millennium AD through the second millennium AD. Frit was a significant ingredient. A recipe for “fritware” dating to c. 1300 AD written by Abu’l Qasim reports that the ratio of quartz to “frit-glass” to white clay is 10:1:1.[99] This type of pottery has also been referred to as “stonepaste” and “faience” among other names.[100] A ninth century corpus of “proto-stonepaste” from Baghdad has “relict glass fragments” in its fabric.[101]
  • Hispano-Moresque ware: This was a style of Islamic pottery created in Islamic Spain, after the Moors had introduced two ceramic techniques to Europe: glazing with an opaque white tin-glaze, and painting in metallic lusters. Hispano-Moresque ware was distinguished from the pottery of Christendom by the Islamic character of it decoration.[102]
  • Iznik pottery: Produced in Ottoman Turkey as early as the 15th century AD.[103] It consists of a body, slip, and glaze, where the body and glaze are “quartz-frit.”[104] The “frits” in both cases “are unusual in that they contain lead oxide as well as soda”; the lead oxide would help reduce the thermal expansion coefficient of the ceramic.[105] Microscopic analysis reveals that the material that has been labeled “frit” is “interstitial glass” which serves to connect the quartz particles.[106]
  • Lusterware: Lustre glazes were applied to pottery in Mesopotamia in the 9th century; the technique soon became popular in Persia and Syria.[107] Lusterware was later produced in Egypt during the Fatimid caliphate in the 10th-12th centuries. While the production of lusterware continued in the Middle East, it spread to Europe—first to Al-Andalus, notably at Málaga, and then to Italy, where it was used to enhance maiolica.
  • Stonepaste ceramic: Invented in 9th-century Iraq,[108] it was a vitreous or semivitreous ceramic ware of fine texture, made primarily from non-refactory fire clay.[109]
  • Tin-glazed pottery: The earliest tin-glazed pottery appears to have been made in Abbasid Iraq/Mesopotamia in the 8th century, fragments having been excavated during the First World War from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad.[110] The tin-glazing of ceramics was invented by potters in 8th-century Basra, Iraq.[111] The oldest fragments found to-date were excavated from the palace of Samarra about 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Baghdad.[112]
  • Tin-glazing: The tin-glazing of ceramics was invented by Muslim potters in 8th-century Basra, Iraq. Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. The first examples of this technique can be found as blue-painted ware in 8th-century Basra.[111]
  • Tin-glazed pottery: The earliest tin-glazed pottery appears to have been made in Iraq in the 9th century, the oldest fragments having been excavated during the First World War from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad.[113] From there, it spread to Egypt, Persia and Spain, before reaching Italy in the Renaissance, Holland in the 16th century, and England, France and other European countries shortly after.

Civil engineering

File:Adolf Seel Innenhof der Alhambra.jpg File:The spiral minaret in Samarra.jpg File:Delhi Qutub 01.JPG File:Girih tiles2.svg

See also: Muslim Agricultural Revolution

During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, the early Muslim Arab Empire was ahead of its time regarding domestic water systems such as water cleaning systems and advanced water transportation systems resulting in better agriculture, something that helped in issues related to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence.[114] Al-Jazari invented a variety of machines for raising water in 1206,[115] as well as water mills and water wheels with cams on their axle used to operate automata in the late 12th century.[116]

  • Copper pipe: The Jayrun Water Clock, built by Muhammad al-Sa’ati in the 12th century, employed the earliest known use of early copper pipes, the construction of which was described by his son Ridwan ibn al-Sa’ati, in his On the Construction of Clocks and their Use (1203), when repairing the clock.[117]
  • Kerosene lamp: The first kerosene lamp was invented by Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi in the 9th century.[88]
  • Litter collection facilities and waste container: Córdoba had the first facilities and waste containers for litter collection.[118]
  • Street light and street lighting: The first street lamps were built in the Arab Empire,[119] especially in Cordoba.[120]
  • Sugar plantation and plantation economy: The origins of sugar plantations can be traced back to the Arab Agricultural Revolution between 700 and 1100, when sugar plantations began appearing in the Mediterranean region, leading to the development of an early plantation economy. The plantation economy of the New World was an extension of the earlier plantation economy of Islamic Iberia.[121]
  • Surveying instruments: Muslim engineers invented a variety of surveying instruments for accurate levelling, including a wooden board with a plumb line and two hooks, an equilateral triangle with a plumb line and two hooks, and a “reed level”. They also invented a rotating alidade used for accurate alignment, and a surveying astrolabe used for alignment, measuring angles, triangulation, finding the width of a river, and the distance between two points separated by an impassable obstruction.[122]
  • Tar paved road: Tar, produced from petroleum, was used to pave the streets of Baghdad.[123]
  • Tar roads and pavements: The streets of Baghdad were the first to be paved with tar from the 8th century AD. Tar was derived from petroleum, accessed from oil fields in the region, through the chemical process of destructive distillation.[20]
  • Ventilator: The first ventilators were invented in Islamic Egypt and were widely used in many houses throughout Cairo during the Middle Ages. These ventillators were later described in detail by Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi in 1200, who reported that almost every house in Cairo has a ventillator, and that they cost anywhere from 1 to 500 dinars depending on their sizes and shapes. Most ventillators in the city were oriented towards the Qibla (the direction of Mecca), as was the city in general.[124]
  • Water management technological complex: In much the same way the Neolithic ‘toolkit’ or ‘technological complex’ was central to the Neolithic Revolution,[125] a ‘water management technological complex’ was similarly central to the Islamic Green Revolution and,[126] by extension, a precondition for the emergence of modern technology.[127] The various components of this toolkit were developed in different parts of the Afro-Eurasia landmass, both within and beyond the Islamic world. However, it was in the medieval Islamic lands where the technological complex was assembled and standardized, and subsequently diffused to the rest of the Old World.[128] Under the rule of a single Islamic Caliphate, different regional hydraulic technologies were assembled into “an identifiable water management technological complex that was to have a global impact.” The various components of this complex included canals, dams, the qanat system from Persia, regional water-lifting devices such as the noria, shaduf and screwpump from Egypt, and the windmill from Afghanistan.[128]
  • Windcatcher: This dates back to the medieval Islamic world, where it was widely used for air conditioning in many cities.[129]

Architecture

  • Acequia: A community operated waterway used in Spain and former Spanish colonies in the Americas for irrigation, they were first introduced by the Moors in Al-Andalus before the 13th century.[84]
  • Arabesque: An elaborative application of repeating geometric forms often found decorating the walls of mosques. Geometric artwork in the form of the Arabesque was not used in the Middle East or Mediterranean Basin until the Islamic Golden Age. Euclidean geometry as expounded on by Al-Abbās ibn Said al-Jawharī (ca. 800-860) in his Commentary on Euclid’s Elements, the trigonometry of Aryabhata and Brahmagupta as elaborated on by Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (ca. 780-850), and the development of spherical geometry[130] by Abū al-Wafā’ al-Būzjānī (940–998) and spherical trigonometry by Al-Jayyani (989-1079)[131] for determining the Qibla (direction to Mecca) and times of Salah prayers and Ramadan,[130] all served as an impetus for the art form that was to become the Arabesque.
  • Arcade and blind arcade: Introduced by the Great Mosque of Kairouan, built in 670. The front facade of the porch has a large horseshoe arch relied on two marble columns and surmounted by a frieze adorned with a blind arcade, all crowned by serrated merlons (in a sawtooth arrangement).[132]
  • Bridge dam: The bridge dam was used to power a water wheel working a water-raising mechanism. The first was built in Dezful, Iran, which could raise 50 cubits of water for the water supply to all houses in the town. Similar bridge dams later appeared in other parts of the Islamic world.[133]
  • Central heating and underfloor heating: The hypocaust heating system used by the Romans continued to be in use around the Mediterranean region during late Antiquity and by the Umayyad caliphate. By the 12th century, Muslim engineers in Syria introduced an improved central heating system, where heat travelled through underfloor pipes from the furnace room, rather than through a hypocaust. This central heating system was widely used in bath-houses throughout the medieval Islamic world.[134]
  • Cobwork: The earliest appearance of cobwork (tabya) dates back to the Maghreb and Al-Andalus in the 11th century, and was first described in detail by Ibn Khaldun in the 14th century, who regarded it as a characteristically Muslim practice. Cobwork later spread to other parts of Europe from the 12th century onwards.[135]
  • Diversion dam: The first diversion dam was built by medieval Muslim engineers over the River Uzaym in Jabal Hamrin, Iraq. Many of these were later built in other parts of the Islamic world.[133]
  • Double arches: Originates from the Great Mosque of Córdoba, built in 784. The double arches were a new introduction to architecture, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch. The famous alternating red and white voussoirs of the arches  were inspired by those in the Dome of the Rock.[136] To the people of Al-Andalus, “the beauty of the mosque was so dazzling that it defied any description.”[136]
  • Geared and hydropowered water supply system: Al-Jazari developed the earliest water supply system to be driven by gears and hydropower, which was built in 13th century Damascus to supply water to its mosques and Bimaristan hospitals. The system had water from a lake turn a scoop-wheel and a system of gears which transported jars of water up to a water channel that led to mosques and hospitals in the city.[137]
  • Girih: The earliest form of girih on a book is seen in the frontispiece of a Koran manuscript from the year 1000, found in Baghdad.[138]
  • Girih tiles: By the 13th century, Islamic architects discovered a new way to construct tile mosaic due to the development of arithmetic calculation and geometry—the girih tiles.[139]
  • Girih tiles, quasicrystal pattern, self-similar fractal quasicrystalline tiling, Penrose tiling: Geometrical quasicrystal patterns were first employed in the girih tiles found in medieval Islamic architecture dating back over five centuries ago. In 2007, Professor Peter Lu of Harvard University and Professor Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University published a paper in the journal Science suggesting that girih tilings possessed properties consistent with self-similar fractal quasicrystalline tilings such as the Penrose tilings, predating them by five centuries.[140][141] Templates found on scrolls such as the 97 foot (29.5 metres) long Topkapi Scroll may have been consulted. Found in the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire and believed to date from the late 15th century, the scroll shows a succession of two- and three- dimensional geometric patterns. There is no text, but there is a grid pattern and color-coding used to highlight symmetries and distinguish three-dimensional projections. Drawings such as shown on this scroll would have served as pattern-books for the artisans who fabricated the tiles, and the shapes of the girih tiles dictated how they could be combined into large patterns. In this way, craftsmen could make highly complex designs without resorting to mathematics and without necessarily understanding their underlying principles.[142]

File:Shibam Yemen Interior.jpg

  • High-rise mudbrick apartment building, tower block, skyscraper, skyscraper city: The 16th-century city of Shibam in Yemen is sometimes called the “oldest skyscraper-city in the world” and the “Manhattan of the desert.” Shibam was made up of over 500 tower houses,[143] each one rising 5 to 11 storeys high,[144] with each floor having one or two apartments.[145] The city had the first high-rise (which need to be at least 75 feet (23 m) tall) mudbrick buildings, with some of them being over 100 feet (30 m) tall. These remain the tallest high-rise mudbrick buildings in the world.[146] The tallest building in the city is the mudbrick minaret which stands at over 175 feet (53 m) tall.[145]
  • High-rise roof garden: The medieval Egyptian city of Fustat had a number of high-rise buildings that Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described as rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on the top story complete with ox-drawn water wheels for irrigating them.[147]
  • Muqarnas and corbel: Muqarnas is an early type of corbel employed as a decorative device in traditional Islamic and Persian architecture. The related mocárabe refers only to projecting elements that resemble stalactites, alveole.[148][149] An architectural ornamentation reminiscent of stalactites, muqarnas developed around the middle of the 10th century in northeastern Iran and almost simultaneously — but seemingly independently — in central North Africa; they take the form of small pointed niches, stacked in tiers which project beyond lower tiers, commonly constructed of brick, stone, stucco, or wood, clad with painted tiles, wood, or plaster, and are typically applied to domes, pendentives, cornices, squinches and the undersides of arches and vaults.[148]
  • Minaret: The minaret is a distinctive architectural feature of Islamic architecture, especially mosques, dating back to the early centuries of Islam. Minarets are generally tall spires with onion-shaped crowns, usually either free standing or much taller than any surrounding support structure. The tallest minaret in pre-modern times was the Qutub Minar, which was 72.5 meters (237.9 ft) tall and was built in the 12th century, and it remains the tallest brick and stone minaret in the world.
  • Ogee: Ogee windows and arches were introduced to European cities from the Middle East, probably via Venetian Gothic architecture. Ogee arches became a feature of English Gothic architecture by the late thirteenth century.[150]
  • Penrose tiling: The physicists Peter J. Lu and Paul Steinhardt have presented evidence that a Penrose tiling underlies some examples of medieval Islamic geometric patterns, such as the girih (strapwork) tilings at the Darb-e Imam shrine in Isfahan.[151]
  • Pointed arch: The pointed arch as an architectonic principle was first clearly established in Islamic architecture. As an architectonic principle, the pointed arch was entirely alien to the pre-Islamic world.[152]
  • Prefabricated home and movable structure: The first prefabricated homes and movable structures were invented in 16th century Mughal India by Akbar the Great. These structures were reported by Arif Qandahari in 1579.[153]
  • Quasicrystal: Quasiperiodical structures were first observed in some decorative tilings devised by medieval Islamic architects.[154][140] For example, Girih tiles in a medieval Islamic mosque in Isfahan, Iran, are arranged in a two-dimensional quasicrystalline pattern.[155]
  • Rib vault: Its introduction dates back to Islamic architecture in the eight century.[156]

Industrial milling

See also: Muslim Agricultural Revolution

The industrial uses of watermills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, while horizontal-wheeled and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century, alongside the first windmills. A variety of industrial mills were active in the medieval Islamic world, including fulling mills, gristmills, hullers, paper mills, sawmills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills, some of which were driven by watermills and others by early windmills. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from Al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia.[157] These advances made it possible for many industrial operations that were previously driven by manual labour in ancient times to be driven by machinery instead in the Islamic world. The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe later laid the foundations for the Industrial Revolution in 18th century Europe.[158]

  • Axial-flow wheel: The earliest known description of an axial-flow wheel, a water wheel with an axial-flow mechanism, dates back to the Banu Musa brothers. It was likely already in use as a power source for utilitarian machines in the Islamic world at the time. The earliest clear evidence of its practical use is the tub wheel later invented in 16th-century Europe.[159]
  • Bridge mill: The bridge mill was a unique type of watermill that was built as part of the superstructure of a bridge. The earliest record of a bridge mill is from Córdoba, Spain in the 12th century.[160] The bridge mill was a unique type of watermill that was built as part of the superstructure of a bridge. The earliest record of a bridge mill is from Córdoba, Spain in the 12th century.[161]
  • Factory: The earliest factory milling installations appeared in the Islamic world from the 8th century onwards. While milling installations had previously existed in the Byzantine and Sassanid empires, the large population increase in medieval Islamic cities (such as Baghdad‘s 1.5 million population) led to the development of large-scale factory milling installations with higher productivity to feed and support the large growing population. Whereas the most productive ancient milling installation produced an estimated 28 tons of grain per day, a typical 10th-century grain-processing factory in the Egyptian town of Bilbays produced an estimated 300 tons of grain and flour per day. A similar expansion in milling later occurred in Europe after the 10th century, possibly influenced by Islamic Spain.[162]
  • Factory milling installation: The first factory milling installations were built by Muslim engineers throughout every city and urban community in the Islamic world. For example, the factory milling complex in 10th century Baghdad could produce 10 tonnes of flour every day.[163] The first large milling installations in Europe were built in 12th century Islamic Spain.[164]
  • Flywheel-driven noria: See Pumps below.
  • Geared and wind-powered gristmills with trip hammers: The first geared gristmills[165] were invented by Muslim engineers in the Islamic world, and were used for grinding corn and other seeds to produce meals, and many other industrial uses such as fulling cloth, husking rice, papermaking, pulping sugarcane, and crushing metallic ores before extraction. Gristmills in the Islamic world were often made from both watermills and windmills. In order to adapt water wheels for gristmilling purposes, cams were used for raising and releasing trip hammers to fall on a material.[166] The first wind-powered gristmills driven by windmills were built in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran in the 9th and 10th centuries.[164]
  • Hulling mill: Early Islamic societies made early use of watermills for hulling rice.[167]
  • High-rise noria: Some medieval Islamic compartmented water wheels could lift water as high as 30 meters.[168]
  • Hydraulic paper mill: Donald Hill has identified a reference to a water-powered paper mill in Samarkand, in the 11th-century work of the Persian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni.[169] This is seen by Leor Halevi as evidence of Samarkand first harnessing waterpower in the production of paper.[170] The first hydraulic paper mill in Europe was operated by Muslim Mudéjar in the Moorish quarter of Xàtiva in 1282.[171]
  • Hydropowered forge and finery forge: The first forge to be driven by a hydropowered water mill rather than manual labour, also known as a finery forge, was invented in 12th century Islamic Spain.[164]
  • Mechanical fulling mill: The first clear references to fulling mills are reported in Persia from the 10th century. By the time of the Crusades in the 11th century, fulling mills were active throughout the Islamic world, from Islamic Spain and North Africa to Central Asia.[157] They appear to have originated in 9th or 10th century in the Islamic world, either in the Middle East or North Africa. Mechanical fulling was subsequently disseminated into Western Europe through Islamic Spain and Italy in the 11th and 12th centuries.[172]
  • Paper mill: Paper was introduced into the Muslim world by Chinese prisoners after the Battle of Talas. Muslims made several improvements to papermaking, such as the use of hydropower (as well as animal power) rather than manual labour to produce paper, and they built the first paper mills in Baghdad, Iraq, as early as 794. Papermaking was transformed from an art into a major industry as a result.[173][174] Paper mills were first developed in the Muslim world,[175] where Muslim authors called a production center a “paper manufactory”[176] since the 8th century.[177] Donald Routledge Hill has identified a reference to a water-powered paper mill in Samarkand, referred to in the work of the Persian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni.[178] This is seen as evidence that Samarkand was the first to harness waterpower in the production of paper.[179] Paper manufacturing mills were introduced to Islamic Spain in the mid-10th century and then to Christian Spain by the mid-12th century.[164] *Paper mill: Scholars have identified paper mills in Abbasid-era Baghdad during 794–795.[180]
  • Pulp mill: Early Islamic societies made early use of watermills to prepare pulp, the main material used for papermaking.[181]
  • Pulp mill and water-powered papermaking: The earliest use of water power in paper production, specifically the use of water-powered pulp mills for preparing the pulp material used in papermaking, dates back to Samarkand in the 8th century.[182]
  • Shipmill: The shipmill was a unique type of watermill powered by water wheels mounted on the sides of large ships moored in midstream.[166] The precursor to this device were the small boat mills being used in Rome when Belisarius was besieged there in 547 AD.[183] The first shipmills were employed along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in 10th century Iraq, where shipmills could produce 10 tons of flour from corn every day for the granary in Baghdad.[166]
  • Spiral scoop-wheel: The earliest known appearance of the spiral scoop-wheel dates back to the Islamic world, at some time no later than the 12th century.[184]
  • Stamp mill: These were first used by miners in Samarkand from as early as 973. They were used in medieval Persia for the purpose of crushing ore. By the 11th century, stamp mills were in widespread use throughout the Islamic world, from Islamic Spain and North Africa to Central Asia.[157]
  • Steel mill: By the 11th century, much of the Islamic world had industrial steel watermills in operation, from Al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia.[185]
  • Sugar mill: Sugar mills first appeared in the medieval Islamic world.[157] They were first driven by watermills, and then windmills from the 9th and 10th centuries in what are today Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran.[164] Windmills were also used for the sugar industry in Islamic Egypt.[186]
  • Sugar refinery: The first sugar refineries were built by Muslim engineers.[157] They were first driven by water mills, and then windmills from the 9th and 10th centuries in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran.[164] Both sugarcane mills and sugar refineries were used for sugar production in Egypt by the 12th century.[187]
  • Tide mill and tidal-powered machine: The earliest documented description of the tide mill, the first machine driven by tidal power, dates back to Muslim sources in 10th century Basra.[188] It was first described by al-Muqaddasi in 990.[189] Similar tide mills later appear in medieval France.[160] However, the Nendrum Monastery mill, recently excavated on an island in Strangford Lough in Northern Ireland, was a tide mill dating from 787.[5] Its millstones are 830mm in diameter and the horizontal wheel is estimated to have developed 7/8HP at its peak. According to Rob Spain, tide mills may have also possibly existed in the Roman Empire.[190]
  • Underground watermill: Another innovation that was unique to the Islamic world includes the situation of watermills in the underground irrigation tunnels of a qanat and on the main canals of valley-floor irrigation systems.[164]
  • Vertical-axle windmill: A small wind wheel operating an organ is described as early as the 1st century AD by Hero of Alexandria.[191][192] The first vertical-axle windmills were eventually built in Sistan, Persia as described by Muslim geographers. These windmills had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades.[193] They may have been constructed as early as the time of the second Rashidun caliph Umar (634–644 AD), though some argue that this account may have been a 10th-century amendment.[194] Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grains and draw up water, and used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries.[195] Horizontal axle windmills of the type generally used today were later developed in Northwestern Europe in the 1180s.[191][192]
  • Water turbine: The first water turbine, which had water wheels with curved blades onto which water flow was directed axially, was first described in a 9th century Arabic text for use in a watermill.[166]
  • Windmill: The first windmills were built in Sistan, Afghanistan, sometime between the 7th and 9th centuries, as described by Muslim geographers. These were vertical-axle windmills, which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades.[196] The first windmill may have been constructed as early as the time of the second Rashidun caliph Umar (634-644 AD), though some argue that this account may have been a 10th century amendment.[197] Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water, and used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries.[166] The first horizontal windmills were built in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran in the 9th and 10th centuries. They had a variety of uses, such as grinding grain, pumping water, and crushing sugar-cane.[164] Windmills later spread to Christian Europe by the late 12th century.[191][192] The earliest recorded windmill design found was Persian in origin, and was invented in Islamic Persia between the 7th–9th centuries.[198][199] The windmill became widespread across the Islamic world, and later spread to India and China.[186]

Cosmetics / Hygiene

Early forms of cosmetics had been used since ancient times, but these were usually created primarily for the purpose of beautification and often used harmful substances. This changed with Muslim cosmetologists who emphasized hygiene, due to religious requirements, and invented various healthy and hygienic cosmetics that are still used today.[200]

A number of hygienic cosmetics were invented by Muslim chemists, cosmetologists and physicians.[200]

  • Cosmetic dentistry and tooth bleaching: In his Al-Tasrif (c. 1000), Abulcasis described methods for strengthening the gums and introduced the method of tooth bleaching using tooth whiteners.[201]
  • Bangs: In the 9th century, Ziryab introduced a new hairstyle for women in Al-Andalus: a “shorter, shaped cut, with bangs on the forehead and the ears uncovered.”[202]
  • Beauty parlour and cosmetology school: In the 9th century, Ziryab opened the first beauty parlour and “cosmetology school” for women near Alcázar, Al-Andalus.”[202]
  • Chemical depilatory for hair removal: In the 9th century, Ziryab taught women in Al-Andalus “the shaping of eyebrows and the use of depilatories for removing body hair”.[202]
  • Hair care and hair dye: In his Al-Tasrif (c. 1000), Abulcasis first described hair dyes for changing human hair color to blond or black hair, and hair care for correcting kinky or curly hair.[201] Dyestuff was also created by earlier Muslim chemists.[29]
  • Lipstick, solid: In 1000 CE, the Andalusian Arab cosmetologist Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) invented solid lipsticks, which were perfumed stocks rolled and pressed in special molds, and he described them in his Al-Tasrif.[201]
  • Pomade: Produced by Arabs.[30]

Hygiene

  • Bar soap and scented soap: Hard toilet soap with a pleasant smell was produced in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, when soap-making became an established industry. Recipes for soap-making are described by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (854–925), who also gave a recipe for producing glycerine from olive oil. In the Middle East, soap was produced from the interaction of fatty oils and fats with alkali. In Syria, soap was produced using olive oil together with alkali and lime. Soap was exported from Syria to other parts of the Muslim world and to Europe.[203] Two key Islamic innovations in soapmaking was the invention of bar soap, described by al-Razi, and the addition of scents using perfume technology perfected in the Islamic world.[204]
  • Hand cream, hand lotion, suntan lotion: In his Al-Tasrif (c. 1000), Abulcasis described the first hand creams and lotions, and the first early suntan lotions, describing their ingredients and benefits in depth.[201]
  • Soap: The soap now used in modern times is made of vegetable oils (such as olive oil) with sodium hydroxide and aromatics (such as thyme oil). This formula was invented by Muslim chemists, and differed from the earlier soap-like detergents used in ancient times.[7] Sodium lye (al-soda al-kawia), perfumed and colored soaps, and liquid and solid soaps, were also produced by Muslim chemists.[200] Sodium Lye (Al-Soda Al-Kawia) was used for the first time, and the formula hasn’t changed from the current soap sold in the market. From the beginning of the 7th century, soap was produced in Nablus (Palestine), Kufa (Iraq) and Basra (Iraq). Soaps, as we know them today, are descendants of historical Arabian Soaps. Arabian Soap was perfumed and colored, while some of the soaps were liquid and others were solid. They also had special soap for shaving. It was commercially sold for 3 Dirhams (0.3 Dinars) a piece in 981 AD. A manuscript of Al-Razi (Rhazes) contains various modern recipes for soap. A recently discovered manuscript from the 13th century details more recipes for soap making, e.g. take some sesame oil, a sprinkle of potash, alkali and some lime, mix them all together, and boil. When cooked, they are poured into molds and left to set, leaving hard soap (soap bar).[200]
  • Soap bar and hard soap: The first hard soap bars were produced by Muslim chemists.[7] They gave recipes for soaps made from sesame oil, potash, alkali, lime, and molds, leaving hard soap.[200]
  • Toothpaste, functional and pleasant: In the 9th century, the Persian musician and fashion designer Ziryab is known to have invented a type of toothpaste, which he popularized throughout Islamic Spain.[205] The exact ingredients of this toothpaste are not currently known,[202] but unlike the earlier Egyptian and Roman toothpastes, Ziryab’s toothpaste was reported to have been both “functional and pleasant to taste.”[205] In circa 1000, Abulcasis recommended a toothpaste made from cinnamon, nutmeg, cardamom and coriander leaves, as a remedy for bad breath resulting from eating garlic or onions.[201]

Perfumery

Perfume usage was recorded in the Arabian Peninsula since the 7th century, and Muslims made many advances in perfumery in the proceeding centuries. This included the extraction of numerous fragrances, as well as the cheap mass-production of incenses. Muslim scientists such as Al-Kindi elaborated a vast number of recipes for a wide range of perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  • Perfume industry: Established by Geber (Jabir) (b. 722, Iraq) and Al-Kindi (b. 801, Iraq).[206] Jabir developed many techniques, including distillation, evaporation and filtration, which enabled the collection of the odour of plants into a vapour that could be collected in the form of water or oil.[206] Al-Kindi carried out extensive research and experiments in combining various plants and other sources to produce a variety of scent products.
  • Camphor: In the 9th century, the Arab chemist Al-Kindi (Alkindus) provided the earliest recipe for the production of camphor in his Kitab Kimiya’ al-‘Itr (Book of the Chemistry of Perfume).[207]
  • Deodorants, under-arm and roll-on: In the 9th century, Ziryab invented under-arm deodorants in Al-Andalus.[68] In circa 1000, another under-arm deodorant was described in Al-Andalus by Abulcasis,[201] who also invented perfumed stocks, rolled and pressed in special moulds, similar to modern roll-on deodorants.[208]
  • Extraction of fragrances through steam distillation: Introduced by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) in the 11th century. Islamic cultures contributed significantly to the development of perfumery in both perfecting the extraction of fragrances through steam distillation and by introducing new raw ingredients. Both the raw ingredients and distillation technology significantly influenced Western perfumery and scientific developments, particularly chemistry.
  • Ghaliya: The preparation of a perfume called ghaliya, which contained musk, amber and other ingredients, and the use of various drugs and apparatus], was produced by al-Kindi.
  • Musk, Ghaliya and floral perfumes: Invented some time prior to the 11th century in Arabia. In the 9th century, Al-Kindi spoke of the preparation of a perfume called Ghaliya, which contained musk, amber and other ingredients, and reveals a long list of technical names of drugs and apparatus. Musk and floral perfumes were brought to Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries from Arabia, through trade with the Islamic world and with the returning Crusaders. Those who traded for these were most often also involved in trade for spices and dyestuffs. There are records of the Pepperers Guild of London, going back to 1179, which show them trading with Muslims in spices, perfume ingredients and dyes.[29]
  • Jasmine and citrus perfumes: Muslims introduced new raw ingredients in perfumery, which were produced from different spices, herbals, and other fragrance materials, which are still used in modern perfumery. These included jasmine from South and Southeast Asia, and citrus fruits from East Asia.
  • Rose water: See Chemical substances above.

Institutions

A number of important economic, educational, legal and scientific institutions previously unknown in the ancient world have their origins in the medieval Islamic world.

Educational and scientific instutitions

  • Academic robe: The modern academic robe worn by graduates was adapted from the robe worn by the Alim (alumni) of a Madrasah.[209]
  • College and Madrasah: The origins of the college lie in the medieval Islamic world. The madrasah was a medieval Islamic college of law and theology, usually affiliated with a mosque, and was funded by early charitable trusts known as Waqf, the origins of the trust law.[210][211]
  • Degree, Doctorate, IjazahUniversity:[212] If the definition of a university is assumed to mean an institution of higher education and research which issues academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master and doctorate) as in the modern sense of the word, then the medieval Madrasahs known as Jami’ah (“university” in Arabic) founded in the 9th century would be the first examples of such an institution.[210][213] The University of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco is recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the oldest degree-granting university in the world with its founding in 859 by Fatima al-Fihri.[214] The Madrassah later influneced the European medieval university.[215][216][217] One such influence was the Islamic Ijazah certificate on the medieval European doctorate.[218][218][219][220] In the Madrasa, the Islamic “doctorate” was issued in the field of the Islamic Sharia law.[221] Other academic subjects, including the natural sciences, philosophy, and literary studies, were ancillary to the study of Sharia.[222] Islamic law undergraduate degrees were also granted in Al-Azhar University.[223] Al-Azhar University, founded in Cairo, Egypt in 975, was a Jami’ah university which offered a variety of post-graduate degrees (Ijazah),[213] and had individual faculties[224] for a theological seminary, Islamic law and jurisprudence, Arabic grammar, Islamic astronomyearly Islamic philosophy, and logic in Islamic philosophy.[213]
  • Ijazah, academic degree, doctorate: The ijazah, issued in Islamic madrasahs since the 9th century, is considered an early form of academic degree or doctorate.[210][225] Historians such as George Makdisi, Devin J. Stewart, Josef W. Meri and Shawkat Toorawa have stated that the ijazah was an early type of academic degree or doctorate issued in early medieval madrasahs, similar to that which later appeared in European medieval universities.[225][210]
  • Madrasah and college: The college institution has origins in the madrasah college, which was developed by the 9th century.[226]

File:Maragheh Observatory.jpg

  • Observatory and research institute: As opposed to a private observation post as was the case in ancient times,[227] the astronomical observatories in the Islamic world were the first true observatories, in the sense that they functioned as early research institutes, like modern observatories.[212] The Islamic observatory was the first specialized astronomical institution with its own scientific staff,[228] director, astronomical program,[227] large astronomical instruments, and building where astronomical research and observations are carried out. Islamic observatories were also the first to employ enormously large astronomical instruments in order to improve the accuracy of their observations.[228] Famous examples include the observatories at Baghdad and Ray, Iran, the Maragheh observatory, Ulugh Beg’s observatory at Samarqand, and the Istanbul observatory of Taqi al-Din.
  • Public library, lending library, library catalogue:[212] A number of distinct features of the modern library were introduced in the Islamic world, where libraries not only served as a collection of manuscripts as was the case in ancient libraries, but also as a public library and lending library, a centre for the instruction and spread of sciences and ideas, a place for meetings and discussions, and sometimes as a lodging for scholars or boarding school for pupils. The concept of the library catalogue was also introduced in medieval Islamic libraries, where books were organized into specific genres and categories.[229]
  • University: Fatima bint Muhammad Al-Fihriya Al-Qurashiya was an Arab Muslim woman who is credited for founding the oldest existing, continually operating and first degree-awarding educational institution in the world, The University of Al Quaraouiyine in Fes, Morocco, in 859. The University of Al Quaraouiyine is considered to be the oldest degree-granting university.[230][231][232][233][234][235][236][237]

Legal and economic institutions

  • Agency and Aval: The first agencies were the Hawala, mentioned in texts of Islamic jurisprudence as early as the 8th century. Hawala itself later influenced the development of the agency in common law and in civil laws such as the Aval in French law and the Avallo in Italian law. The words Aval and Avallo were themselves derived from Hawala. The transfer of debt, which was “not permissible under Roman law but became widely practiced in medieval Europe, especially in commercial transactions”, was due to the large extent of the “trade conducted by the Italian cities with the Muslim world in the Middle Ages.” The agency was also “an institution unknown to Roman law” as no “individual could conclude a binding contract on behalf of another as his agent.” In Roman law, the “contractor himself was considered the party to the contract and it took a second contract between the person who acted on behalf of a principal and the latter in order to transfer the rights and the obligations deriving from the contract to him.” On the other hand, Islamic law and the later common law “had no difficulty in accepting agency as one of its institutions in the field of contracts and of obligations in general.”[238]
  • Assize of novel disseisin and contract protected by the action of debt: According to Professor John Makdisi, the “royal English contract protected by the action of debt” has origins in “the Islamic Aqd“, and “the English assize of novel disseisin” has origins in “the Islamic Istihqaq“, in classical Maliki jurisprudence.[239]
  • Hawala and agency: The Hawala, an early informal value transfer system, has its origins in classical Islamic law, and is mentioned in texts of Islamic jurisprudence as early as the 8th century. Hawala itself later influenced the development of the agency in common law and in civil laws such as the aval in French law and the avallo in Italian law. The words aval and avallo were themselves derived from Hawala. The agency was also an institution unknown to Roman law as no individual could conclude a binding contract on behalf of another as his agent. On the other hand, Islamic law and the later common law “had no difficulty in accepting agency as one of its institutions in the field of contracts and of obligations in general.”[240]
  • Free trade: Classical Islam promulgated capitalist economic policies such as free trade and banking by the 10th century.[241]
  • International humanitarian law: Early Islamic law‘s principles concerning military conduct and the treatment of prisoners of war under the early Caliphate are considered to be the earliest principles of international humanitarian law. The many requirements on how prisoners of war should be treated included, for example, providing shelter, food and clothing, respecting their cultures, and preventing any acts of execution, rape or revenge. Some of these principles were not codified in Western international law until modern times.[242] Islamic law under the early Caliphate institutionalised humanitarian limitations on military conduct, including attempts to limit the severity of war, guidelines for ceasing hostilities, distinguishing between civilians and combatants, preventing unnecessary destruction, and caring for the sick and wounded.[243]
  • Jury: An early example of a jury trial system was the Lafif in the Maliki school of classical Islamic law and jurisprudence, which was developed between the 8th and 11th centuries in the medieval Islamic world, specifically in North Africa, Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily. The Islamic Lafif was a body of twelve members drawn from the neighbourhood and sworn to tell the truth, who were bound to give a unanimous verdict, about matters “which they had personally seen or heard, binding on the judge, to settle the truth concerning facts in a case, between ordinary people, and obtained as of right by the plaintiff.”[244][245]
  • Jury and jury trial: The closest predecessor to the English jury trial was the Lafif in the Maliki school of classical Islamic law and jurisprudence, which was developed between the 8th and 11th centuries. Like the English jury, the Islamic Lafif was a body of twelve members drawn from the neighborhood and sworn to tell the truth, who were bound to give a unanimous verdict, about matters “which they had personally seen or heard, binding on the judge, to settle the truth concerning facts in a case, between ordinary people, and obtained as of right by the plaintiff.” According to John Makdisi, “no other institution in any legal institution studied to date shares all of these characteristics with the English jury.”[239] According John A. Makdisi, many concepts of English common law, including juries, derive from Islamic law. In the same period as William the Conquerer conquered England, Norman adventurers led by Robert Guiscard had taken Sicily, previously under the Arab Fatimid Caliphate. Thus, according to Makdisi, English law became influenced by the Islamic law used in Sicily under the Fatimids, including the use of the twelve man jury. Makdisi points to Henry II’s laws as having been influenced through people such as Thomas Brown, a member of Henry’s government who had previously served in the Sicilian government.[246]
  • Laffer curve: Arthur Laffer said he learnt the concept from Ibn Khaldun.[247]
  • Paper cheque: Paper cheques first appeared in the Islamic world, by the 8th century. The word “cheque” is derived from the Arabic sakk.[248]
  • Pension and welfare state: The concepts of welfare and pension were introduced in early Islamic law as forms of Zakat (charity), one of the Five Pillars of Islam, under the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century. This practice continued well into the Abbasid Caliphate. The taxes collected in the treasury of an Islamic government were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled. According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali (1058–1111), the government was also expected to stockpile food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred. The early Caliphate can thus be considered the world’s first major welfare state.[249][250]
  • Proto-capitalism and free-market economy: Early forms of proto-capitalism and free markets were present in the Caliphate.[251] An early market economy and early form of merchant capitalism developed between the 8th and 12th centuries.[252]
  • Merchant capitalism: Early forms of merchant capitalism developed in the medieval Islamic world from the 9th century, predating medieval Europe where forms of merchant capitalism began to appear from the 12th century.[253][254][255]
  • Trust institution and charitable trust: The Waqf in Islamic law, which developed in the Islamic world from the 7th to 9th centuries, were the first charitable trust.[256] Every waqf was required to have a waqif (founder), mutawillis (trustee), qadi (judge) and beneficiaries.[257] Under both a waqf and a trust, “property is reserved, and its usufruct appropriated, for the benefit of specific individuals, or for a general charitable purpose; the corpus becomes inalienable; estates for life in favor of successive beneficiaries can be created” and “without regard to the law of inheritance or the rights of the heirs; and continuity is secured by the successive appointment of trustees or mutawillis.”[258] The waqf, or charitable trust, was developed in Islamic law during the 7th–9th centuries, and bears a resemblance to 13th-century English trust law.[259]

Medical institutions

See also: Bimaristan, Islamic medicine, and Islamic psychology

  • Apothecary, Drugstore, Pharmacy: The first drugstores and pharmacies were opened by Muslim pharmacists in Baghdad in 754,[9] while the first apothecary shops were also founded by Muslim practitioners at the time.[260]
  • Formal medical education system and medical certification: A major innovation of Islamic medicine was the formal training and licensing of medical practitioners, with a formal education system for physicians established in Baghdad in 931. Under this system, graduate physicians were required to pass written and practical examinations, after which a hospital chief would certify their competence in writing, and then a government public health official would monitor their performance.[261]
  • General hospital: The earliest general hospital was built in 805 in Baghdad by Harun Al-Rashid.[262][263]
  • Geriatric medicine: Arabs were the first to write books on geriatric medicine.
  • Hospital: The United States National Library of Medicine credits the hospital as being a product of medieval Islamic civilization. Compared to contemporaneous Christian institutions, which were poor and sick relief facilities offered by some monasteries, the Islamic hospital was a more elaborate institution with a wider range of functions. In Islam, there was a moral imperative to treat the ill regardless of financial status. Islamic hospitals tended to be large, urban structures, and were largely secular institutions, many open to all, whether male or female, civilian or military, child or adult, rich or poor, Muslim or non-Muslim. The Islamic hospital served several purposes, as a center of medical treatment, a home for patients recovering from illness or accidents, an insane asylum, and a retirement home with basic maintenance needs for the aged and infirm.[264]
  • Hospital pharmacy and pharmacy school: Muslim physicians established the first specialized pharmacy unit in hospitals, as well as a pharmacy school.[265]
  • Medical degree and diploma: From the 9th century, in Bimaristan medical schools founded in the medieval Islamic world, medical degrees and diplomas were issued to students of Islamic medicine who were qualified to be a practicing Doctor of Medicine.[213][266]
  • Medical diploma: Islamic hospitals were the first to require medical diplomas to license doctors.[213]
  • Medical school: The Islamic Bimaristans were not only hospitals, but also the first medical schools and universities to issue diplomas. The first of these institutions was opened in Baghdad during the time of Harun al-Rashid. They then appeared in Egypt from 872 and then in Islamic Spain, Persia and the Maghreb thereafter. Physicians and surgeons at Islamic hospital-universities gave lectures to medical students and diplomas were issued to students who completed their education and were qualified to be doctors of medicine.[267]
  • Mobile hospital: The mobile hospital, which moved from one place to another place, was developed in the Abbasid Caliphate.[268] An innovation of Islamic medicine, medical schools emerged from around the 9th century.[269]
  • Peer review and clinical peer review: The first documented description of a peer review process is found in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī (854–931) of Al-Raha, Syria. His work, as well as later Arabic medical manuals, states that a visiting physician must always make duplicate notes of a patient’s condition on every visit. When the patient was cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local medical council of other physicians, who would review the practicing physician’s notes to decide whether his or her performance met the required standards of medical care. If their reviews were negative, the practicing physician could face a lawsuit from a maltreated patient.[270]
  • Pharmacologist profession: For the first time in history, the medical and pharmacologist professions were separated, each with its own professional qualifications and responsibilities.[261]
  • Preventive healthcare: A unique feature of the bimaristan hospitals in Islamic medicine was that, in addition to curative medicine, they also emphasized preventive measures, for individuals to maintain their health.[271]
  • Psychiatric hospital: The first psychiatric hospitals were built in the medieval Islamic world. The first of these were built built in Baghdad in 705, Fes in the early 8th century, and Cairo in 800.[272]
  • Public hospital: The Islamic Bimaristans were the first free public hospitals, and replaced the healing temples and sleep temples found in ancient times.[212] They were hospital in the modern sense, an establishment where the ill were welcomed and cared for by qualified staff. In this way, Muslim physicians were the first to make a distinction between a hospital and other different forms of sleep and healing temples, hospices, lazarets and leper-houses, all of which in ancient times were more concerned with isolating the sick and the mad from society “rather than to offer them any way to a true cure.” The medieval Bimaristan hospitals are thus considered “the first hospitals” in the modern sense of the word.[273]
  • Quarantine: The discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases and the use of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases was introduced by Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine (1025).[274]
  • University hospital and internship: Under the Baghdad medical education system established in 931, innovations included Islamic doctors being trained in universities with attached teaching hospitals, and a medical internship system almost identical to the modern internship system. Islamic physicians were the first to establish medical training and teaching within a modern university-hospital setting.[261]

Mechanical technology

Purposes of mechanical inventions

File:Al-Jazari portrait.jpg

Studies have arisen about the place, purpose and motivations of these inventions in their societal context.[275] Certain scholars point out that many inventions created during the medieval period by certain popular Muslim inventors, such as the Banu Musa brothers or Al-Jazari, were in a sense “toys” that were only created for purposes of amusement. This view states that as impressive and complex that these machines were, some of them may not have contributed much real function to their society. Various hydraulic machines, clocks and automata invented may have only have had a superficial purpose, related to amusement or luxury.[276]

However, such a view may be limited in scope, and may not properly assess the context in which the inventors work. In many cases, wealthy patrons supported inventors to create machines, such as clocks and water-raising devices, that would benefit society as a whole. These devices, such as those invented by Al-Jazari, may have been aesthetically appealing at the same time as they were useful. Also the fact that certain automata and other entertaining technologies were described or created illustrates the strong economic situation of certain Medieval Islamic societies.[277] George Saliba notes, in the minds of many scientists the art of mechanics did not make a strong distinction between technology that was “useful” and that which was “toy-like.” Further study will serve to situate the role of mechanical technology in the economic and social context of Islamic society.

The early Muslim Arab Empire was ahead of its time regarding water cleaning systems and also had advanced water transportation systems resulting in better agriculture, something that helped in issues related to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence.[278] Al-Jazari invented machines for raising water[115] and water wheels with cams on their axle used to operate automata[116] in the 12th century.

Automata / Robotics

File:Al-jazari robots.jpg File:Al-Jazari – A Musical Toy.jpg File:Al-Jazari – The Basin.jpg

Mark E. Rosheim summarizes the advances in robotics made by Arab engineers as follows:

“Unlike the Greek designs, these Arab examples reveal an interest, not only in dramatic illusion, but in manipulating the environment for human comfort. Thus, the greatest contribution the Arabs made, besides preserving, disseminating and building on the work of the Greeks, was the concept of practical application. This was the key element that was missing in Greek robotic science.”[279]

“The Arabs, on the other hand, displayed an interest in creating human-like machines for practical purposes but lacked, like other preindustrial societies, any real impetus to pursue their robotic science.”[280]

  • Hand washing automaton: In 1206, Al-Jazari invented a hand-washing automaton.[281]
  • Hand washing automaton and flush mechanism: Al-Jazari invented a hand washing automaton first employing the flush mechanism now used in modern flush toilets. It features a female humanoid automaton standing by a basin filled with water. When the user pulls the lever, the water drains and the female automaton refills the basin.[282]
  • Mechanical singing bird automata: Caliph al-Mamun had a silver and golden tree in his palace in Baghdad in 827, which had the features of an automatic machine. There were metal birds that sang automatically on the swinging branches of this tree built by Muslim engineers at the time.[92][283] The Abbasid Caliph al-Muktadir also had a golden tree in his palace in Baghdad in 915, with birds on it flapping their wings and singing.[92][284]
  • Mercury-powered automata: One of the clocks invented by Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in 11th-century Spain incporated a “complicated and ingenious system which, at the top of each hour, puts into motion a series of mechanical automata, including mechanical snakes, women and men which function through a system based on water, mercury and pulleys.”[285] This was the earliest known use of mercury in hydraulic linkages to power automata.[285][286]
  • Peacock fountain and automated humanoid servants: Al-Jazari’s “peacock fountain” was a sophisticated hand washing device featuring humanoid automata as servants which offer soap and towels. Mark E. Rosheim describes it as follows: “Pulling a plug on the peacock’s tail releases water out of the beak; as the dirty water from the basin fills the hollow base a float rises and actuates a linkage which makes a servant figure appear from behind a door under the peacock and offer soap. When more water is used, a second float at a higher level trips and causes the appearance of a second servant figure — with a towel!”[279]
  • Programmable analog computer: See Castle clock. See also Analog computers below.
  • Programmable automatic flute player: The Banū Mūsā invented an automatic flute player which appears to have been the first programmable machine, and which they described in their Book of Ingenious Devices.[287]
  • Programmable humanoid robot and musical robot band: In 1206, Al-Jazari invented a programmable humanoid automata band.[288][289] According to Charles B. Fowler, the automata were a “robot band” which performed “more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection.”[290]
  • Programmable humanoid robot and robot band: Al-Jazari (1136–1206) created the first recorded designs of a programmable humanoid robot in 1206, as opposed to the non-programmable automata in ancient times. Al-Jazari’s robot was originally a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bump into little levers that operate the percussion. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns if the pegs were moved around.[291] According to Charles B. Fowler, the automata were a “robot band” which performed “more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection.”[292]
  • Wind-powered automata: The first wind-powered automata in history were the wind-powered statues invented by the Abbasids in the mid-8th century. The statues “turned with the wind over the domes of the four gates and the palace complex of the Round City of Baghdad”. The “Green Dome of the palace was surmounted by the statue of a horseman carrying a lance that was believed to point toward the enemy. This public spectacle of wind-powered statues had its private counterpart in the ‘Abbasid palaces where automata of various types were predominantly displayed.”[293]
  • Wind-powered fountain and worm-and-pinion gear: In the 9th century, the Banū Mūsā brothers designed the earliest known wind-powered fountains.[294] Their Book of Ingenious Devices described the construction of several wind-powered fountains, one of which incorporated a worm-and-pinion gear.[295]
  • Other automata: In 1206, al-Jazari, along with his inventions above, also designed and constructed a number of other automata, such as home appliances and musical automata powered by water (see one of his works at The Automata of Al-Jazari).

Pumps

  • Crankshaft-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pumps: The first known use of a crankshaft in a chain pump was in one of Al-Jazari’s saqiya machines described in 1206.[296] Al-Jazari also constructed a water-raising saqiya chain pump which was run by hydropower rather than manual labour, though the Chinese were also using hydropower for other chain pumps prior to him. Saqiya machines like the ones he described have been supplying water in Damascus since the 13th century up until modern times, and were in use throughout the medieval Islamic world.[296]
  • Crankshaft-driven screw and screwpump: In ancient times, the screw and screwpump were driven by a treadwheel, but from the 12th and 13th centuries, Muslim engineers operated them using the crankshaft.[297]
  • Large productive noria: The largest surviving noria, with a diameter of about 20 meters, is located in the Syrian city of Hama. It was built during the medieval Islamic period. It has 120 water collection compartments and could raise more than 95 litres of water per minute.[298] Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi’s Kitab al-Hawi in the 10th century described a noria in Iraq that could lift as much as 153,000 litres per hour, or 2550 litres per minute, comparable to the output of modern norias in East Asia.[299]
  • Noria and sakia with cranks: Al-Jazari introduced the use of the crank in the noria and saqiya, for the purpose of maximising their efficiency.[296]
  • Six-cylinder ‘Monobloc’ pump: In 1559, Taqi al-Din invented a six-cylinder ‘Monobloc’ pump. It was a hydropowered water-raising machine incorporating valves, suction and delivery pipes, piston rods with lead weights, trip levers with pin joints, and cams on the axle of a water-driven scoop wheel.[300]
  • Six-cylinder pump: Invented by Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma’ruf.[301] It was the basis of the steam engine, along with Al-Jazari‘s earlier two-cylinder pump.[302]
  • Suction pump, double-action piston pump, reciprocating piston engine: In 1206, al-Jazari demonstrates the first suction pipes and suction piston pump, the first use of double-action, and one of the earliest valve operations, when he invented a twin-cylinder double-action reciprocating suction piston pump, which seems to have had a direct significance in the development of modern engineering. This pump is driven by a water wheel, which drives, through a system of gears, an oscillating slot-rod to which the rods of two pistons are attached. The pistons work in horizontally opposed cylinders, each provided with valve-operated suction and delivery pipes. The delivery pipes are joined above the centre of the machine to form a single outlet into the irrigation system. This pump is remarkable for three reasons: The earliest known use of a true suction pipe in a pump, the first application of the double-acting principle, the first conversion of rotary to reciprocating motion.[303]
  • Two-cylinder reciprocating piston pump and double-action piston mechanism: Al-Jazari’s invention of the two-cylinder reciprocating piston pump featured the first known example of a double-action piston mechanism.[304] It was the basis of the steam engine.[302]
  • Water-powered sakia: Up until the 13th century, sakia water-lifting wheels had relied on animal power. Al-Jazari in 2016 invented a sakia that was driven by water power, with water falling onto the spoon-shaped pallets of a water wheel placed in a lower-level reservoir. A lightweight wooden model cow was attached to give the illusion of animal power, when in fact it was water-powered, thus serving as an attraction as well as a utilitarian device. By 1254, there was a larger version of Al-Jazari’s device built along the River Yazid in Damascus, to serve the needs of a hospital, and remained in constant use up until about 1960.[305]
  • Weight-driven pump: Most ancient and medieval pumps were either driven by manual labour or hydraulics. The first weight-driven pump was described as part of a perpetual motion water-raising machine in a medieval Arabic manuscript written some time after Al-Jazari. It featured a mercury-powered clockwork escapement mechanism and had two out gear-wheels driven by lead weights which mesh with a large central gear-wheel.[306]
  • Wind-powered pump: Windmills were used to pump water since at least the 9th century in what is now Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan.[164]

Other mechanical devices

File:Al-Jazari – A Candle Clock.jpg File:Banu musa mechanical.jpg File:Al-jazari water device.jpg

  • Artificial thunder, lightning, electricity, weather simulation: Abbas Ibn Firnas invented an artificial weather simulation room, in which spectators saw stars and clouds, and were astonished by artificial thunder and lightning, which were produced by mechanisms hidden in his basement laboratory.[307][308] It is possible that some electricity may have been involved in producing the artificial thunder and lightning effects.
  • Bayonet fitting: Al-Jazari‘s candle clock in 1206 employed, for the first time, a bayonet fitting, a fastener mechanism still used in modern times.[309]
  • Boiler with tap: The Banu Musa brothers’ Book of Ingenious Devices describes a boiler with a tap to access hot water. The water is heated through cold water being poured into a pipe which leads to a tank at the bottom of the boiler, where the water is heated with fire. A person can then access hot water from the boiler through a tap.[310]
  • Bolted lock and mechanical controls: According to Donald Routledge Hill, Al-Jazari first described several early mechanical controls, including “a large metal door…and a lock with four bolts.”[166]
  • Automatic crank: The non-manual crank appears in several of the hydraulic devices described by the Banū Mūsā brothers in their Book of Ingenious Devices.[311] These automatically operated cranks appear in several devices, two of which contain an action which approximates to that of a crankshaft, anticipating Al-Jazari‘s invention by several centuries and its first appearance in Europe by over five centuries. However, the automatic crank described by the Banu Musa would not have allowed a full rotation, but only a small modification was required to convert it to a crankshaft.[312]
  • Camshaft: An early cam was built into Hellenistic water-driven automata from the 3rd century BC.[313] The first known use of a camshaft dates back to Al-Jazari in 1206.[314] His camshaft was attached to a water wheel and was used to operate levers moving robotic musicians in his castle clock (see Analog computers below).[298]
  • Combination lock, bolted lock, mechanical controls: According to Donald Routledge Hill, al-Jazari first described several early mechanical controls, including “a large metal door, a combination lock and a lock with four bolts.”[166]
  • Complex gearing, segmental gearing, epicyclic gearing: Segmental gears (“a piece for receiving or communicating reciprocating motion from or to a cogwheel, consisting of a sector of a circular gear, or ring, having cogs on the periphery, or face.”[315]) and epicyclic gears were both first invented by the 11th century Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi from Islamic Spain. He employed both these types of gears in the gear trains of his mechanical clocks and automata. Simple gears have been known before him, but this was the the first known case of complex gears used to transmit high torque. His mechanisms were the most sophisticated geared devices until the mechanical clocks of the mid-14th century. Segmental gears were also later employed by Al-Jazari in 1206.[316][317] Professor Lynn Townsend White, Jr. wrote: “Segmental gears first clearly appear in Al-Jazari, in the West they emerge in Giovanni de Dondi’s astronomical clock finished in 1364, and only with the great Sienese engineer Francesco di Giorgio (1501) did they enter the general vocabulary of European machine design.”[318] Al-Muradi’s work was known to scholars working under Alfonso X of Castile.[319]
  • Conical valve: This was a mechanism developed by the Banu Musa and of particular importance for future developments. It was used in a variety of different applications,[320] including its use as “in-line” components in flow systems, the first known use of conical valves as automatic controllers.[116]
  • Control engineering: The work of the Banu Musa brothers, which included innovations involving subtle combinations of pneumatics and aerostatics, closely parallels the modern fields of control engineering and pneumatic instrumentation.[321]
  • Crank, non-manual: The crank appears in the early 9th century in several of the hydraulic devices described by the Banū Mūsā brothers in their Book of Ingenious Devices; this appears to be the “first known use of a non-manually operated crank.”[322]
  • Crankshaft: Al-Jazari (1136–1206) is credited with the invention of the crankshaft.[312][323] The crankshaft appears in two of his water-raising machines, a chain pump[323] and his twin-cylinder pump,[324] including both the crank and shaft mechanisms.[325] The crankshaft later played an important role in the Industrial Revolution,[326] and is central to modern machinery such as the steam engine, internal combustion engine and automatic controls.[327]
  • Crankshaft and crank-connecting rod mechanism: The crank mechanism was previously known in Han China and to the Banu Musa brothers. Centuries later in 1206, Al-Jazari invented the crankshaft,[7][328] which he incorporated with a crank-connecting rod mechanism in his twin-cylinder pump. Like the modern crankshaft, Al-Jazari’s mechanism consisted of a wheel setting several crank pins into motion, with the wheel’s motion being circular and the pins moving back-and-forth in a straight line.[328] Al-Jazari’s invention of the crankshaft is considered to be the most important single mechanical invention after the wheel, as it transforms continuous rotary motion into a linear reciprocating motion, and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, including the internal combustion engine[7] and steam engine.[329] He employed it in two of his water raising machines.[330]
  • Crank-slider: Ismail al-Jazari’s water pump employed the first known crank-slider mechanism.[331]
  • Crank-slider mechanism: A crank-driven water pump by Al-Jazari employed the first known crank-slider mechanism.[332]
  • Crude brass movable type printing press: According to Robert E. Krebs, Muslim Spain had a crude movable type printing press at least a hundred years prior to Johannes Gutenburg’s invention in 1454.[333]
  • Design and construction methods: According to Donald Routledge Hill, “We see for the first time in Al-Jazari’s work several concepts important for both design and construction: the lamination of timber to minimize warping, the static balancing of wheels, the use of wooden templates (a kind of pattern), the use of paper models to establish designs, the calibration of orifices, the grinding of the seats and plugs of valves together with emery powder to obtain a watertight fit, and the casting of metals in closed mold boxes with sand.”[166]
  • Elevated battering ram: In 1000, the Book of Secrets by the Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Islamic Spain described the use of an elevator-like lifting device, in order to raise a large battering ram to destroy a fortress.[334]
  • DIY manual: The style of Al-Jazari‘s Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices resembles that of a modern DIY manual.[335]
  • Draw bar: The draw bar was applied to sugar-milling, with evidence of its use at Delhi in the Mughal Empire by 1540, but possibly dating back several centuries earlier to the Delhi Sultanate.[336]
  • Escapement mechanism in rotating wheel: Al-Jazari invented a method for controlling the speed of rotation of a wheel using an escapement mechanism in 1206.[337]
  • Foot pedal and pedal-operated loom: The foot pedal was originally invented for the purpose of operating a loom, for use in weaving. The first such devices appeared in Syria, Iran, and Islamic parts of East Africa, where “the operator sat with his feet in a pit below a fairly low-slung loom.” By 1177, it was further developed in Islamic Spain, where having the mechanism was “raised higher above the ground on a more substantial frame.” This type of loom spread to the Christian parts of Spain and soon became popular all over medieval Europe. The idea was adopted by Christian woollen weavers, particularly in Flanders. This became the standard European loom, it had the great advantage that the weavers hands were free to pass the shuttle, while the monotonous job of operating the heddles was done by the feet.[338] This laid the foundations for the development of the power loom, which was instrumental to the Industrial Revolution.
  • Fountain pen: The earliest historical record of a reservoir fountain pen dates back to the 10th century. In 953, Al-Muizz Lideenillah, the caliph of Egypt, demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen which held ink in a reservoir and delivered it to the nib via gravity and capillary action. As recorded by Qadi al-Nu’man al-Tamimi (d. 974) in his Kitdb al-Majalis wa ‘l-musayardt, al-Mu’izz instructed and commissioned the construction of a fountain reservoir pen.[339][340]
  • Funnel with bent end: Invented by the Banu Musa brothers in the 9th century for pouring in different liquids.[341]
  • Gas mask: The Banu Musa brothers in the 9th century invented an early gas mask,[116] for protecting workers in polluted wells.[342] They also described bellows that remove foul air from wells.[295] They explained that these instruments allow a worker to “descend into any well he wishes for a while and he will not fear it, nor will it harm him, if God wills may he be exalted.”[343]
  • Gas mask: An early type of rudimentary gas mask was invented in the 9th century by the Persian Banu Musa brothers in Baghdad, Iraq. They described it in their Book of Ingenious Devices,[116] mainly for protecting workers in polluted wells.[344]
  • Gate operator and automatic gate operator: The first automatic doors were created by Chinese engineers under Emperor Yang of Sui prior to Islam. This was followed by the first hydraulics-powered automatic gate operators, invented by Al-Jazari in 1206.[345] Al-Jazari also created automatic doors as part of one of his elaborate water clocks.[166]
  • Grab and clamshell grab: The mechanical grab,[166] specifically a clamshell grab,[116] is an original invention by the Banu Musa brothers that does not appear in any earlier Greek works.[341] The grab they described was used to extract objects from underwater,[295] and recover objects from the beds of streams.[116] The mechanical grab,[341] specifically the clamshell grab,[116] was invented by the Persian Banu Musa brothers and described in their Book of Ingenious Devices in the 9th century. It was an original innovation by the Banu Musa that does not appear in any earlier Greek works.[341] The grab described by the Banu Musa was used to extract objects from underwater,[295] and recover objects from the beds of streams.[116]
  • Hurricane lamp, self-trimming lamp, self-feeding lamp: Some of the other devices the Banu Musa invented include a hurricane lamp, self-trimming lamp (by Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir), and self-feeding lamp.[116]
  • Impulse steam turbine: An early steam turbine was invented in 1551 by Taqi al-Din, a philosopher, astronomer and engineer in 16th century Ottoman Egypt, who described a method for rotating a spit by means of a jet of steam playing on rotary vanes around the periphery of a wheel.[346] Al-Din’s device was the first impulse steam turbine, predating the later impulse steam turbine of Giovanni Branca (1629), who may have been inspired by al-Din.[347]
  • Intermittent working: The concept of minimizing intermittent working is first implied in one of al-Jazari’s saqiya chain pumps, which was for the purpose of maximising the efficiency of the saqiya chain pump.[296]
  • Laminated timber, static balancing of wheels, wooden template, paper model, calibrated orifice, emery grinding, molding sand casting: English technology historian Donald Hill wrote, “We see for the first time in al-Jazari’s work several concepts important for both design and construction: the lamination of timber to minimize warping, the static balancing of wheels, the use of wooden templates (a kind of pattern), the use of paper models to establish designs, the calibration of orifices, the grinding of the seats and plugs of valves together with emery powder to obtain a watertight fit, and the casting of metals in closed mold boxes with sand.”[348]
  • Mariotte’s bottle: The Libros del saber de Astronomia describes a water clock which employs the principle of Mariotte’s bottle.[349]
  • Mechanical flywheel: The mechanical flywheel, used to smooth out the delivery of power from a driving device to a driven machine and, essentially, to allow lifting water from far greater depths (up to 200 metres), was first employed by Ibn Bassal (fl. 1038–1075), of Al-Andalus.[350][351][352][353]
  • Metal block printing and printed amulet: Printing was known as tarsh in Arabic. After woodblock printing appeared in the Islamic world, which may have been adopted from China, a unique type of block printing was invented in Islamic Egypt during the 9th-10th centuries: print blocks made from metals such as tin, lead and cast iron, as well as stone, glass and clay. The first printed amulets were invented in the Islamic world, and were printed with Arabic calligraphy using metal block printing. This technique, however, appears to have had very little influence outside of the Muslim world, since metal and other non-wooden forms of block printing were unknown in China or Korea, which later developed metal movable type printing instead. Block printing later went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China.[354]
  • Metronome: According to Lynn Townsend White, Jr., the Andalusian polymath Abbas Ibn Firnas was the inventor of an early metronome in the 9th century.[85] Invented by Abbas ibn Firnas.[85]
  • Minimising intermittency: The concept of minimising the intermittency is first implied in one of Al-Jazari‘s saqiya devices, which was to maximise the efficiency of the saqiya.[296]
  • Movable brass type printing: After the invention of movable wood type printing in China, this was followed by the development of movable brass type printing in Islamic Spain in the 14th century, which was where Europe’s first printing devices were made.[20]
  • On/off switch and feedback control: The on/off switch, an important feedback control principle, was invented by Muslim engineers between the 9th and 12th centuries, and it was employed in a variety of automata and water clocks. The mechanism later had an influence on the development of the electric on/off switch which appeared in the 1950s.[355]
  • Papermaking with trip hammers: The Muslims introduced the use of trip hammers in the production of paper, replacing the traditional Chinese mortar and pestle method. In turn, the trip hammer method was later employed by the Chinese.[356]
  • Parallel rulers: Invented by Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma’ruf and used at the Constantinople Observatory of Taqi ad-Din (1577-1580).[357]
  • Rack-and-pinion: The Chinese military book Wu Pei Chih (1621) describes a Turkish musket that, rather than using a matchlock mechanism, instead uses a rack-and-pinion mechanism. On release of the trigger, the two racks return automatically to their original positions. This was the first time a rack-and-pinion mechanism is known to have been used in a firearm, with no evidence of its use in any European or East-Asian firearms at the time.[358]
  • Rag-and-chain pump: In 1551, Taqi al-Dīn anticipated Georgius Agricola’s description of the rag-and-chain pump, which was published in 1556.[302]
  • Segmental gear: A segmental gear is “a piece for receiving or communicating reciprocating motion from or to a cogwheel, consisting of a sector of a circular gear, or ring, having cogs on the periphery, or face.”[359] Professor Lynn Townsend White, Jr. wrote, “Segmental gears first clearly appear in al-Jazari“.[360] But Donald Hill noted that segmental gears first appeared in some of Al-Muradi’s devices in the 11th century. The segmental gear later appeared in Giovanni Dondi dell’Orologio’s astronomical clock in 1365.[305]
  • Spinning wheel: The earliest clear illustrations of the spinning wheel come from Baghdad (drawn in 1237), and then from China (c. 1270) and Europe (c. 1280). There is evidence that spinning wheels had already come into use in the Islamic world long before that, as can be seen in an Islamic description of the spinning wheel dating from before 1030, while the earliest Chinese description dates from around 1090.[361] According to Irfan Habib, the spinning wheel was introduced into India from Iran in the thirteenth century.[361] In France, the spindle and distaff were not displaced until the mid 18th century.[362] The spinning wheel is believed to have been invented in the Islamic world. The earliest clear illustration of the spinning wheel comes from Baghdad, drawn in 1237. There is evidence that spinning wheels had already come into use in the Islamic world during the early eleventh century, as the earliest implicit reference to the device is dated to 1030 in the Islamic world. This predates the earliest implicit reference in China (c. 1090), the earliest clear illustrations in China (c. 1270) and Europe (1280), and the earliest unambiguous reference in India (1350).[363] The spinning wheel was a precursor to the spinning jenny, which later played a key role during the Industrial Revolution. The spinning jenny was essentially an adaptation of the spinning wheel.[364]
  • Steam jack and practical steam turbine: A steam-powered roasting jack was first described by the Ottoman polymath and engineer Taqi al-Din in his Al-Turuq al-samiyya fi al-alat al-ruhaniyya (The Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines), in 1551 CE (959 AH). It was a steam turbine with practical applications as a prime mover for rotating a spit.[365] A similar device for rotating a spit later described by John Wilkins in 1648.[346]
  • Steam turbine, impulse steam turbine, steam engine, steam jack, self-rotating spit: In 1551, Taqi al-Din invented the first impulse steam turbine and described the first practical applications for it as a prime mover for a self-rotating spit, predating Giovanni Branca’s later impulse steam turbine from 1629. Taqi al-Din described his invention in his book, Al-Turuq al-saniyya fi al-alat al-ruhaniyya (The Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines), completed in 1551 AD (959 AH).[366] This device is today known as a steam jack.
  • Tin block printing: Block printing, called tarsh in Arabic, was used in 10th-century Arabic Egypt, mostly used for prayers and amulets.[367] Block printing may have been invented in Egypt independently from China.[368] An original innovation in Egypt appears to have been the casting of printblocks from tin.[367]
  • Trip hammer in papermaking: Muslim engineers introduced the use of trip hammers in the production of paper, replacing the traditional Chinese mortar and pestle method of papermaking. In turn, the trip hammer method was later employed by the Chinese in papermaking.[369]
  • Turnspit steam engine and practical steam jet: Taqi al-Din described the first turnspit driven by a steam engine.[370] He was the first to use a steam jet impinging on the blades of a wheel to drive a spit,[371] and it was the first practical steam jet device, predating John Wilkins in 1648.[372]
  • Two-step level discontinuous variable structure controls: Two-step level controls for fluids, an early form of discontinuous variable structure controls, was developed by the Banu Musa brothers.[373]

In the 9th century, the Banū Mūsā brothers invented a number of automata (automatic machines) and mechanical devices, and they described a hundred such devices in their Book of Ingenious Devices. Some of the devices that make their earliest known appearance in the Book of Ingenious Devices include:

  • Differential pressure[374]
  • Double-concentric siphon[341]
  • Fail-safe system[166]
  • Float chamber[84]
  • Float valve[375]
  • Hurricane lamp[166]
  • Self-feeding lamp and self-trimming lamp: Invented by the eldest brother Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir.[166]
  • Trick drinking vessels[166]
  • Plug valve.[166][375]
  • Self-operating valve[320]

In 1206, Al-Jazari also described over fifty mechanical devices in six different categories in The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, most of which he invented himself, along with construction drawings. Along with his other mechanical inventions described above, some of the other mechanical devices he first described include:[115][116][376][377]

  • Phlebotomy measures
  • Linkage
  • Water level
  • Devices able to elevate water from shallow wells or flowing rivers

Medical products

See also: Islamic medicine

Drugs, Medications, Treatments

Muslim physicians pioneered a number of drugs and medications for use in medicine, including:

  • Alcohol as an antiseptic: The application of pure alcohol to wounds as an antiseptic agent, and the use of alcohol as a solvent and antiseptic, was introduced by Muslim physicians and surgeons in the 10th century.[20]
  • Antiseptic alcohol: Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi discovered the use of alcohol as an antiseptic.[378]
  • Anasthetic compound: Islamic physicians introduced the use of preoperative anasthetic compounds.[261]
  • Aromatics and aromatherapy: The psychological impact of aromatics was well understood in the Islamic world over a thousand years before the fashion for aromatherapy in Europe and North America. Al-Kindi discussed the psychological effects of various perfumes in the 9th century.[379] Distilled essential oils have been employed as medicine in the Islamic world since the 11th century,[380] when Avicenna isolated essential oils using steam distillation.[23]
  • Cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, and Hindiba: Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine (1025) attempted the earliest known treatments for cancer. One method he discovered was the “Hindiba”, a herbal compound drug which Ibn al-Baitar later identified as having “anticancer” properties and which could also treat other tumors and neoplastic disorders. Avicenna wrote a separate supplement treatise dedicated to the pharmacotherapy of Hindiba, giving details on the drug’s properties and uses, and he then gives instructions on its preparation as medication.[381] After recognizing its usefulness in treating neoplastic disorders, Hindiba was patented in 1997 by Nil Sari, Hanzade Dogan and John K. Snyder.[382]
  • Chemotherapeutic drugs: Pioneered by Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes), who introduced the use of chemical substances such as vitriol, copper, mercuric and arsenic salts, sal ammoniac, gold scoria, chalk, clay, coral, pearl, tar, bitumen and alcohol for medical purposes.[383]
  • Circulatory physiology: Ibn al-Nafis discovered the pulmonary circulation, and gave an early insight of the coronary and capillary circulations,[384][385] for which he is described as “the father of circulatory physiology”.[386][387][388]
  • Clinical pharmacology, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, and efficacy test: The origins of clinical pharmacology date back to Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine in 1025.[389] His emphasis on tested medicines laid the foundations for an experimental approach to pharmacology.[390] The Canon laid out the rules and principles for testing the effectiveness of new drugs and medications, which still form the basis of clinical pharmacology[391] and modern clinical trials,[392] randomized controlled trials[393][394] and efficacy tests.[395][396]
  • Clinical trial and clinical pharmacology: As in the majority of early sciences, the Islamic world contributed significantly to early biological advancements as well as alchemical advancements, especially with the introduction of clinical trials and clinical pharmacology presented in Avicenna‘s The Canon of Medicine.[397]
  • Contagion theory: A basic form of contagion theory dates back to 11th-century Persian physician Ibn Sina‘s Canon of Medicine, which was the most authoritative medical textbook in Europe up until the 16th century. In Book IV of the Canon, Ibn Sina discussed epidemics and proposed an early contagion theory. He mentioned that people can transmit disease to others by breath, noted contagion with tuberculosis, and discussed the transmission of disease through water and dirt.[398] When the Black Death bubonic plague reached Al-Andalus in the 14th century, the Arab physicians Ibn Khatima and Ibn al-Khatib proposed a more sophisticated theory of contagion, hypothesising that infectious diseases were caused by “minute bodies” and describing how they can be transmitted through garments, vessels and earrings.[399]
  • Cough medicine and syrup: The use of syrups for treating coughs originates from medieval Arabic physicians.[30][73]
  • Dental extraction and replantation: Al-Zahrawi has been credited as the first to use extraction and replantation in the history of dentistry.[400][401]
  • Disinfectant: Chemical disinfectants first began to be used by Arab physicians in the Middle Ages.[35]
  • Drugs, foods, herbs, plants and chemical substances: In antiquity, Dioscorides listed about 500 plants in the 1st century. Muslim botanists, chemists and pharmacists discovered many more during the Middle Ages. For example, Al-Dinawari described more than 637 plant drugs in the 9th century,[402] and Ibn al-Baitar described at least 1,400 different plants, foods and drugs, 300 of which were his own original discoveries, in the 13th century.[403] In total, at least 2,000 medicinal substances were discovered by Muslim botanists, chemists and pharmacists.[9]
  • Epilepsy and seizure medications: Abulcasis, in his Al-Tasrif (c. 1000), invented medications called Ghawali and Lafayfe for the treatment of epilepsy and seizure.[201]
  • Inhalational anaesthetic: Invented by Al-Zahrawi and Ibn Zuhr. They used a sponge soaked with narcotic drugs and placed it on a patient’s face.[404] These Muslim physicians were the first to use an anaesthetic sponge.[405] Islamic physicians also made use of hemp fumes as inhaled anasthetics.[261]
  • Medicinal-grade alcohol: Produced through distillation. These distillation devices for use in chemistry and medicine were manufactured on a large scale in the 10th century.
  • Modern surgery: Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (936–1013), better known in the west as Albucasis, is regarded as the father of modern surgery.[406] His Al-Tasrif is one of the most quoted surgical textbooks of all time.[407]
  • Inheritance of traits: First proposed by Al-Zahrawi (936–1013) more than 800 years before Austrian monk, Mendel. Al-Zahrawi was first to record and suggest that hemophilia was an inherited disease.[408]
  • Opium, medical and anesthetic use: Avicenna in the early 11th century.[20]
  • Parasitology: Parasites were first discovered by Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), when he discovered the cause of scabies.[409] He recommended specific substances to destroy microbes, and the application of sulfur topically specifically to kill the scabies mite.
  • Pathology: Various Muslim physicians in Spain were crucial in the development of modern medicine. Pathology was an important development in medicine. The first correct proposal of the nature of disease was described by Al-Zahrawi and Ibn Zuhr.
  • Pharmacopoeia: The first pharmacopoeia books were written by Muslim physicians.[410] These included Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine and other pharmacopoeia books by Abu-Rayhan Biruni in the early 11th century,[411] Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in the 12th century (and printed in 1491),[412] and Ibn al-Baitar in the 14th century.[20]
  • Pharmacopoeia and medical drugs: A number of early pharmacopoeia books were written by Persian and Arab physicians.[413] These included The Canon of Medicine of Avicenna in 1025, and works by Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in the 12th century (and printed in 1491).[414] During the 14th century, a physician from Malaga, Ibn Baytar, wrote a pharmacopoeia (book of medicine) naming over 1400 different drugs and their uses in medicine. He systematically recorded the additions made by Islamic physicians in the Middle Ages, which added between 300 and 400 types of medicine to the one thousand previously known since antiquity.[415] This book was written 200 years before the first European pharmacopoeia was written by German scholar Valerius Cordus in 1542.
  • Phytotherapy, Taxus baccata, and calcium channel blocker: Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine introduced the medicinal use of Taxus baccata L. He named this herbal drug “Zarnab” and used it as a cardiac remedy. This was the first known use of a calcium channel blocker drug, which were not used in the Western world until the 1960s.[416]
  • Psychosomatic medicine: Persian psychologist-physicians Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi (d. 934) and Haly Abbas (d. 994) developed an early model of illness that emphasized the interaction of the mind and the body. They proposed that a patient’s physiology and psychology can influence one another.[417]
  • Schizophrenia diagnosis: Medieval Islamic physicians are believed to have diagnosed and treated many cases of schizophrenia. Psychotic beliefs and behaviors similar to the symptoms of schizophrenia were reported in Arabic medical and psychological literature during the Middle Ages. In The Canon of Medicine, for example, Avicenna described a condition resembling the symptoms of schizophrenia which he called Junun Mufrit (severe madness). He distinguished from other forms of madness (Junun) such as mania, rabies and manic depressive psychosis.[418]
  • Sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction drugs: Muslim physicians identified the issue of sexual and erectile dysfunction, and they were the first to prescribe medication for the treatment of the problem. They developed several methods of therapy for this issue, including the single drug method where a drug is prescribed, and a “combination method of either a drug or food.” These drugs were also occasionally used for recreational drug use to improve male sexuality in general by those who did not suffer from sexual dysfunctions. Most of these drugs were oral medication, though a few patients were also treated through topical and transurethral means. Sexual dysfunctions were being treated with tested drugs in the Islamic world since the 9th century until the 16th century by a number of Muslim physicians and pharmacists, including al-Razi, Thabit bin Qurra, Ibn Al-Jazzar, Avicenna (The Canon of Medicine), Averroes, Ibn al-Baitar, and Ibn al-Nafis (The Comprehensive Book on Medicine).[419]
  • Smallpox and measles distinction: Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi’s book Al-Judari wa al-Hasbah (On Smallpox and Measles) was the first book describing smallpox and measles as distinct diseases.[420]
  • Syndrome: Avicenna, in The Canon of Medicine (published 1025), pioneered the idea of a syndrome in the diagnosis of specific diseases.[421]
  • Topical cream: For the relief and treatment of common colds, Abulcasis invented Muthallaathat, which was prepared from camphor, musk and honey, similar to the modern Vicks Vapour Rub.[201]
  • Vaccine, inoculation, smallpox vaccine: Muslim physicians pioneered a number of medical treatments, including the medical procedure of inoculation in the medieval Muslim world, later followed by the first smallpox vaccine in the form of cowpox, invented in Turkey in the early 18th century.[7]

Other medical treatments believed to have been developed by Muslim physicians include:[20]

  • Utilization of special methods for maintaining antisepsis prior to and during surgery by surgeons in Islamic Spain.
  • Specific protocols for maintaining hygiene during the post-operative period, in Córdoba, Spain.
  • Drug therapy and medicinal drugs for the treatment of specific symptoms and diseases, and the use of practical experience and careful observation, by Avicenna, al-Kindi, Ibn Rushd, Abu al-Qasim, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Baytar, Ibn Al-Jazzar, Ibn Juljul, Ibn al-Quff, Ibn al-Nafis, Al-Biruni, Ibn Sahl.

Surgical instruments

File:Al-zahrawi surgical tools.gif

A wide variety of surgical instruments and techniques were invented in the Muslim world, as well as the refinement of earlier instruments and techniques. In particular, over 200 surgical instruments were listed by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) in the Al-Tasrif (1000), many of which were never used before by any previous surgeons. Hamidan, for example, listed at least twenty six innovative surgical instruments that Abulcasis introduced.

  • Adhesive bandage and plaster: Introduced by Abulcasis.[422][423]
  • Bone saw: Invented by Abulcasis.[7]
  • Cancer surgery: Another method for treating cancer first described by Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine was a surgical treatment. He stated that the excision should be radical and that all diseased tissue should be removed, which included the use of amputation or the removal of veins running in the direction of the tumor. He also recommended the use of cauterization for the area being treated if necessary.[422]
  • Cataract extraction, hypodermic needle, injection syringe, suction: In circa 1000, the Muslim ophthalmologist Ammar ibn Ali of Mosul was the first to successfully extract cataracts. He invented a hollow metallic syringe hypodermic needle, which he applied through the sclerotic and successfully extracted the cataracts through suction.[424]
  • Catgut suture: The use of catgut for internal stitching was introduced by Abulcasis. It is still used today in modern surgery. The catgut appears to be the only natural substance capable of dissolving and is acceptable by the body.[425] Salim Al-Hassani considers it to be one of the most important Muslim medical contributions.[426]
  • Cotton dressing and bandage: The earliest known use of cotton (derived from the Arabic word qutn) as a dressing for controlling hemorrhage, was described by Abulcasis.[422]
  • Curette, retractor, sound, surgical spoon, surgical hook, surgical rod: Invented by Abulcasis in his Al-Tasrif (1000).[427]
  • Fetus extraction: Abulcasis, in his Al-Tasrif (1000), first described the surgical procedure of extractiing a dead fetus using forceps.[428]
  • Forceps: In the Al-Tasrif (1000), Abu al-Qasim invented the forceps, for extracting a dead fetus, as illustrated in the the Al-Tasrif.[429]
  • General anaesthesia, general anaesthetic, oral anesthesia, inhalational anaesthetic, narcotic-soaked sponge: Surgeries under inhalant anesthesia with the use of narcotic-soaked sponges which were placed over the face, were introduced by the Muslim anesthesiologists, Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis) and Ibn Zuhr, in Islamic Spain. Sigrid Hunke wrote: “The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan.”[430]
  • Illustrated surgical atlas: Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu’s Cerrahiyyetu’l-Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), produced in the 15th century, was the first surgical atlas. Surgical operations were illustrated for the first time in the Cerrahiyyetu’l-Haniyye.[431]
  • Ligature: Introduced by Abulcasis in the Al-Tasrif, for the blood control of arteries in lieu of cauterization.[432]
  • Prosthesis, prosthetic limb, prosthetic arm: The Barbary pirate, Barbarossa, in the early 16th century lost his left arm, earning him the nickname Silver Arm, in reference to the silver prosthetic device which he used in place of his missing limb.
  • Scalpel and specula: Abulcasis.[427]
  • Surgery in cauterization: Abulcasis, circa 1000, was the first to use surgery in cauterization. [6] Some two decades later, Avicenna also recommended the use of cauterization for the area being treated if necessary.[422]
  • Surgical instruments: Al-Zahrawi introduced over 200 surgical instruments, many still in use today.[433]
  • Surgical needle: Invented by Al-Zahrawi in 1000.[378]
  • Surgical needle and suture: The surgical needle was invented and described by Abu al-Qasim in his Al-Tasrif (1000).[434]
  • Surgical suture: Abulcasis in his Al-Tasrif.[434] Invented by Al-Zahrawi in 1000.[378]
  • Syringe: The Iraqi/Egyptian surgeon Ammar al-Mawsili invented a syringe in the 9th century using a hollow glass tube, providing suction to remove cataracts from patients’ eyes.[435][378]
  • Tracheotomy, correct description of: While tracheostomy may have possibly been portrayed on ancient Egyptian tablets, the first clear and correct description of the tracheotomy operation for suffocating patients was described by Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in the 12th century.[434][436]
  • Other instruments: Other surgical instruments invented by Abu al-Qasim and first described in his Al-Tasrif (1000) include the scalpel and the specula.[437]

Military

See also: Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam: Military products

  • Counterweight trebuchet: The earliest known description and illustration of a counterweight trebuchet comes from a commentary on the conquests of Saladin by Mardi ibn Ali al-Tarsusi in 1187.[438][439]
  • Counterweight trebuchet and mangonel: The first clearly written record of a counterweight trebuchet comes from Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi, who wrote a military manual for Saladin circa 1187. He describes a hybrid trebuchet that he said had the same hurling power as a traction machine pulled by fifty men due to “the constant force [of gravity], whereas men differ in their pulling force.” (Showing his mechanical proficiency, Tarsusi designed his trebuchet so that as it was fired it cocked a supplementary crossbow, probably to protect the engineers from attack.)[440] In his book, Medieval Siege, Jim Bradbury[441] extensively quotes from Mardi ibn Ali concerning mangonels of various types, including Arab, Perisan and Turkish, describing what could be trebuchets, but not quoted as above. In On the Social Origins of Medieval Institutions,[442] more detailed quotes by Mardi ibn Ali may be found on the various types of trebuchets.
  • Hybrid trebuchet: The term Al-Ghadban (The Furious One) was applied to the hybrid trebuchet, though the usage of the term was not consistent and may have taken on a broader meaning.[443] The first record of a counterweight trebuchet was in the 12th century from Mardi ibn Ali al-Tarsusi while talking of the conquests of Saladin.[438]
  • Marching band and military band: The marching band and military band both have their origins in the Ottoman military band, performed by the Janissary since the 16th century.[444]
  • Modern standing army: The first modern standing armies were the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire, formed in the fourteenth century.[445][446]
  • Trench warfare: The use of a trench in warfare was introduced by Salman the Persian at the Battle of the Trench in 627.[447]
  • Horseman’s axe and war hammer: The horseman’s axe was an early type of war hammer that was of Islamic origin. The Tirant lo Blanch in the 15th century maintained that it was “the deadliest weapon when fighting in full armour, when it was hung from a cavalryman’s saddle-bow.”[448]

Defense

  • Adarga: A hard leather shield used originally by the Moors of Islamic Spain. The adarga was a traditional defense employed by the Moorish light horseman who used it along with the lance. Throughout the 14th and 15th centuries the adarga was also used by Spanish Christian soldiers including their own light cavalry (la jineta) some of whom adopted Moorish fighting patterns. The adarga was in widespread use until the 16th century and the progress of firearms.[449]
  • Camail: It was used as part of the mighfar, an Islamic helmet. It was in use from the 8th to the 14th century.[450]
  • Defensive trench: A military innovation developed by early Muslims during the Battle of the Trench in 627, when the Meccans invaded Medina. The idea was suggested by Salman the Persian to the commander Muhammad, who then ordered the digging of a wide trench around Medina to halt their invasion. The battle resulted in the withdrawal of the Meccan army and a victory for Medina.[451]
  • Fireproof clothing: In 1260, Egyptian Mamluk soldiers at the Battle of Ain Jalut wore fireproof clothing to protect themselves from gunpowder fires as well as chemicals in gunpowder warfare. Their clothing consisted of a silk tunic (still worn by Formula One drivers underneath their Nomex fire suits), aketon (from the Arabic al-qutn “the cotton”), and mainly a woolen overtunic that protects against fires and chemical weapons, similar to the clothing worn by modern soldiers for protection against biological, chemical and nuclear weapons. Due to the effectiveness of their fireproof clothing, the Egyptian soldiers were able to attach gunpowder cartridges and incendiary devices to their clothing.[452][453]
  • Mail-and-plate armour: In Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl) written in the 8th century by Geber, he describes the production of mail-and-plate armours (jawasin), helmets (bid) and shields (daraq).
  • Short-hemmed and short-sleeved hauberk: The short-hemmed, short-sleeved hauberk is thought to be of Islamic origin. It was usually worn with a mail.[454]
  • Steel helmet: An early Mamluk steel helmet from the 13th century has been preserved. It was worn by Sultan Mohammad en-Nasser ibn Qalaoun (died 1290).[455]
  • Turban helmet: A type of helmet worn over turbans. The earliest evidence for it dates back to the 15th century, to Farrukh Yassar and the Ottoman Sultan Bayzid.[456]

Gunpowder technology

File:Ibn Ghanims gun.jpg File:OttomanJanissariesAndDefendingKnightsOfStJohnSiegeOfRhodes1522.jpg

  • Abus gun and Howitzer: The Abus gun was an early form of howitzer created by the Ottoman Empire. Abus guns were a significant part of the Ottoman Empire’s artillery, and could perhaps even be referred to as the signature piece of artillery during the height of their power, in the 16th and 17th centuries, for no other civilization used a gun quite like this gun up until this time.[457]
  • Arquebus: The arquebus first appeared in the Ottoman Empire at some point between 1394 and the early 15th century.[458][459] The arquebus was later used in substantial numbers by the Janissaries of the Ottoman army by the mid-15th century.[458]
  • Autocannon and multi-barrel gun: Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), a Persian–Indian polymath and mechanical engineer who worked for Akbar the Great in the Mughal Empire, invented the autocannon, the earliest multi-shot gun. As opposed to the polybolos and repeating crossbows used earlier in ancient Greece and China, respectively, Shirazi’s rapid-firing gun had multiple gun barrels that fired hand cannons loaded with gunpowder.[460]
  • Ballistic war machine and siege cannon: The use of cannons as siege machines dates back to Abu Yaqub Yusuf who employed them at the siege of Sijilmasa in 1274 according to Ibn Khaldun.[453] In the 12th century, the Seljuqs had facilities in Sivas for manufacturing war machines. Ballistic weapons were manufactured in the Muslim world since the time of Kublai Khan in the 13th century. According to Chinese sources, two Muslim engineers, Alaaddin and Ismail (d. 1330), built machines of a ballistic-weapons nature before the besieged city of Hang-show between 1271–1273. Alaaddin’s weapons also played a major role in the conquest of several other Chinese cities. His son Ma-ho-scha also developed ballistic weapons. Ismail (transliterated as I-ssu-ma-yin) was present in the Mongol siege of Hsiang-yiang, where he built a war machine with the characteristics of a ballistic weapon. Chinese sources mention that when this war machines were fired, the earth and skies shook, the cannons were buried seven feet into the ground and destroyed everything. His son Yakub also developed ballistic war machines.[92]
  • Bombing ship and supergun aboard bombing ship: The earliest known instance of a ship using a super-sized bombard was at the Battle of Zonchio in 1499, when the Ottoman navy employed a carrack ship mounting a pair of super-sized bombards similar to the Dardanelles Gun.[461]
  • Cannon, hand cannon, handgun, small arms, portable firearms: The first portable hand cannons (midfa) loaded with explosive gunpowder, the first example of a handgun and portable firearm, were used by the Egyptians to repel the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, and again in 1304. The gunpowder compositions used for the cannons at these battles were later described in several manuscripts in the early 14th century. According to Shams al-Din Muhammad (d. 1327), the cannons had an explosive gunpowder composition (74% saltpetre, 11% sulfur, 15% carbon) almost identical to the ideal compositions for explosive gunpowder used in modern times (75% saltpetre, 10% sulfur, 15% carbon).[452][453] According to Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 saw the Mamluks use “the first cannon in history” with gunpowder formulae which were almost identical with the ideal composition for explosive gunpowder, which were not known in China or Europe until much later.[462][84]
  • Cartridge: Gunpowder cartridges were employed by the Egyptian Mamluks, for use in their fire lances and hand cannons against the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.[452][453]
  • Damascus steel firearms: In Turkey, damascus steel was being used in the production of firearms such as the musket from the 16th century.[463]
  • Explosive gunpowder: The ideal composition for explosive gunpowder used in modern times is 75% potassium nitrate (saltpetre), 10% sulfur, and 15% carbon. Several almost identical compositions were first described by the Arab engineer Hasan al-Rammah as a recipe for the rockets (tayyar) he described in The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices in 1270. Several examples include a tayyar “rocket” (75% saltpetre, 8% sulfur, 15% carbon) and the tayyar buruq “lightning rocket” (74% saltpetre, 10% sulfur, 15% carbon). He also states recipes for fireworks and firecrackers made from these explosive gunpowder compositions. He states in his book that many of these recipes were known to his father and grandfather, hence dating back to at least the late 12th century.[452] Medieval French reports suggest that Muslim armies also used explosives against the Sixth Crusade army led by Ludwig IV, Landgrave of Thuringia in the 13th century.
  • Firearms: A commonly held view is that the first firearms were invented in China, but some scholars such as Reinuad and Fave argue that the first firearms may have possibly been invented by Muslims first.[20] The use of saltpeter in military applications by the Arabs dates back to the 10th century. The three ingredients of gunpowder were used, often with the addition of naphtha to make “tubes of incendiaries,” which were thrown by catapults[464][465], and some Arabic greekfire receipts contained saltpeter[466], Shawar vizier of the Fatimid Caliph Al-‘Āḍid’s used 20,000 tubes of incendiaries and 10,000 lighting bombs in the year 1168, by 1916, Bahjat and Gabriel had gathered dozens of nearly intact ceramic grenades of different types, and fragments of hundreds more. and in the 1940s those ceramics caught the attention of yet another French scientist Maurice Mercier where he noticed that those that had the strongest walls and the most aerodynamic designs often had their tops broken off, while the rest of the body was intact. Only a powerful internal explosion, he reasoned, could have caused such clean, sharp fractures. He had a number of the pots carefully examined and discovered that they contained traces of nitrates and sulfur, essential ingredients of gunpowder. Many now on display in the Cairo Museum and the Louvre, the components of the grenades were volatile jelly of kerosene, potassium nitrates and sulfur.[467][468] Another early use of gunpowder in military applications in al-Andalus (modern Spain) is as early as 1118[469], later in 1248 it was used in the defence of Seville[470] and such devices were called “Thunderers”, another early use was in 1250 by the Mamluks against the Franks led by Louis IX in Battle of Al Mansurah[471], and the explosive hand cannons first used by the Mamluks to repel the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.[453][17]
  • Gun: According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the Arabs “had developed the first real gun, a bamboo tube reinforced with iron, which used a charge of black powder to fire an arrow”, some time before 1300.[472] A primitive gun that shoots bullets may have been developed even earlier in the 12th century, while the Anatolian Turkish Beyliks were later using guns which fire audible bullets using springs.[92] The Nesri Tarihi in the 15th century states that the Ottoman army were regularly using guns and cannons from at least 1421-1422.[92]
  • Gunpowder: Most sources credit the discovery of gunpowder to Chinese alchemists in the 9th century searching for an elixir of life.[473] The discovery of gunpowder was probably the product of centuries of alchemical experimentation.[474] Saltpetre was known to the Chinese by the mid-1st century AD and there is strong evidence of the use of saltpetre and sulfur in various largely medicinal combinations.[475] A Chinese alchemical text from 492 noted that saltpeter gave off a purple flame when ignited, providing for the first time a practical and reliable means of distinguishing it from other inorganic salts, making it possible to evaluate and compare purification techniques.[474] While it is commonly held that gunpowder was invented in China, it has been argued that gunpowder may have possibly been invented by Muslims first.[472][476] Potassium nitrate was known to earlier Arab chemists, and was described many times. The earliest description is by Khalid ibn Yazid (635-704)[477], and was later described and used many times, for example by Jabir ibn Hayyan (722-815) to make nitric acid and by al-Razi and others. Saltpeter was called “natrun” but also had other names indicating its ore origins, for example, (Shabb Yamani or “Yemeni alum”) and (thalj al-Sīn, or “Chinese snow,” as Muslims got the ore from China, among other placesref name=”Needham”>Joseph Needham, Science and Civilization in China, volume 5. p.432.</ref>). Muslims went beyond the use of the impractical ore material, and began purifying it. George Sarton states in that Muslims were the first to purify saltpeter and he shows that black slaves were purifying saltpeter in Basra, Iraq and that those slaves rebelled in (869).[478] The earliest Arabic manuscripts with gunpowder recipes are two undated manuscripts, but one of them (the al-Karshuni manuscript) was dated by Berthelot and Duval to be from the ninth to the eleventh century,[479] both manuscripts mention saltpeter, charcoal and sulphur as the sole ingredients of gunpowder. We can find the first book dedicated to gunpowder and its uses in the works Hasan al-Rammah’s Al-furusiyyah wa al-manasib al-harbiyya (The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices), written in the 1270s, which included the first gunpowder recipes to approach the ideal composition for explosive gunpowder used in modern times (75% saltpetre, 10% sulfur, 15% carbon).[453][17]
  • Hand cannon: According to Arabic military treatises of the 13th and 14th centuries, hand cannon were used by the Mamluk-Egyptian side at the 1260 Battle of Ain Jalut to frighten the Mongol armies, making this the earliest known battle where hand cannon were used. The compositions of the gunpowder used in these cannon were also given in these manuals.[480][452][481][482][483][484]
  • Iron-cased and metal-cylinder rocket artillery: The first iron-cased and metal-cylinder rocket artillery were developed by Tipu Sultan, a Muslim ruler of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore, and his father Hyder Ali, in the 1780s. He successfully used these metal-cylinder rockets against the larger forces of the British East India Company during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. The Mysore rockets of this period were much more advanced than what the British had seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2 km range). After Tipu’s eventual defeat in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and the capture of the Mysore iron rockets, they were influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket, which was soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars.[485] According to Stephen Oliver Fought and John F. Guilmartin, Jr. in Encyclopædia Britannica (2008): “Hyder Ali, prince of Mysore, developed war rockets with an important change: the use of metal cylinders to contain the combustion powder. Although the hammered soft iron he used was crude, the bursting strength of the container of black powder was much higher than the earlier paper construction. Thus a greater internal pressure was possible, with a resultant greater thrust of the propulsive jet. The rocket body was lashed with leather thongs to a long bamboo stick. Range was perhaps up to three-quarters of a mile (more than a kilometre). Although individually these rockets were not accurate, dispersion error became less important when large numbers were fired rapidly in mass attacks. They were particularly effective against cavalry and were hurled into the air, after lighting, or skimmed along the hard dry ground. Hyder Ali’s son, Tippu Sultan, continued to develop and expand the use of rocket weapons, reportedly increasing the number of rocket troops from 1,200 to a corps of 5,000. In battles at Seringapatam in 1792 and 1799 these rockets were used with considerable effect against the British.”[486] Tippu Sultan wrote a military manual on his rocket artillery, the Fathul Mujahidin.
  • Matchlock: The Janissary corps of the Ottoman army were using matchlock muskets as early as the 1440s.[487] The matchlock arquebus was first used by the Janissary corps of the Ottoman army in the first half of the 15th century,[488] possibly as early as 1394[459] but certainly by the 1440s.[487] The first dated illustration of a matchlock mechanism in Europe dates to 1475.
  • Missile: Some of the Mysorean rockets used by Tipu Sultan could be considered the first missiles, distinguished from rockets.[489]
  • Musket: Appeared in the Ottoman Empire by 1465.[490] In 1598, Chinese writer Zhao Shizhen described Turkish muskets as being superior to European muskets.[491]
  • Iron-cased rockets: The Mysorean rockets of this period (from the Mysore Sultanate) were much more advanced than what the British had seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2 km range). In contrast, rockets in Europe were not iron-cased and their range was far less than their Mysorian counterparts. The Congreve rocket was later based on Mysorean rockets.[492]
  • Purified gunpowder, purified saltpetre, purified potassium nitrate: Muslim chemists were the first to purify potassium nitrate (saltpetre; natrun or barud in Arabic) to the weapons-grade purity for use in gunpowder, as potassium nitrate needs to be purified to be used effectively. This purification process was first described by Ibn Bakhtawayh in his al-Muqaddimat in 1029. The first complete purification process for potassium nitrate is described in 1270 by the Arab chemist and engineer Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya (‘The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices’, a.k.a. the Treatise on Horsemanship and Stratagems of War). He first described the use of potassium carbonate (in the form of wood ashes) to remove calcium and magnesium salts from the potassium nitrate. Hasan al-Rammah also describes the purifying of saltpetre using the chemical processes of solution and crystallization, and this was the first clear method for the purification of saltpetre.[452] Bert S. Hall,[493] however, disputes the efficacy of al-Rammah’s formula for the purification of potassium nitrate.
  • Supergun: The first supergun was the Great Turkish Bombard, used by the troops of Mehmed II to capture Constantinople in 1453. It had a 762 mm bore, and fired 680 kg (1500 lb) stones. The chief architect for the supergun was a Hungarian named Urban. Though his religion is unknown, he lived and worked in the Islamic world.
  • Torpedo: The invention of torpedoes occurred in the Muslim world, and were driven by a rocket system. The works of Hasan al-Rammah in Syria in 1275 shows illustrations of a torpedo running on water with a rocket system filled with explosive materials and having three firing points.

Jean Mathes indicates that Muslim rulers had stockpiles of the following gunpowder weapons decades before such devices were used in Europe:[20][92][494]

  • Grenades
  • Rifles
  • Crude cannons
  • Incendiary devices
  • Sulphur bombs
  • Pistols
  • Rockets
  • Bombs
  • Burning arrows

Swordmaking

  • Damascus steel: One of the most famous steels produced in the medieval Near East was Damascus steel used for swordmaking, and mostly produced in Damascus, Syria, in the period from 900 to 1750. This was produced using the crucible steel method, based on the earlier Indian wootz steel. This process was further refined in the Middle East using locally produced steels. The process allowed carbides to precipitate out as micro particles arranged in sheets or bands within the body of a blade. The carbides are far harder than the surrounding low carbon steel, allowing the swordsmith to make an edge which would cut hard materials with the precipitated carbides, while the bands of softer steel allowed the sword as a whole to remain tough and flexible. A team of researchers based at the Technical University of Dresden that uses x-rays and electron microscopy to examine Damascus steel discovered the presence of cementite nanowires[495] and carbon nanotubes.[496] Peter Paufler, a member of the Dresden team, says that these nanostructures give Damascus steel its distinctive properties[497] and are a result of the forging process.[497][498] The Arabs introduced the wootz steel to Damascus, where a weapons industry thrived.[499] Damascus steel blades were first manufactured in Syria from ingots of wootz steel that were imported from India.[463]
  • Flyssa and Kaskara: The swords developed in early Islamic Morocco and the Baguirmi Sultanate, respectively.[500]
  • Grip: In the late 12th century, the figure of a Turkish cavalryman was depicted holding a sabre which was carried using what what would later be known in Europe as the ‘Italian Grip’.[501]
  • Kilij: A sabre developed by the Turks in Central Asia, it came into widespread use by the 15th century. Polish sabres of the 17th century (known as pallash or palache) were derived from this weapon.[502]
  • Nimcha: An Arab short sabre with a knuckle guard developed in Morocco.[503]
  • Pulwar, Qama, and Quaddara: The pulwar is a form of talwar that was developed in Islamic India. The qama was a sword developed in Islamic Georgia, and is probably the origin of the Cossack kindjal. The quaddara was a Persian broadsword, like a long kindjal, used in the Caucasus.[504]
  • Sabre and Saif: The sabre and the Arab saif were developed in the early Islamic world.[504]
  • Scimitar and Shamshir: The earliest evidence of the scimitar, or curved sword, is from the 9th century, when it was used among soldiers in the Khurasan region of Persia.[505] The Persian shamshir in its current form dates to the 15th century.[506]
  • Shamsir: Shamshirs began to appear in Persia in the 9th century, when these weapons were used by soldiers in the Khurasan region of Central Asia.[507]
  • Shashka and Shotel: Developed in the Caucasus and Abyssinia, respectively.[508]
  • Takouba, Talwar, and Yatagan: The takouba was developed by the Taureg people of the Sahara. The talwar is an Indian sword based on the Persian shamshir. The yatagan was developed in Turkey.[509]
  • Talwar: The talwar originated alongside other curved swords such as the Persian shamshir, the Turkish kilij and the Afghan pulwar, all such swords being originally derived from earlier curved swords developed in Turkic Central Asia.[510]
  • Zulfiqar: An early Islamic sword that belonged to Ali in the 7th century.[511]

Navigational technology

See also: Geography in medieval Islam, Astronomy in medieval Islam, and Physics in medieval Islam

File:WInd Rose Aguiar.png

Instruments

  • Baculus: The baculus, used for nautical astronomy, originates from Islamic Spain and was later used by Portuguese navigators for long-distance travel.[512]
  • Cartographic Qibla indicators: These were brass instruments with Mecca-centred world maps and cartographic grids engraved on them. They were invented in 17th-century Safavid Iran.[513]
  • Cartographic grids: Invented 10th-century Baghdad.[513]
  • Cartographic Qibla indicator with sundial and compass: This was a Qibla instrument with a sundial and compass attached to it,[514] and was invented by Muhammad Husayn in 17th century Safavid Iran.[515]
  • Compass dial: In the early 14th century, Ibn al-Shatir invented the compass dial, a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass. He invented it for the purpose of finding the times of Salah prayers.[516]
  • Compass rose: The Arabs invented the 32-point compass rose during the Middle Ages.[517]
  • Dry compass (Mariner’s compass): In 1282, the Yemeni sultan Al-Ashraf developed an improved compass for use as a “Qibla indicator” instrument in order to find the direction to Mecca. Al-Ashraf’s instrument was one of the earliest dry compasses, and appears to have been invented independantly of Peter Peregrinus.[518] The dry compass is commonly known as the “Mariner’s compass”.
  • Navigational astrolabe: Invented in the Islamic world, it employed the use of a polar projection system.[519]
  • Orthographical astrolabe: Invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century.[520]
  • Terrestrial globe: See Globes below.

Transport

  • Caravel: The origins of the caravel ship, used for long distance travel by the Spanish and Portuguese since the 15th century, date back to the qarib used by explorers from Islamic Spain in the 13th century.[521] The caravel has origins in Portuguese fishing boats built in the 13th century based on the medieval Islamic qarib, used in Islamic Spain.[522]
  • Dhow and sambuk: The sambuk, the earliest type of dhow vessel, is first recorded in a sea battle fought by the Red Sea war fleet of Ibn Tulun some time between 868 and 884.[523]
  • Flush deck: The flushed deck design was introduced with rice ships built in Bengal Subah, Mughal India (modern Bangladesh), resulting in hulls that were stronger and less prone to leak than the structurally weak hulls of traditional European ships built with a stepped deck design. This was a key innovation in shipbuilding at the time. The British East India Company later duplicated the flushed deck design of Bengal rice ships in the 1760s, leading to significant improvements in seaworthiness and navigation for European ships during the Industrial Revolution.[524]
  • Kamal: Arab navigators invented a rudimentary sextant known as a kamal, used for celestial navigation and for measuring the altitudes and latitudes of the stars, in the late 9th century.[525] They employed in the Indian Ocean from the 10th century,[526] and it was adopted by Indian navigators soon after,[527] followed by Chinese navigators some time before the 16th century.[528] The invention of the kamal allowed for the earliest known latitude sailing,[526] and was thus the earliest step towards the use of quantitative methods in navigation.[528]
  • Kamal and latitude sailing: The kamal originated with Arab navigators of the late 9th century.[529] The invention of the kamal allowed for the earliest known latitude sailing, and was thus the earliest step towards the use of quantitative methods in navigation.[530]
  • Lateen sail and triangular sail: The lateen sail was previously believed to have been introduced from the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea by Muslim sailors in the 9th century.[531] The Arabic triangular sail was later adopted by European sailors, including Christopher Columbus on his voyage to the Americas. [7]
  • Qarib: The origins of the caravel ship, used for long distance travel by the Spanish and Portuguese since the 15th century, date back to the qarib.[521]
  • Rudder with tackle and permanent sternpost-mounted rudder: The Arabs used a sternpost-mounted rudder which differed technically from both its European and Chinese counterparts. On their ships “the rudder is controlled by two lines, each attached to a crosspiece mounted on the rudder head perpendicular to the plane of the rudder blade.”[532] The earliest evidence comes from the Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Marifat al-Aqalim (‘The Best Divisions for the Classification of Regions’) written by al-Muqaddasi in 985.[533] According to Lawrence V. Mott, the “idea of attaching the rudder to the sternpost in a relatively permanent fashion, therefore, must have been an Arab invention independent of the Chinese.”[532]
  • Submarine: On October 1, 1720, the Ottoman dockyard architect Ibrahim Efendi invented a submarine called the tahtelbahir. The Ottoman writer Seyyid Vehbi, in his Surname-i-Humayun, compared this submarine to an alligator. He recorded that during the circumcision ceremony for Sultan Ahmed III’s sons, “the alligator-like submarine slowly emerged on the water and moved slowly to the sultan, and after staying on the sea for half an hour, submerged in the sea again to the great surprise of the public; then emerged one hour later, with five people walking outside the mouth of this alligator-like submarine, with trays of rice and zerde (a dish of sweetened rice) on their heads.” He explained the technical information concerning the submarine “submerging in the sea and the crew being able to breath through pipes while under the sea”.[92]
  • Three-masted merchant vessel: According to John M. Hobson, Muslim sailors introduced the large three-masted merchant vessels around the Mediterranean Sea, though they may have borrowed the three-mast system from Chinese ships.[521] However, Howard I. Chapelle argues that some ancient Roman ships may have also been three-masted cargo ships,[534] though Kevin Greene writes that three-masted ships were not developed until the 15th century.[535]
  • Treasure ship: The treasure ship was a type of large nine-masted wooden vessel commanded by the Chinese Muslim admiral Zheng He on seven voyages in the early 15th century.[536][537] Zheng He’s treasure ships were mammoth ships with nine masts, four decks, and were capable of accommodating more than 500 passengers, as well as a massive amount of cargo. Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta both described multi-masted ships carrying 500 to 1,000 passengers in their translated accounts.[538] Niccolò Da Conti, a contemporary of Zheng He, was also an eyewitness of ships in Southeast Asia, describing five-masted junks weighing about 2,000 tons.[539]

File:Sail plan xebec.svg

  • Xebec and Polacca: The xebec and polacre sailing ships used around the Mediterranean from the 16th to the 19th centuries originated from the Barbary pirates, who successfully used them for naval warfare against European ships at the time. A combination of the fore and aft sails and aerodynamics, along with the improved square sail on the Polacca, allowed these ships to sail much closer to the wind than European and American ships. An expert on the Barbary pirates said that their ships had guns at the bow and stern. “They would approach, pounding away, and it took too long for our square riggers to bring the broadside guns around. The Arabs had oars and a sail arrangement that meant they were able to turn more quickly and could flee closer to the wind than we could chase them.”[540]

File:Mezquita2.jpg

Aviation

  • Artificial wingsAbbas Ibn Firnas‘ hang glider in 875 was the first to have artificial wings, though the flight was eventually unsuccessful. According to Evliya Çelebi in the early 17th century, Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi was the first aviator to have made a successful flight with artificial wings between 1630-1632.[92]
  • Controlled flight and hang glider: Abbas Ibn Firnas was the first to make an attempt at controlled flight in 875, as opposed to earlier manned kite flights in ancient China which were not controllable. Ibn Firnas manuipulated the flight controls of his hang glider using two sets of artificial wings to adjust his altitude and to change his direction. He successfully returned to where he had lifted off from, but his landing was unsuccessful.[307][541] According to Philip Hitti in History of the Arabs: “Ibn Firnas was the first man in history to make a scientific attempt at flying.”[542] Ibn Firnas’ glider was the earliest known hang glider, though there were earlier instances of manned kites being used in ancient China. Knowledge of Firman and Firnas’ flying machines spread to other parts of Europe from Arabic references.[543][544]
  • Glider: Abbas ibn Firnas is credited with the first description, design and attempt at a manned glider flight.[545][546][547]
  • Heavier-than-air flight and heavier-than-air glider: In 875, Abbas Ibn Firnas of Islamic Spain made the first attempt at a heavier-than-air glider flight in aviation history.[548][549] This may have inspired two later attempts at flight: one by Jauhari who died in either 1003 or 1008 while attempting flight from the roof of a mosque in Nishapur, Khorasan, Iran, and the other by Eilmer of Malmesbury between 1000 and 1010 in England.[549]
  • Parachute: In 852, Armen Firnas (Abbas Ibn Firnas) invented a primitive version of the parachute.[543][544][550][551] John H. Lienhard described it in The Engines of Our Ingenuity as follows: “In 852, a new Caliph and a bizarre experiment: A daredevil named Armen Firman decided to fly off a tower in Córdoba. He glided back to earth, using a huge winglike cloak to break his fall.”[552] The world’s first documented parachute was developed by Armen Firman at Cordoba in 852.[553]
  • Rocket flight: Lagâri Hasan Çelebi is the first aviator reported to have made a successful manned rocket flight.[554][555]

Scientific disciplines

See also: Islamic science and technology, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, Islamic astronomy, and Islamic psychology

  • Botany: Spanish botanists, like Ibn al-Baitar, created hundreds of works/catalogs on the various plants in not only Europe but the Middle East, Africa and Asia. In these works many processes for extracting essential oils, drugs as well as their uses can be found.
  • Classical mechanics and acceleration theory: Hibat Allah Abu’l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi adopted and modified Avicenna‘s theory on projectile motion. In his Kitab al-Mu’tabar, Abu’l-Barakat stated that the mover imparts a violent inclination (mayl qasri) on the moved and that this diminishes as the moving object distances itself from the mover.[556] According to Shlomo Pines, al-Baghdaadi’s theory of motion was “the oldest negation of Aristotle’s fundamental dynamic law [namely, that a constant force produces a uniform motion], [and is thus an] anticipation in a vague fashion of the fundamental law of classical mechanics [namely, that a force applied continuously produces acceleration].”Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag.[557] In contrast to his predecessors, who measured the Earth’s circumference by sighting the Sun simultaneously from two different locations, Al-Biruni developed a new method of using trigonometric calculations, based on the angle between a plain and mountain top, which yielded more accurate measurements of the Earth’s circumference, and made it possible for it to be measured by a single person from a single location.[558]
  • Earth’s rotation evidence: Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (d. 1274) was the first astronomer to present empirical evidence for the Earth’s rotation. He used the phenomena of comets to refute Ptolemy‘s claim that a stationary Earth can be determined through observation. Ali Qushji (d. 1474) also observed comets and elaborated on al-Tusi’s argument to present empirical evidence supporting the theory of a moving Earth.[559][560][561]
  • Existentialism and existence precedes essence: A concept that lies at the heart of Mulla Sadra‘s philosophy is the idea of existence precedes essence, a key foundational concept of existentialism. This was also the opposite of the idea of “essence precedes existence” previously supported by Avicenna and his school of Avicennism.[562]
  • Experimental psychology: Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) is considered to be the founder of experimental psychology,[563] for his experimental approach to the psychology of visual perception and optical illusion.[564]
  • Food chain theory: First introduced by the scientist and philosopher Al-Jahiz in the 9th century, and later popularized in a book published in 1927 by Charles Elton.[565][566][567]
  • Geomancy and geomantic instrument: The most widely accepted origin for this practice is in the medieval Arabic world,[568] as part of Islamic astrology.
  • Methods of agreement, difference and concomitant variation: In The Canon of Medicine (1025), Avicenna was also the first to describe what is essentially methods of agreement, difference and concomitant variation which are critical to inductive logic and the scientific method.[569][570][571]
  • Momentum theory: Ibn Sina‘s theory of mayl attempted to relate the velocity and weight of a moving object. This idea closely resembled the concept of momentum.[572]
  • Occasionalism: The theory of occasionalism originates from early Islamic theology, associated with the Ashʿari school dating back to Al-Ash’ari (873–935). Al-Ghazali (1055-1111) later presented the most significant and influential arguments for occasionalism. In 1993, Professor Karen Harding compared Al-Ghazali’s arguments for occasionalism and against causality to that of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics.[573]
  • Proto-evolution theory and natural selection theory: The Kitab al-Hayawan is an encyclopedia of seven volume of anecdotes, poetic descriptions and proverbs describing over 350 varieties of animals. Al-Jahiz in his famous book Kitab al-Hayawan (Book of the Animals) described a proto-evolution theory on natural selection and the struggle for existence: “The rat goes out for its food, and is clever in getting it, for it eats all animals inferior to it in strength”, and in turn, it “has to avoid snakes and birds and serpents of prey, who look for it in order to devour it” and are stronger than the rat. Mosquitos “know instinctively that blood is the thing which makes them live” and when they see an animal, “they know that the skin has been fashioned to serve them as food”. In turn, flies hunt the mosquito “which is the food that they like best”, and predators eat the flies. “All animals, in short, can not exist without food, neither can the hunting animal escape being hunted in his turn. Every weak animal devours those weaker than itself. Strong animals cannot escape being devoured by other animals stronger than they. And in this respect, men do not differ from animals, some with respect to others, although they do not arrive at the same extremes. In short, God has disposed some human beings as a cause of life for others, and likewise, he has disposed the latter as a cause of the death of the former.”[574]
  • Reaction theory: Ibn Bajjah proposed that for every force there is always a reaction force. While he did not specify that these forces be equal, it is considered an early version of Newton’s third law of motion which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.[575]
  • Scientific method, experimental method, experimental science, experimental physics: The scientific method was pioneered by the Muslim scientist and physicist, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), who emphasized the role of experiment and mathematics in obtaining the results in his Book of Optics (1021).[576] Due to his formulation of a modern quantitative, empirical and experimental approach to physics and science, he is also considered the pioneer of experimental science[577] and experimental physics,[578] and some have described him as the “first scientist” for these reasons.[579]
  • Scientific method and experimental method: There was greater emphasis on combining theory with practice in the Islamic world than there had been in ancient times, and it was common for those studying the sciences to be artisans as well, something that had been “considered an aberration in the ancient world.” Islamic experts in the sciences were often expert instrument makers who enhanced their powers of observation and calculation with them.[580] Muslim scientists used experiment and quantification to distinguish between competing scientific theories, set within a generically empirical orientation, as can be seen in the works of Jābir ibn Hayyān (721–815)[581] and Alkindus (801–873)[582] as early examples. Ibn al-Haytham (965–1039), also known as Alhazen, was an Iraqi polymath who is considered by some to be the father of modern scientific methodology, due to his emphasis on experimental data and reproducibility of its results.[583][584] The earliest methodical approach to experiments in the modern sense is visible in the works of Ibn al-Haytham, who introduced an inductive-experimental method for achieving results.[585] The Persian scientist Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī introduced early scientific methods for several different fields of inquiry during the 1020s and 1030s.[586] He also developed an early experimental method for mechanics.[587] Al-Biruni’s methods resembled the modern scientific method, particularly in his emphasis on repeated experimentation.[588]
  • Social cohesion theory and social conflict theory: Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddimah is considered the first work to advance social-scientific reasoning on social cohesion and social conflict.[589][590][591][592][593][594]
  • Sociology: There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings. Ibn Khaldun is considered to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology.[595][596][597][598]
  • Speed of light: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973-1048) believed that light has a finite speed, and he was the first to discover that the speed of light is much faster than the speed of sound.[599][600]
  • Speed of sound: Was proposed by the Cordoba scholar Ibn Hazm (994–1064). Ibn Hazm argued and calculated the speed of sound by echoes in the Mosque of Cordoba. He is also credited as being the first to propose that thunder was a production of lightning.[601]
  • Theory of impetus and inertia theory: Ibn Sīnā published a theory of motion in The Book of Healing in 1020. He argued that an impetus is imparted to a projectile by the thrower. He viewed it as persistent, requiring external forces such as air resistance to dissipate it.[602][603][604] Ibn Sina made distinction between ‘force’ and ‘inclination’ (called “mayl”), and argued that an object gained mayl when the object is in opposition to its natural motion. So he concluded that continuation of motion is attributed to the inclination that is transferred to the object, and that object will be in motion until the mayl is spent. He also claimed that projectile in a vacuum would not stop unless it is acted upon. This conception of motion is consistent with Newton’s first law of motion, inertia, which states that an object in motion will stay in motion unless it is acted on by an external force.[605] This idea which dissented from the Aristotelian view was later described as “impetus” by John Buridan, who was influenced by Ibn Sina’s Book of Healing.[606]
  • Transcendent theosophy: A doctrine and philosophy developed by Persian philosopher Mulla Sadra, one of two main disciplines of Islamic philosophy that is currently active.[607]
  • Tusi couple: The couple was first proposed by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi in his 1247 Tahrir al-Majisti (Commentary on the Almagest) as a solution for the latitudinal motion of the inferior planets.[608] The Tusi couple is explicitly two circles of radii x and 2x in which the circle with the smaller radii rotates inside the Bigger circle. The oscillatory motion be produced by the combined uniform circular motions of two identical circles, one riding on the circumference of the other.

Mathematics

See also: Islamic mathematics

  • Algebra: While the roots of algebra can be traced back to earlier civilizations, where mathematicians solved linear and quadratic equations using arithmetic and geometric methods, it was Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī‘s Al-Kitāb al-muḫtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing) which established algebra as an independent mathematical discipline in its own right.[609] Al-Khwarizmi was the first to clearly establish algebra as a discipline that is independent of geometry and arithmetic.[610] The name he coined for the discipline, al-jabr, referred to the underlying method of “reduction” and “balancing” he introduced, meaning the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation.[611] Al-Khwarizmi is considered the father of algebra. Algebra comes from the Arabic الجبر (al-jabr) in the title of his book Ilm al-jabr wa’l-muḳābala. While algebraic equations had existed before, he was the first to treat algebra as an independent discipline in its own right.[612] His treatise The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing (c. 813–833) popularised algebra,[613]:171 and presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations.[614]:14 Static equation-solving algebra, where the objective is to find numbers satisfying certain relationships, was first decisively established by Al-Khwarizmi, with his introduction of generalized algorithmic processes for solving algebraic problems.[615]
  • Algebraic geometry: Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi’s Treatise on Equations has been described as “inaugurating the beginning of algebraic geometry”.[616]
  • Algorism: The algorism system of rules was developed by Al-Khwarizmi, with the words “algorism” and “algorithm” derived from his name.[617]
  • Arabic numerals: The Indian numeral system came to be known to both the Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi, whose book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written circa 825, and the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi, who wrote four volumes, On the Use of the Indian Numerals (Ketab fi Isti’mal al-‘Adad al-Hindi) circa 830, are principally responsible for the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration in the Middle-East and the West [8]. In the 10th century, Middle-Eastern mathematicians extended the decimal numeral system to include fractions using decimal point notation, as recorded in a treatise by Syrian mathematician Abu’l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi in 952-953. In the Arab world, the Arabic numeral system was most often used by mathematicians, while Muslim astronomers mostly used the Babylonian numeral system. A distinctive “Western Arabic” variant of the symbols begins to emerge in ca. the 10th century in the Maghreb and Al-Andalus, called the ghubar (“sand-table” or “dust-table”) numerals, which is the direct ancestor to the modern Western Arabic numerals now used throughout the world.[618] Al-Hassār, a mathematician from the Maghreb (North Africa) specializing in Islamic inheritance jurisprudence during the 12th century, developed the modern symbolic mathematical notation for fractions, where the numerator and denominator are separated by a horizontal bar. The “dust cipher he used are also nearly identical to the digits used in the current Western Arabic numerals. These same digits and fractional notation appear soon after in the work of Fibonacci in the 13th century.[619] While the Indo-Arabic numeral system originates from the Indian subcontinent, the modern Arabic numeral symbols (0-9) originate from Islamic North Africa in the 10th century. A distinctive Western Arabic variant of the Eastern Arabic numerals began to emerge around the 10th century in the Maghreb and Al-Andalus (sometimes called ghubar numerals, though the term is not always accepted), which are the direct ancestor of the modern Arabic numerals used throughout the world.[620]
  • Binomial theorem: The first formulation of the binomial theorem and the table of binomial coefficient can be found in a work by Al-Karaji, quoted by Al-Samaw’al in his “al-Bahir”.[621][622][623]
  • Completing the square: One of Al-Khwarizmi‘s principal achievements in algebra was his demonstration of how to solve quadratic equations by completing the square, for which he provided geometric justifications.[614]
  • Cryptanalysis and frequency analysis: In cryptology, the first known recorded explanation of cryptanalysis was given by 9th-century Arabian polymath, Al-Kindi (also known as “Alkindus” in Europe), in A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages. This treatise includes the first description of the method of frequency analysis.[624] It has been suggested that close textual study of the Qur’an first brought to light that Arabic has a characteristic letter frequency. Its use spread, and similar systems were widely used in European states by the time of the Renaissance. In cryptology, the first known recorded explanation of cryptanalysis was given by Al-Kindi (also known as “Alkindus” in Europe), in A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages. This treatise includes the first description of the method of frequency analysis.[625][626] It was the most significant cryptanalytic advance until World War II.[627]
  • Cryptography: David Kahn notes in The Codebreakers that the field of cryptology originates from the Muslim Arabs, the first people to systematically document cryptanalytic methods.[628] The first known Arab cryptologist was Al-Khalil (717–786), who wrote the Book of Cryptographic Messages.[629]
  • Decimal fractions and decimal point: In discussing the origins of decimal fractions, Dirk Jan Struik (p. 7) states that:[630]The introduction of decimal fractions as a common computational practice can be dated back to the Flemish pamphelet De Thiende, published at Leyden in 1585, together with a French translation, La Disme, by the Flemish mathematician Simon Stevin (1548-1620), then settled in the Northern Netherlands. It is true that decimal fractions were used by the Chinese many centuries before Stevin and that the Persian astronomer Al-Kāshī used both decimal and sexagesimal fractions with great ease in his Key to arithmetic (Samarkand, early fifteenth century).[631] While the Persian mathematician Jamshīd al-Kāshī claimed to have discovered decimal fractions himself in the 15th century, J. Lennart Berggrenn notes that he was mistaken, as decimal fractions were first used five centuries before him by the Baghdadi mathematician Abu’l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi as early as the 10th century.[632] In the 10th century, Middle-Eastern mathematicians extended the decimal numeral system to include fractions using decimal point notation, as recorded in a treatise by Syrian mathematician Abu’l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi in 952-953.
  • Fraction bar: The horizontal fraction bar is first attested in the work of Al-Hassār (Template:Floruit),[633] a Muslim mathematician from Fez, Morocco, who specialized in Islamic inheritance jurisprudence.[634]
  • Function: The idea of a function in mathematics first began emerging with Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī.[615]
  • Functional algebra and dynamic functional algebra: In the 12th century, Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī developed the concept of a function. In his analysis of the equation  x3+d=bx2 for example, he begins by changing the equation’s form to  x2(bx)=d. He then states that the question of whether the equation has a solution depends on whether or not the “function” on the left side reaches the value  d. To determine this, he finds a maximum value for the function. He proves that the maximum value occurs when x=2b3, which gives the functional value 4b327. Sharaf al-Din then states that if this value is less than  d, there are no positive solutions; if it is equal to  d, then there is one solution at x=2b3; and if it is greater than  d, then there are two solutions, one between  0 and 2b3 and one between 2b3 and  b. This was the earliest form of dynamic functional algebra.[635]
  • General cubic equation theory: Omar Khayyám (born 1048) seems to have been the first to conceive a general theory of cubic equations.[636]
  • General proof: In the 10th century, the Iraqi mathematician Al-Hashimi provided general proofs for numbers (rather than geometric demonstrations) as he considered multiplication, division, etc. for ”lines.” Using this method, he provided the first proof for irrational numbers.[637]
  • Hyperbolic geometry and Ibn al-Haytham–Lambert quadrilateral: The theorems of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), Omar Khayyám and Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī on quadrilaterals, including the Ibn al-Haytham–Lambert quadrilateral and Khayyam–Saccheri quadrilateral, were the first theorems on hyperbolic geometry.[638]
  • Integration function: In the Middle East, Hasan Ibn al-Haytham, Latinized as Alhazen (Template:C. Template:Sc) derived a formula for the sum of fourth powers. He used the results to carry out what would now be called an integration of this function, where the formulae for the sums of integral squares and fourth powers allowed him to calculate the volume of a paraboloid. This is a precursor to integral calculus.[639]
  • Intromission theory: Ibn al-Haytham (965–1040) was the first person to explain that vision occurs when light bounces on an object and then is directed to one’s eyes.[640]
  • Iterative method: In algebra and numerical analysis, he developed an iterative method for solving cubic equations, which was not discovered in Europe until centuries later.[641]
  • Law of cosines: In French, the law of cosines is named Théorème d’Al-Kashi (Theorem of Al-Kashi), as al-Kashi was the first to provide an explicit statement of the law of cosines in a form suitable for triangulation.[642]
  • Law of sines: The spherical law of sines was discovered by Abu al-Wafa’ Buzjani in the 10th century.[643] Ibn Muʿādh al-Jayyānī’s The book of unknown arcs of a sphere in the 11th century contains the general law of sines.[644]
  • Linear algebra and recreational mathematics: In linear algebra and recreational mathematics, magic squares were known to Arab mathematicians, possibly as early as the 7th century, when the Arabs got into contact with Indian or South Asian culture, and learned Indian mathematics and astronomy, including other aspects of combinatorial mathematics. It has also been suggested that the idea came via China. The first magic squares of order 5 and 6 appear in an encyclopedia from Baghdad circa 983 AD, the Rasa’il Ihkwan al-Safa (Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity); simpler magic squares were known to several earlier Arab mathematicians.[645]
  • Local analysis, maxima, derivative function: Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī introduced local analysis, the study of maxima, and the notion of a derivative function,[646] a precursor to differential calculus.[647]
  • Newton’s method and Newton–Raphson method: A method algebraically equivalent to Newton’s method was known to Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī. Jamshīd al-Kāshī improved on this by using a form of Newton’s method to solve xPN=0 to find roots of N.[648]
  • Non-Euclidean geometry and elliptic geometry: The theorems of Ibn al-Haytham, Khayyam and al-Tusi on quadrilaterals, including the Lambert quadrilateral and Saccheri quadrilateral, were “the first few theorems of the hyperbolic and the elliptic geometries.” These theorems along with their alternative postulates, such as Playfair’s axiom, played an important role in the later development of non-Euclidean geometry. These early attempts at challenging the fifth postulate had a considerable influence on its development among later European geometers, including Witelo, Levi ben Gerson, Alfonso, John Wallis and Giovanni Gerolamo Saccheri.[638]
  • Numerical analysis: In numerical analysis, the essence of Viète’s method was known to Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī in the 12th century, and it is possible that the algebraic tradition of Sharaf al-Dīn, as well as his predecessor Omar Khayyám and successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī, was known to 16th century European algebraists, of whom wikipedia:François Viète was the most important.[649] A method algebraically equivalent to Newton’s method was also known to Sharaf al-Dīn. In the 15th century, his successor al-Kashi later used a form of Newton’s method to numerically solve  xPN=0 to find roots of  N. In western Europe, a similar method was later described by Henry Biggs in his Trigonometria Britannica, published in 1633.[650]
  • Pascal’s triangle: The Persian mathematician Al-Karaji (953–1029) wrote a now lost book which contained the first description of Pascal’s triangle.[651][652][653] It was later repeated by the Persian poet-astronomer-mathematician Omar Khayyám (1048–1131); thus the triangle is also referred to as the “Khayyam triangle” in Iran.
  • Permutations and combinations: The Book of Cryptographic Messages written by Al-Khalil (717–786) contains the first use of permutations and combinations to list all possible Arabic words with and without vowels.[629]
  • Polyalphabetic cipher: Al-Kindi (801–873) described the first cryptanalytic techniques, including some for polyalphabetic ciphers, cipher classification, and Arabic phonetics and syntax.[627] Al-Qalqashandi (1355–1418), based on the earlier work of Ibn al-Durayhim (1312–1359), gave the first clear description of a polyalphabetic cipher, in which each plaintext letter is assigned more than one substitute.[654]
  • Probability and statistics: Forms of probability and statistics were developed by Arab mathematicians studying cryptology between the 8th and 13th centuries, dating back to the Book of Cryptographic Messages written by Al-Khalil (717–786).[629] The earliest writing on statistics was found in the 9th-century book Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages by Al-Kindi. In his book, Al-Kindi gave a detailed description of how to use statistics and frequency analysis to decipher encrypted messages. This text laid the foundations for statistics and cryptanalysis.[655][656]
  • Proof by contradiction: Ibn al-Haytham (965–1039) developed the method of proof by contradiction.[657]
  • Real number and irrational number: Arabic mathematicians were the first to treat irrational numbers as algebraic objects,[658] which was made possible by the development of algebra. Arabic mathematicians merged the concepts of “number” and “magnitude” into a more general idea of real number, and they criticized Euclid’s idea of ratio, developed the theory of composite ratios, and extended the concept of number to ratios of continuous magnitude.[659] In his commentary on Book 10 of the Elements, the Persian mathematician Al-Mahani (d. 874/884) examined and classified quadratic irrationals and cubic irrationals. He provided definitions for rational and irrational magnitudes, which he treated as irrational numbers.[660] In contrast to Euclid’s concept of magnitudes as lines, Al-Mahani considered integers and fractions as rational magnitudes, and square roots and cube roots as irrational magnitudes. He also introduced an arithmetic approach to the concept of irrationality.[660] The Egypt mathematician Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam (c. 850–930) was the first to accept irrational numbers as solutions to quadratic equation or as coefficient in an equation, often in the form of square roots, cube roots and fourth roots.[643] In the 10th century, the Iraqi mathematician Al-Hashimi provided general proofs for numbers (rather than geometric demonstrations) as he considered multiplication, division, etc. for ”lines.” Using this method, he provided the first proof for irrational numbers.[661] Abū Ja’far al-Khāzin (900-971) provides a definition of rational and irrational magnitudes.[662]
  • Ruffini-Horner method: Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī used what would later be known as the “Ruffini-Horner method” to numerically approximate the root of a cubic equation. While known to earlier Arabic mathematicians, he was the first to apply the method to solve general equations of this type.[663]
  • Saccheri quadrilateral: Saccheri quadrilaterals were first considered by Omar Khayyam (1048-1131) in the late 11th century in Book I of Explanations of the Difficulties in the Postulates of Euclid.The first known consideration of the Saccheri quadrilateral was by Omar Khayyam in the late 11th century, and it may occasionally be referred to as the Khayyam-Saccheri quadrilateral.[664]
  • Sample size: An important contribution of Ibn Adlan (1187–1268) was the concept of sample size for use of frequency analysis. He believed that the cryptogram “should be at least 90 letters long and that each of the 28 letters of Arabic should be represented at least three times”.[629]
  • Spherical trigonometry: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī was a pioneer in spherical trigonometry.[643] While earlier mathematicians had dealt with spherical triangles, Al-Battani and Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī are credited with developing spherical trigonometry into its present form.[472]
  • Static equation-solving algebra: Where the objective is to find numbers satisfying certain relationships. The move away from geometric algebra dates back to the Babylonian Diophantus and Indian Brahmagupta, but algebra didn’t decisively move to the static equation-solving stage until Al-Khwarizmi‘s Al-Jabr.[665]
  • Spherical geometry: Abū al-Wafā’ al-Būzjānī (940–998).[130]
  • Spherical trigonometry: Al-Jayyani (989-1079).[666]
  • Statistical inference: Al-Kindi made the earliest known use of statistical inference in his work on cryptanalysis and frequency analysis.[629]
  • Substitution cipher and transposition cipher: The work of Al-Qalqashandi (1355–1418), based on the earlier work of Ibn al-Durayhim (1312–1359), contained the first published discussion of the substitution and transposition of ciphers.[654]
  • Symbolic algebra: Al-Hassār, a mathematician from the Maghreb (North Africa) specializing in Islamic inheritance jurisprudence during the 12th century, developed the modern symbolic mathematical notation for fractions, where the numerator and denominator are separated by a horizontal bar. This same fractional notation appeared soon after in the work of Fibonacci in the 13th century.[619] Abū al-Hasan ibn Alī al-Qalasādī (1412–1482) was the last major medieval Arab algebraist, who improved on the algebraic notation earlier used in the Maghreb by Ibn al-Banna in the 13th century[667] and by Ibn al-Yāsamīn in the 12th century.[619] In contrast to the syncopated notations of their predecessors, the Babylonian Diophantus and Indian Brahmagupta, which lacked symbols for mathematical operations,[668] al-Qalasadi’s algebraic notation was the first to have symbols for these functions and was thus “the first steps toward the introduction of algebraic symbolism.” He represented mathematical symbols using characters from the Arabic alphabet.[667] The symbol x now commonly denote an unknown variable. Even though any letter can be used, x is the most common choice. This usage can be traced back to the Arabic word šay’ شيء = “thing,” used in Arabic algebra texts such as the Al-Jabr, and was taken into Old Spanish with the pronunciation “šei,” which was written xei, and was soon habitually abbreviated to x. (The Spanish pronunciation of “x” has changed since). Some sources say that this x is an abbreviation of Latin causa, which was a translation of Arabic شيء. This started the habit of using letters to represent quantities in algebra. In mathematics, an “italicized x” (x) is often used to avoid potential confusion with the multiplication symbol. Symbolic algebra is where full symbolism is used. Early steps toward this can be seen in the work of several Islamic mathematicians such as Ibn al-Banna (13th–14th centuries) and al-Qalasadi (15th century).[669]
  • Systemic algebraic solution and completing the square: Al-Khwarizmi‘s popularizing treatise on algebra (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, c. 813–833 CE[613]:171) presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations. One of his principal achievements in algebra was his demonstration of how to solve quadratic equations by completing the square, for which he provided geometric justifications.[614]:14
  • Trigonometric functions: All six trigonometric functions appeared together for the first time in Islamic mathematics. While the sine and cosine functions were earlier known in Indian mathematics, the other four trigonometric functions were discovered by Islamic mathematicians. Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī produced accurate sine and cosine tables, and the first table of tangents. In 830, Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi produced the first table of cotangents.[643][472] Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius) (853–929 AD) discovered the reciprocal functions of secant and cosecant, and produced the first table of cosecants for each degree from 1° to 90°.[472]
  • Trigonometry: Previous trigonometric works were translated and expanded in the medieval Islamic world by Muslim mathematicians of mostly Persian and Arab descent, who enunciated a large number of theorems which freed the subject of trigonometry from dependence upon the complete quadrilateral, as was the case in Hellenistic mathematics due to the application of Menelaus’ theorem. According to E. S. Kennedy, it was after this development in Islamic mathematics that “the first real trigonometry emerged, in the sense that only then did the object of study become the spherical or plane triangle, its sides and angles.”[670] The Persian polymath Nasir al-Din al-Tusi has been described as the creator of trigonometry as a mathematical discipline in its own right.[671][672][673] Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī was also the first to treat trigonometry as a mathematical discipline independent from astronomy.[472]
  • Viète’s method: The essence of Viète’s method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi.[674]

Scientific instruments

See also: Islamic astronomy, Islamic physics, and Alchemy and chemistry in Islam

Muslim astronomers developed a number of astronomical instruments, including several variations of the astrolabe, originally invented by Hipparchus in the 2nd century BCE, but with considerable improvements made to the device in the Muslim world. These instruments were used by Muslims for a variety of purposes. In the 10th century, Al-Sufi first described over 1,000 different uses of an astrolabe, related to astronomy, astrology, horoscopes, navigation, surveying, timekeeping, Qibla (direction to Mecca), Salah prayers, etc.[675]

Analog computers

File:Astrolabe-Persian-18C.jpg File:Spherical astrolabe.jpg

  • Astrolabe: Astrolabes were developed in the medieval Islamic world, where Muslim astronomers introduced angular scales to the astrolabe,[676] adding circles indicating azimuth on the horizon.[677] It was widely used throughout the Muslim world, chiefly as an aid to navigation and as a way of finding the Qibla, the direction of Mecca. The first person credited with building the astrolabe in the Islamic world is reportedly the 8th century mathematician Muhammad al-Fazari.[678] The mathematical background was established by the Muslim astronomer Albatenius in his treatise Kitab az-Zij (ca. 920 AD), which was translated into Latin by Plato Tiburtinus (De Motu Stellarum). The earliest surviving dated astrolabe is dated AH 315 (927/8 AD). In the Islamic world, astrolabes were used to find the times of sunrise and the rising of fixed stars, to help schedule morning prayers (salah). In the 10th century, Al-Sufi first described over 1,000 different uses of an astrolabe, in areas as diverse as astronomy, astrology, horoscopes, navigation, surveying, time, prayer, Salah, Qibla, etc.[679][680]
  • Equatorium: Invented by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) in Islamic Spain circa 1015, it was a mechanical analog computer device for finding the longitudes and positions of the moon, sun, and planet]s, without calculation using a geometrical model to represent the celestial body’s mean and anomalistic position. The inventor of the equatorium, Al-Zarqali, was an Arab Muslim instrument maker, mathematician, and leading astronomer at the time. Al-Zarqali based the equatorium on the universal astrolabe, but made it more accurate and specialized.[681]
  • Fixed-wired knowledge processing machine, hodometer, surveyor’s wheel: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī’s hodometer[682] was an early example of a fixed-wired knowledge processing machine in the early 11th century.[683] It is uncertain, however, whether his hodometer was closer to the modern surveyor’s wheel or the ancient odometer used in the Han Dynasty and Roman Empire.
  • Mechanical geared astrolabe: Invented by Ibn Samh (c. 1020).[684]
  • Mechanical lunisolar calendar computer: Featured a gear train and gear-wheels, and was invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century.[685]
  • Saphaea: An astrolabe, invented by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) in 11th century Islamic Spain.[686]
  • Zuraqi and heliocentric astrolabe: The Zuraqi, a heliocentric astrolabe where the Earth is in motion rather than the sky, by al-Sijzi in the 11th century.[687]
  • Linear astrolabe (“staff of al-Tusi”): Invented by Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī in the 12th century.[688]
  • Programmable analog computer and castle clock: The castle clock, an astronomical clock invented by Al-Jazari in 1206, is considered to be the earliest programmable analog computer.[298] It displayed the zodiac, the solar and lunar orbits, a crescent moon-shaped pointer travelling across a gateway causing automatic doors to open every hour,[166][689] and five robotic musicians who play music when moved by levers operated by a camshaft attached to a water wheel. The length of day and night could be re-programmed every day in order to account for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year.[298]
  • Calendar computer and mechanical geared astrolabe with calendar computer: Invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan in 1235.[690]
  • Planetary computer: The Plate of Zones, a mechanical planetary computer which could graphically solve a number of planetary problems, was invented by al-Kashi in the 15th century. It could predict the true positions in longitude of the sun and moon,[691] and the planets in terms of elliptical orbits;[692] the latitudes of the Sun, Moon, and planets; and the ecliptic of the Sun. The instrument also incorporated an alidade and ruler.[693]
  • Plate of Conjunctions: A computing instrument used to determine the time of day at which planetary conjunctions will occur,[694] and for performing linear interpolation,[691] invented by al-Kashi in the 15th century.
  • Programmable analog computer: The castle clock, a hydropowered mechanical astronomical clock invented by Ismail al-Jazari in 1206, was the first programmable analog computer.[298][695][166]

Globes

Several different types of globes and armillary spheres were invented by medieval Muslim astronomers and engineers:

  • Celestial globe: This was used primarily for solving problems in celestial astronomy, and the oldest dates back to the 11th century. The altitude of the Sun and the right ascension and declination of the stars could be calculated with these by inputting the location of the observer on the meridian ring of the globe.
  • Portable celestial globe: In the 12th century, Jabir ibn Aflah (Geber) was “the first to design a portable celestial sphere to measure and explain the movements of celestial objects.”[696]
  • Spherical astrolabe: First produced in the Islamic world by the 14th century.[697] The spherical astrolabe, a variation of both the astrolabe and the armillary sphere, was invented in the Islamic Middle East.[698]
  • Terrestrial globe: The first terrestrial globe of the Old World was constructed in the Muslim world during the Middle Ages, by Muslim geographers and astronomers working under the Abbasid caliph, Al-Ma’mun, in the 9th century.[699]

Laboratory apparatus

  • Aerometer: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the 11th century.[700]
  • Alembic, still, retort: Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) invented the alembic (from the Arabic term al-anbiq) in the 8th century. This was the first still[10] with a retort,[701] and the first distillation device to fully purify chemical substances.
  • Conical measure: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the 11th century.[702][703] During his experiments on physics in the early 11th century, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the conical measure,[704] in order to find the ratio between the weight of a substance in air and the weight of water displaced, and to accurately measure the specific weights of the gemstones and their corresponding metals, which are very close to modern measurements.[705]
  • Hydrostatic balance and steelyard: Al-Khazini in 1121.[706]
  • Laboratory flask and pycnometer: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century.[706]
  • Retort: The alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān developed the process of distillation into what it is today by inventing several basic laboratory equipment, one of which was the retort.
  • Refrigerated coil and refrigerated tubing: In the 11th century, Avicenna invented the refrigerated coil, which condenses aromatic vapours.[707][708] This was a breakthrough in distillation technology and he made use of it in his steam distillation process, which requires refrigerated tubing, to produce essential oils.[21]
  • Thermometer, air thermometer, thermoscope: Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), in the 11th century, was the first to employ an air thermometer in his experiments on physics.[709]
  • Tools for drug preparation: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) first described the following tools for the preparation of drugs (li-tadbir al-aqaqir): cucurbit and still with evacuation tube (qar aq anbiq dhu-khatm), receiving matras (qabila), blind still (without evacuation tube) (al-anbiq al-ama), aludel (al-uthal), goblets (qadah), flasks (qarura or quwarir), rosewater flasks (ma wariyya), cauldron (marjal aw tanjir), earthenware pots varnished on the inside with their lids (qudur aq tanjir), water bath or sand bath (qadr), oven (al-tannur in Arabic, athanor in Latin), small cylindirical oven for heating aludel (mustawqid), funnels, sieves, and filters.[16]
  • Tools for melting substances: Al-Razi (Rhazes), in his Secretum secretorum (Latinized title), described the following original tools for melting chemical substances (li-tadhwib): crucible (bawtaqa)[16] and kilns with superimposed crucibles known as but bar but (crucible on crucible) in Arabic and botus barbatus in Latin.[710]

Mural instruments

File:Ulugh Beg observatory.JPG

  • Mural instrument: Invented by Al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad, Iraq.[711]
  • Quadrant: The quadrant, as well as several other forms of it, were invented by Muslims in Iraq. Among them was the sine quadrant used for astronomical calculations and various forms of the horary quadrant, used to determine time (especially the times of prayer) by observations of the Sun or stars. A center of the development of quadrants was 9th century Baghdad.[712]
  • Almucantar quadrant: Invented in the medieval Islamic world. It employed the use of trigonometry. The term “almucantar” is itself derived from Arabic.[713]
  • Horary quadrant: For specific latitudes, by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad.[711]
  • Sine quadrant: Also known as the “Sinecal Quadrant”, the Arabic term for it is “Rubul Mujayyab”. Used for solving trigonometric problems and for astronomical calculations, by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad.[711] A type of quadrant used by medieval Arabic astronomers for trigonometric calculations, it was described by Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī in 9th century Baghdad.[714]
  • Quadrans Vetus: Meaning “Old Quadrant”, this was a universal horary quadrant which could be used for any latitude and at any time of the year to determine the time, as well as the times of Salah, invented by al-Khwarizmi in 9th century Baghdad. This was the second most widely used astronomical instrument during the Middle Ages after the astrolabe. One of its main purposes in the Islamic world was to determine the times of Salah prayers.[715]
  • Quadrans Novus: An astrolabic quadrant invented in Egypt in the 11th century or 12th century, and later known in Europe as the “Quadrans Novus” (New Quadrant).[716]
  • Sextant: The first sextant was constructed in Ray, Iran, by Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi in 994. It was a very large sextant that achieved a high level of accuracy for astronomical measurements, which he described his in his treatise, On the obliquity of the ecliptic and the latitudes of the cities.[717] In the 15th century, Ulugh Beg constructed the mural “Fakhri Sextant”, which had a radius of approximately 36 meters. Constructed in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, the arc was finely constructed with a staircase on either side to provide access for the assistants who performed the measurements.

Optical instruments

  • Observation tube: The “observation tube” (without lens) was invented by Al-Battani (Albatenius) (853-929) and first described by al-Biruni (973-1048). These observation tubes were later adopted in Europe, where they influenced the development of the telescope.[718]
  • Optics: Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), with his Book of Optics (1021), refuted the emission theory of vision, and correctly explained and proved the modern intromission theory of vision, through extensive experimentation.[617] and visual perception,[559].
  • Camera obscura and camera: From the Arabic word qamara for a dark or private room. Ibn al-Haytham worked out that the smaller the hole, the better the picture, and set up the first camera obscura,[7] a precursor to the modern camera.
  • Pinhole camera: Ibn al-Haytham first described pinhole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters.[7]
  • Magnifying glass: The earliest evidence of “a magnifying device, a convex lens forming a magnified image”, dates back the Book of Optics published by Ibn al-Haytham in 1021. The Latin translation of his work was instrumental to the later inventions of eyeglasses,[719] the telescope,[720] and the microscope.[721]
  • Magnifying glass and convex lens: A convex lens used for forming a magnified image was described in the Book of Optics by Ibn al-Haytham in 1021.[722]
  • Telescope and long-distance magnifying device: A long-distance magnifying device was invented by Taqi al-Din, as described in his Book of the Light of the Pupil of Vision and the Light of the Truth of the Sights around 1574. He describes it as an instrument that makes objects located far away appear closer to the observer, and that the instrument helps to see distant objects in detail by bringing them very close. He states that he wrote another earlier treatise explaining the way this instrument is made and used, suggesting that he invented it some time before 1574. This device is considered to be a rudimentary telescope.[723]

Other instruments

  • Alidade: Invented in the Islamic world. The term “alidade” is itself derived from Arabic word al-idhâdah “ruler”.
  • Astrolabic clock: Ibn al-Shatir in the early 14th century.[724]
  • Astronomical compass: The first astronomical uses of the magnetic compass is found in a treatise on astronomical instruments written by the Yemeni sultan al-Ashraf in 1282. This was the first reference to the compass in astronomical literature.[725]
  • Brass astrolabe: The earliest known example of an astrolabe is dated 315 AH in the Islamic calendar, corresponding to 927-928 CE. The first person credited with building a brass astrolabe is reportedly Fazari.[726] The instruments were used to read the rise of the time of rise of the Sun and fixed stars. It was widely used throughout the Muslim world, chiefly as an aid to navigation and as a way of finding the Qibla, the direction of Mecca. 8th-century mathematician Muhammad al-Fazari is the first person credited with building the astrolabe in the Islamic world.[727]
  • Compendium instrument: A multi-purpose astronomical instrument, first constructed by the Muslim astronomer Ibn al-Shatir in the 13th century. His compendium featured an alidade and polar sundial among other things. Al-Wafa’i developed another compendium in the 15th century which he called the “equatorial circle”, which also featured a horizontal sundial. These compendia later became popular in Renaissance Europe.[728]
  • Pendulum: The pendulum was discovered by Ibn Yunus during the 10th century, who was the first to study and document its oscillatory motion. Muslims introduced its use as an early pendulum clock in the 15th century.[20]
  • Planisphere: Abu Rayhan al-Biruni invented and wrote the earliest treatise on the planisphere in the 1000s.[520] Invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī.[729]

File:Tycho instrument sextant 16.jpg

  • Framed sextant: At the Istanbul observatory of Taqi al-Din between 1577 and 1580, Taqi al-Din invented the mushabbaha bi’l manattiq, a framed sextant with cords for the determination of the equinoxes similar to what Tycho Brahe later used.[730]
  • Seamless globe and celestial globe: Considered one of the most remarkable feats in metallurgy, they were invented in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in 998 AH (1589-90 CE), and twenty other such globes were later produced in Lahore and Kashmir during the Mughal Empire. Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology. These Mughal metallurgists pioneered the method of lost-wax casting while producing these seamless globes.[731]
  • Shadow square: An instrument used to determine the linear height of an object, in conjunction with the alidade for angular observations, invented by Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī in 9th-century Baghdad.[732]
  • Torquetum: Invented by Jabir ibn Aflah.[733]
  • Universal astrolabe and azafea: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī invented the first universal astrolable,[734] also called the azafea or saphea, which proved very popular and was widely used by navigators until the 16th century.[735]

Timekeeping devices

File:SevillaGlorietaDelReloj01.JPG File:Al-jazari elephant clock.png

Astronomical clocks

Muslim astronomers and engineers constructed a variety of highly accurate astronomical clocks for use in their observatories.[20]

  • Astronomical alarm clock: See Mechanical clocks below.
  • Geared mechanical lunisolar calendar computer: See Analog computers above.
  • Geared mechanical astrolabe: Featured a calendar computer and gear-wheels, and was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan in 1235.[690]
  • Mechanical astrolabe: Mechanical astrolabes were developed in the Muslim world, and were perfected by Ibn Samh. These can be considered as an ancestor of the mechanical clocks developed by later Muslim engineers.[736]
  • Monumental water-powered astronomical clocks: Al-Jazari invented monumental water powered astronomical clocks which displayed moving models of the sun, moon, and stars. His largest astronomical clock displayed the zodiac and the solar and lunar orbits. Another innovative feature of the clock was a pointer which travelled across the top of a gateway and caused automatic doors to open every hour.[166]
  • Observational clock measured in seconds: See Mechanical clocks below.
  • Programmable castle clock: See Analog computers above.
  • Quadrans Vetus: See Mural instruments above.
  • Timekeeping astrolabe: In the 10th century, al-Sufi described over 1,000 different uses of an astrolabe, including timekeeping, particularly for the times of Salah prayers and Ramadan.[675]

Mechanical clocks

  • Watch: According to Will Durant, Abbas Ibn Firnas invented a watch-like device in the 9th century which kept accurate time.[20] According to historian Will Durant, a watch-like device was invented by Ibn Firnas.[737]
  • Geared clock: The first geared clock was invented by the 11th-century Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Islamic Iberia; it was a water clock that employed both segmental and epicyclic gearing. Other monumental water clocks constructed by medieval Muslim engineers also employed complex gear trains and arrays of automata.[738] The first European clock to employ these complex gears was the astronomical clock created by Giovanni de Dondi in c. 1365. The first geared clock was invented in the 11th century by the Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Islamic Iberia; it was a water clock that employed a complex gear train mechanism, including both segmental and epicyclic gearing,[84][739] capable of transmitting high torque. The clock was unrivalled in its use of sophisticated complex gearing, until the mechanical clocks of the mid-14th century.[739]
  • Clock measured in hours and minutes: In the early 11th century, Ibn al-Haytham‘s Maqala fi al-Binkam described a mechanical water clock that, for the first time in history, accurately measures time in hours and minutes. According to engineering historian Salim Al-Hassani: “In his description, Ibn al-Haytham gives details of the water clock. He describes it as a new invention in that it gives hours and minutes, which no other clock gave before his time.”[740]
  • Sinking-bowl inflow clepsydra: For his clock, Ibn al-Haytham combined the Indian sinking-bowl water clepsydra and the Chinese inflow clepsydra together, and improved on them.[740]
  • Inflow clepsydra with uniform motion: When designing an inflow clepsydra, Chinese engineers “struggled with the problem of keeping the flow uniform”; Ibn al-Haytham overcame this “problem of non-uniform motion of the sinking cylinder” by attaching the cylinder “to a rope/string, which after passing over pulleys is connected to a shaft and a bearing onto which a circular disc is mounted.” According to Al-Hassani, as “the cylinder sinks vertically and concentrically into an outer cylindrical tank, the string rotates the disc about its own horizontal axis.” Al-Hassani also writes: “He mentions that the cylinder sinks at a faster speed as it gains more water inside it. He allows for this by calibrating the rotating disc dial such that the spacing’s between the hour divisions become larger nearer the end of its rotation.[740]
  • Clock face and clock with 24-hour analog dial: To represent the hours and minutes, Ibn al-Haytham invented a clock face. It featured a 24-hour analog dial, including a large marker for each hour and a small marker for each minute, along with medium-sized markers to indicate half-hours and quarter-hours.[740]
  • Mercury clock: A detailed account of technology in Islamic Spain was compiled under Alfonso X of Castile between 1276 and 1279, which included a compartmented mercury clock, which was influential up until the 17th century.[349] It was described in the Libros del saber de Astronomia, a Spanish work from 1277 consisting of translations and paraphrases of Arabic works.[690]
  • Weight-driven clock: Arabic engineers in Al-Andalus invented water clocks driven by gears and weights in the 11th century.[84]
  • Weight-driven mercury clock: A mercury clock, employing a mercury escapement mechanism[738] and a clock face similar to an astrolabe dial, was described in a Spanish language work for Alfonso X in 1277, compiled from earlier Arabic sources that likely date back to the 11th century. The Jewish author of the relevant section, Rabbi Isaac, constructed the mercury clock using principles described in earlier Arabic sources on how heavy objects may be lifted.[741] Knowledge of the mercury clock was later transmitted to other parts of Europe through translations.[20]
  • Weight-driven water clock: Arab engineers invented weight-driven water clocks, where heavy floats were used as weights and a constant-head system was used as an escapement mechanism, which was present in in the hydraulic controls they used to make heavy floats descend at a slow and steady rate.[738]
  • Weight-driven water-powered scribe clock: In 1206, Al-Jazari invented some of the earliest weight-driven water clocks, including the water-powered scribe clock. This water-powered portable clock was a meter high and half a meter wide. The scribe with his pen was synonymous to the hour hand of a modern clock. This is an example of an ingenious water system by Al-Jazari.[116][742] Al-Jazari’s famous water-powered scribe clock was reconstructed successfully at the Science Museum (London) in 1976.
  • Striking clock: According to a 1202 manuscript written by Ridhwan al-Sa’ati, Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad b. Naser b. Saghir b. Khalid al-Kaysarani contructed the first striking clock in 1154 as part of a clock tower, similar to the Big Ben, near the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria.[743]
  • Pendulum clock: The pendulum was discovered by Ibn Yunus during the 10th century, who was the first to study and document its oscillatory motion. Muslims introduced its use as an early pendulum clock in the 15th century.[20]
  • Alarm clock, mechanical alarm clock, astronomical clock with alarm: The first user adjusted mechanical alarm clock was described in 1559 by Taqi al-Din, who developed a mechanical astronomical clock employing an alarm arrangement, which was capable of sounding at a specified time, achieved by means of placing a peg on the dial wheel to when one wants the alarm heard and by producing an automated ringing device at the specified time. He described it in his book, The Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks (Al-Kawākib al-durriyya fī wadh’ al-bankāmat al-dawriyya), published that year.[744]
  • Spring-powered astronomical clock: In The Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks, Taqi al-Din invented the first astronomical clock to be powered by springs. This was also one of the first spring-powered mechanical clocks in general, developed around the same time as Peter Henlein in 1556.[745]

File:Wall clock.jpg

  • Observational clock, three-dial clock, clock measured in seconds: Taqi al-Din invented the “observational clock”, which he described as “a mechanical clock with three dials which show the hours, the minutes, and the seconds.” This was the first clock to measure time in seconds, and was used for astronomical purposes, specifically for measuring the right ascension of the stars. This is considered one of the most important innovations in 16th century practical astronomy, as previous clocks were not accurate enough to be used for astronomical purposes.[746] At the Istanbul observatory of Taqi al-Din, he further improved his observational clock, using only one dial to represent the hours, minutes and seconds, describing it as “a mechanical clock with a dial showing the hours, minutes and seconds and we divided every minute into five seconds.”[747]
  • Pocket watch, spring-powered watch, watch measured in minutes: Taqi al-Din also developed one of the first spring-powered pocket watches,[116] shortly after the first such watch was developed by Peter Henlein in 1524. Taqi al-Din’s watch, however, was the first to measure time in minutes, by having three dials for the hours, degrees and minutes.[745]

Dials

  • Universal sundial: A universal sundial for all latitudes, used for timekeeping and for the determination of the times of Salah, was produced in 9th-century Baghdad.[748]
  • Navicula de Venetiis: A universal horary dial used for accurate timekeeping by the sun and stars, and could be observed from any latitude, invented in 9th century Baghdad.[749] This was later considered the most sophisticated timekeeping instrument of the Renaissance.[513]
  • Polar-axis sundial: The ancient sundials were nodus-based with straight hour-lines, they indicated unequal hours—also called temporary hours—that varied with the seasons, since every day was divided into twelve equal segments; thus, hours were shorter in winter and longer in summer. The idea of using hours of equal time length throughout the year was the innovation of Ibn al-Shatir in 1371, based on earlier developments in trigonometry by Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albategni). Ibn al-Shatir was aware that “using a gnomon that is parallel to the Earth’s axis will produce sundials whose hour lines indicate equal hours on any day of the year.” His sundial is the oldest polar-axis sundial still in existence. The concept later appeared in Western sundials from at least 1446.[750][751]
  • Compass dial: See Instruments above.

File:Clock of al Jazari before 1206.jpg

Water clocks

  • Geared water clock: See Mechanical clocks above.
  • Clock measured in hours and minutes: See Mechanical clocks above.
  • Sinking-bowl inflow clepsydra: See Mechanical clocks above.
  • Inflow clepsydra with uniform motion: See Mechanical clocks above.
  • Elephant clock: The elephant clock described by al-Jazari in 1206 is notable for several innovations. It was the first clock in which an automaton reacted after certain intervals of time, which in this case was a humanoid robot in the form of a mahout striking a cymbal and a mechanical bird chirping like a cuckoo clock; the first mechanism to employ a flow regulator; and the earliest example of a closed-loop system in a mechanism.[752] The float regulator employed in the clock later had an important influence during the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, when it was employed in the boiler of a steam engine and in domestic water systems. Invented by Al-Jazari (1136–1206).[753]
  • Programmable clock: Al-Jazari’s castle clock in the early 13th century. See Analog computers above.
  • Weight-driven water clock: See Mechanical clocks above.
  • Weight-driven water-powered scribe clock: See Mechanical clocks above.
  • Monumental water-powered alarm clock: In 1235, an early monumental water-powered alarm clock that “announced the appointed hours of prayer and the time both by day and by night” was completed in the entrance hall of the Mustansiriya Madrasah in Baghdad.[754]

New water clocks have recently been discovered in Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi’s Book of Secrets (1000), as shown in the Museum of Islamic Art, Doha, Qatar.[755]

Other inventions

File:Al-kindi-cryptanalysis.png File:Geomantic instrument Egypt or Syria 1241 1242 CE Muhammad ibn Khutlukh al Mawsuli.jpg File:Lautenmacher-1568.png File:Oud.jpg File:Turkey.Konya027.jpg

Other inventions from the Islamic world include:

  • Airmail system utilizing homing pigeons by the Fatimid Caliph Aziz, and advances in music theory (see Arabic music) and irrigation techniques (see Muslim Agricultural Revolution).[756][757][758]
  • Bildungsroman: Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail was a precursor to the European bildungsroman genre.[759]
  • Biographical dictionary: In the medieval Islamic civilization, biographies began being produced on a large scale with the advent of paper. This led to the introduction of a new literary genre: the biographical dictionary. The first biographical dictionaries were written in the Muslim world from the 9th century onwards. They contain more social data for a large segment of the population than that found in any other pre-industrial society. The earliest biographical dictionaries initially focused on the lives of the prophets of Islam and the their companions, with one of the earliest examples being The Book of The Major Classes by Ibn Sa’d al-Baghdadi, and then began documenting the lives of many other historical figures (from rulers to scholars) who lived in the medieval Islamic world.[760]
  • Check reading: The medieval Islamic world also developed a unique method of reproducing reliable copies of a book in large quantities, known as check reading, in contrast to the traditional method of a single scribe producing only a single copy of a single manuscript, as was the case in other societies at the time. In the Islamic check reading method, only “authors could authorize copies, and this was done in public sessions in which the copyist read the copy aloud in the presence of the author, who then certified it as accurate.”[761] With this check-reading system, “an author might produce a dozen or more copies from a single reading,” and with two or more readings, “more than one hundred copies of a single book could easily be produced.”[762]
  • Crime fiction and courtroom drama: The One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights) contains the earliest known examples of crime fiction, including “The Three Apples” and “The Hunchback’s Tale”, the latter the earliest known courtroom drama, presented as a suspenseful comedy.[763]
  • Detective story, reverse chronology, fictional detective: The One Thousand and One Nights contains several of the earliest detective stories, anticipating modern detective fiction, including “The Three Apples”, “The Merchant and the Thief” and “Ali Khwaja”. The first of these, “The Three Apples”, anticipates the use of inverse chronology in modern detective fiction, where the story begins with a crime before presenting a gradual reconstruction of the past. “The Merchant and the Thief” and “Ali Khwaja” contain two of the earliest fictional detectives, who uncover clues and present evidence to catch or convict a criminal known to the audience, in normal chronology, with the latter involving the protagonist Ali Khwaja presenting evidence from expert witnesses in a court.[764]
  • Diary: In the medieval Near East, Arabic diaries were written from before the 10th century. The earliest surviving diary which most resembles the modern diary was that of Ibn Banna in the 11th century. His diary is the earliest known to be arranged in order of date (ta’rikh in Arabic), very much like modern diaries.[765]
  • Murder mystery: “The Three Apples” story in the Arabian Nights is the earliest murder mystery story.[766][767]
  • Pehlwani: A style of wrestling developed in the Mughal Empire by combining Indian malla-yuddha with influences from Persian varzesh-e bastani.[768][769]
  • Persian carpet and cheque system[7]
  • Philosophical novel: Ibn Tufail’s Hayy ibn Yaqdhan is considered an early example of a philosophical novel.[770][771]
  • Science fiction novel: Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis was the first example of a science fiction novel.[772][773]
  • Twist ending: The earliest use of a twist ending in a murder mystery was in “The Three Apples”, a medieval Arabian Nights tale.[774][775]

Fielding H. Garrison wrote in the History of Medicine:

“The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc…”

Other inventions from the Muslim world include liquefaction, crystallisation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation, filtration, uric acid, nitric acid, quilting, pointed arch, bone saw, inoculation, smallpox vaccine, frequency analysis, cryptanalysis, three-course meal, Persian carpet, modern cheque, and royal pleasure gardens,[7] as well as homing pigeons (by Fatimid Caliph Aziz), how the eye works, 1000 year old recipes, rock crystals, musical instruments, musical theory, various fashions, Henna, Miswak, sea navigation techniques, and irrigation techniques.[756][757][776]

Board games

  • Chess and Shatranj: The origins of chess can be traced back to an early form of chaturanga that was played with dice in ancient India. The game was developed into its modern dice-less form with shatranj in Persia. From there, it spread westward to Europe – where it was introduced by the Arabs and Moors in Islamic Spain in the 10th century – and eastward as far as Japan. The word “rook” comes from the Persian rukh, which means chariot.[7]
  • Draughts/Checkers and Alquerque: An Arabic game called Quirkat or al-qirq, with similar play to modern draughts, was played on a 5×5 board. It is mentioned in the 10th century work Kitab al-Aghani.[777] Al qirq was also the name for the game that is now called Nine Men’s Morris.[778] Al qirq was brought to Spain by the Moors,[779] where it became known as Alquerque, the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name. The rules are given in the 13th century book Libro de los juegos.[777] In about 1100, probably in the south of France, the game of Alquerque was adapted using backgammon pieces on a chessboard.[780]

Equipment

  • Fireproof paper, glow-in-the-dark ink, rust-free iron, and waterproof textile: According to Ismail al-Faruqi and Lois Lamya al-Faruqi, “In response to Jafar al-Sadik’s wishes, [Jabir ibn Hayyan] invented a kind of paper that resisted fire, and an ink that could be read at night. He invented an additive which, when applied to an iron surface, inhibited rust and when applied to a textile, would make it water repellent.”[781]
  • Flat bronze stirrup: An early type of short stirrup that had originated in Turkey and was brought to the Americas by Spanish conquistadors.[782]
  • Fustian: The original medieval fustian was a stout but respectable cloth with a cotton weft and a linen warp, derived from El-Fustat, the name of a suburb of Cairo where this cloth was originally manufactured.[783][784]
  • Jinete: A short-stirrup riding style that was adopted by Spanish riders from the Moors during Islamic rule in Spain. American cowboys in turn adopted the jinete riding style from the Spanish tradition.[785]
  • Graph paper and orthogonal and regular grids: The first known use of graph paper dates back to the medieval Islamic world, where weavers often carefully drew and encoded their patterns onto graph paper prior to weaving.[786] Islamic quadrants used for various astronomical and timekeeping purposes from the 10th century also introduced markings with orthogonal and regular grids that are still identical to modern graph paper.[787][788]
  • Paper book and paper bookbinding: The Arabs revolutionised the book’s production and its binding. They were the first to produce paper books after they learnt papermaking from the Chinese in the 8th century.[789] Particular skills were developed for script writing (Arabic calligraphy), miniatures and bookbinding. The Arabs made books lighter—sewn with silk and bound with leather-covered paste boards; they had a flap that wrapped the book up when not in use. As paper was less reactive to humidity, the heavy boards were not needed. The production of books became a real industry and cities like Marrakech in Morocco had a street named “Kutubiyyin” or book sellers which contained more than 100 bookshops in the 12th century.[790] In the words of Don Baker: “The world of Islam has produced some of the most beautiful books ever created. The need to write down the Revelations which the Prophet Muhammad, may peace be upon him, received, fostered the desire to beautify the object which conveyed these words and initiated this ancient craft. Nowhere else, except perhaps in China, has calligraphy been held in such high esteem. Splendid illumination was added with gold and vibrant colours, and the whole book contained and protected by beautiful bookbindings.”[791]
  • Paper bookbinding: In the 8th century Arabs learned the arts of papermaking from the Chinese and were then the first to bind paper into books at the start of the Islamic Golden Age.[792]
  • Paper packaging: The earliest recorded use of paper for packaging dates back to 1035, when a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for the customers after they were sold.[793]

Musical instruments

See also: Arabic music, Islamic music, and Andalusian classical music

  • Albogue, alboka, hornpipe, clarinets, single-reed instrument: The earliest known hornpipes, clarinets and single-reed instruments were the albogue and alboka, both derived from the “al-bûq” (البوق) (literally “the trumpet” or “the horn”) used in medieval Arabic music and Islamic music. The instrument was brought into Iberia by the Arab conquest.[794]
  • Automatic flute player and programmable automatic flute player: In the 9th century, the Banū Mūsā brothers invented an automatic flute player which appears to have been the first programmable machine, and which they described in their Book of Ingenious Devices.[287] The flute sounds were produced through hot steam and the user could adjust the device to various patterns so that they could get various sounds from it.[795]
  • Banjo: Gerhard Kubik notes that ancestors of the banjo were brought to America by Muslim African slaves from Islamic regions of West Africa.[796]
  • Blues and field holler: The historian Sylviane Diouf and ethnomusicologist Gerhard Kubik trace the origins of the blues to Islamic music.[796][797] Diouf notes a striking resemblance between the Islamic call to prayer (originating from Bilal ibn Rabah, a famous Abyssinian African Muslim in the early 7th century) and 19th-century field holler music, noting that both have similar lyrics praising God, melody, note changes, “words that seem to quiver and shake” in the vocal chords, dramatic changes in musical scales, and nasal intonation. She attributes the origins of field holler music to African Muslim slaves who accounted for an estimated 30% of African slaves in America. The vocal style of many blues singers, including the use of melisma and wavy intonation, is a heritage of the predominantly Islamic Sahel region of West Africa that had been in contact with the Arabic-Islamic Maghreb region since the 7th and 8th centuries.”[796][797]
  • Griot: The griot musical tradition originates from the Islamic Mali Empire, where the first professional griot was Balla Fasséké.[798]
  • Guitar: The guitar has roots in the four-string oud, brought to Iberia by the Moors in the 8th century.[799] A direct ancestor of the modern guitar is the guitarra morisca (Moorish guitar), which was in use in Spain by 1200. By the 14th century, it was simply referred to as a guitar.[800]
  • Guitar, Lute, Oud: The modern guitar (qitar in Arabic) is descended from the four-string oud brought by the Moors after the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the 8th century, and which evolved into the modern lute.[801] The four-string guitar introduced by the Moors had eventually evolved into two types in Spain: the guitarra morisca (Moorish guitar) which had a rounded back, wide fingerboard and several soundholes, and then by 1200, the guitarra latina (Latin guitar) which resembled the modern guitar with one soundhole and a narrower neck.[802]
  • Long-distance organ: A long-distance hydraulic organ that could be heard from sixty miles away was first described in the medieval Arabic treatise Sirr al-asrar and later translated into Latin by Roger Bacon in the 13th century.[803]
  • Mechanical musical instrument and automatic hydraulic organ: In the 9th century, the Banū Mūsā brothers invented “the earliest known mechanical musical instrument”, in this case a hydropowered organ which played interchangeable cylinders automatically. According to Charles B. Fowler, this “cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century.”[804]
  • Musical treeArab inventors developed, among other pieces, a ‘musical tree’ at the palace of Khalif al-Muqtadir (ruled 908–32).[805]
  • Music sequencer and programmable automated music technology: The origin of automatic musical instruments dates back to the 9th century, when Persian inventors Banū Mūsā brothers invented a programmable hydropowered organ using exchangeable cylinders with pins,[806] and an automatic flute playing machine using steam power.[287][807] These were the earliest mechanical musical instruments.[806] The Banu Musa brothers’ programmable automatic flute player was also the first music sequencer device,[808] and the first example of repetitive music technology.[809]
  • Naker and timpani: Arabic nakers were the direct ancestors of most timpani, brought to 13th-century Continental Europe by Crusaders and Saracens.[810]
  • Piano, hurdy gurdy, stringed keyboard instrument: The earliest stringed instrument with a musical keyboard, an ancestor of the piano, was the hurdy gurdy. According to Marianne Bröcker, an instrument similar to the hurdy gurdy is first mentioned in an Arabic musical compendium written by Al Zirikli in the 10th century.[811]
  • Qawwali: Amir Khusrow is regarded as the “father of qawwali” (a devotional music form of the Sufis in the Indian subcontinent), and introduced the ghazal style of song into India, both of which still exist widely in India and Pakistan.[812][813]
  • Rabel and gittern: The plucked and bowed versions of the rebab existed alongside each other.[814] The bowed instruments became the rebec or rabel and the plucked instruments became the gittern. Curt Sachs linked this instrument with the mandola, the kopuz and the gambus, and named the bowed version rabâb.[814]
  • Robot band and programmable humanoid robot band: See Automata / Robotics above.
  • Timpani, Naker, Naqareh: The modern timpani (kettle drum) evolved from the naker, the direct ancestor of most timpani, were were derived from the Arabic naqareh and brought to 13th century Continental Europe by Saracens and Crusaders.[794][810]
  • Violin, Rebec, and Rebab: The modern violin evolved from various bowed stringed instruments which were brought from the Middle East during the Middle Ages.[815] The first violins were largely derived from the rebec, which was in use since the 10th century,[816] and was derived from the rebab which originated in medieval Arabic music and Islamic music.[794]

Paraphernalia

  • Hookah and waterpipe: According to Cyril Elgood (PP.41, 110), the physician Irfan Shaikh, at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar I (1542- 1605 AD) invented the Hookah or waterpipe used most commonly for smoking tobacco.[817][818][819][820] However, a quatrain of Ahlī Shirazi (d. 1535), a Persian poet, refers to the use of the ḡalyān (Falsafī, II, p. 277; Semsār, 1963, p. 15), thus dating its use at least as early as the time of the Shah Ṭahmāsp I. It seems, therefore, that Abu’l-Fath Gilani should be credited with the introduction of the ḡalyān, already in use in Persia, into India.[817]

See also

Notes

  1. Bernard Lewis, What Went Wrong:

“There have been many civilizations in human history, almost all of which were local, in the sense that they were defined by a region and an ethnic group. This applied to all the ancient civilizations of the Middle East—Ancient Egypt, Babylon, Persia; to the great civilizations of Asia—India, China; and to the civilizations of Pre-Columbian America. There are two exceptions: Christendom and Islam. These are two civilizations defined by religion, in which religion is the primary defining force, not, as in India or China, a secondary aspect among others of an essentially regional and ethnically defined civilization. Here, again, another word of explanation is necessary.”

  1. Danny Yee. “Islam: The Straight Path, John L. Esposito, Oxford University Press 1998“. Danny Yee’s Book Reviews. Retrieved on 2009-10-10.
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  3. p. 53, Max Weber & Islam, Toby E. Huff and Wolfgang Schluchter, eds., Transaction Publishers, 1999, ISBN 1-56000-400-2.
  4. George Saliba (1994), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, p. 245, 250, 256-257. New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-8023-7.
  5. Ahmad Y Hassan, Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century
  6. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, 11 March 2006.
  7. 1000 Years of Knowledge Rediscovered at Ibn Battuta Mall, MTE Studios.
  8. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 S. Hadzovic (1997). “Pharmacy and the great contribution of Arab-Islamic science to its development”, Med Arh. 51 (1-2), p. 47-50.
  9. 10.0 10.1 Will Durant (1980). The Age of Faith (The Story of Civilization, Volume 4), p. 162-186. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-01200-2.
  10. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 195.
  11. RASHED, ROSHDI (1996). “Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science“. doi:10.4324/9780203329030.
  12. “Equivalent Weights from Bergman’s Data on Phlogiston Content of Metals” (Winter 1971). Isis 62 (4). doi:10.1086/350792.
  13. Farid Alakbarov (Summer 2001). A 13th-Century Darwin? Tusi’s Views on Evolution, Azerbaijan International 9 (2).
  14. Diane Boulanger (2002), “The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology: Towards Motivating the Muslim Child”, OISE Papers in STSE Education, Vol. 3.
  15. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Georges C. Anawati, “Arabic alchemy”, p. 868, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 853-902)
  16. 17.00 17.01 17.02 17.03 17.04 17.05 17.06 17.07 17.08 17.09 17.10 17.11 17.12 Hassan, Ahmad Y. “Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries“. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  17. Diane Boulanger (2002), “The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology: Towards Motivating the Muslim Child”, OISE Papers in STSE Education, Vol. 3.
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  44. The 19th-century orientalist Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy edited the first two chapters of al-Jaziri’s manuscript and included it in the second edition of his Chrestomathie Arabe (Paris, 1826, 3 vols.). Antoine Galland’s De l’origine et du progrès du Café (1699) was recently reissued (Paris: Editions La Bibliothèque, 1992).
  45. عمدة الصفوة في حل القهوة لزين الدين الجزيري
  46. Al-Jaziri’s manuscript work is of considerable interest with regards to the history of coffee in Europe as well. A copy reached the French royal library, where it was translated in part by Antoine Galland as De l’origine et du progrès du Café.
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  51. Quoted in Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire, University of Oklahoma Press (reprint, 1989), p. 132 Google Books. ISBN 978-0-8061-1060-8.
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    (cf. References, 1001 Inventions) </li>
  34. Fielding H. Garrison, History of Medicine:

“The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, string instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc.”

</li>

  1. S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire in Europe, 3 vols, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and London.
    F. B. Artz (1980), The Mind of the Middle Ages, Third edition revised, University of Chicago Press, pp 148-50.
    (cf. References, 1001 Inventions) </li>
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  12. O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., “Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muadh Al-Jayyani”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Jayyani.html. </li>
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  18. Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 181, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-78149-0 </li>
  19. Materials and Mediums“. Pattern in Islamic Art. Retrieved on 2012-02-08. </li>
  20. <cite style=”font-style:normal”> “Decagonal and Quasi-Crystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture” (2007). Science 315 (5815): 1106–1110. doi:10.1126/science.1135491. PMID 17322056. Bibcode: 2007Sci…315.1106L.</cite> </li>
  21. 140.0 140.1 <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Peter J. Lu and Paul J. Steinhardt (2007). “Decagonal and Quasi-crystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture“. Science 315: 1106–1110. doi:10.1126/science.1135491.</cite> </li>
  22. Supplemental figures </li>
  23. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Gulru Necipoglu   (1995). The Topkapi Scroll:  Geometry and Ornament in Islamic Architecture. Getty Research Institute.</cite> </li>
  24. Old Walled City of Shibam, UNESCO </li>
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  26. 145.0 145.1 Pamela Jerome, Giacomo Chiari, Caterina Borelli (1999), “The Architecture of Mud: Construction and Repair Technology in the Hadhramaut Region of Yemen”, APT Bulletin 30 (2-3): 39–48 [44], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  27. Shipman, J. G. T. (June 1984), “The Hadhramaut”, Asian Affairs 15 (2): 154–62, Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  28. Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1992), Islamic Architecture in Cairo, Brill Publishers, p. 6, ISBN 90 04 09626 4 </li>
  29. 148.0 148.1 <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” id=”Reference-Curl-2006″>Curl, James Stevens (2006). A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, 2nd, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860678-8.</cite> </li>
  30. VirtualAni website. “Armenian architecture glossary“. Retrieved on 2009-07-17. </li>
  31. Honour, H. and J. Fleming, (2009) A World History of Art. 7th edn. London: Laurence King Publishing, p. 391. Template:Isbn </li>
  32. Lu, Peter J.; Steinhardt, Paul J. (2007), “Decagonal and Quasi-crystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture”, Science 315 (5815): 1106–1110, Bibcode 2007Sci…315.1106L, Error: Bad DOI specified, PMID 17322056, http://www.peterlu.org/sites/peterlu.org/files/Science_315_1106_2007.pdf </li>
  33. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Bloom, Jonathan M. (2017-05-15). Early Islamic Art and Architecture. Routledge, 69. ISBN 9781351942584.</cite> </li>
  34. Irfan Habib (1992), “Akbar and Technology”, Social Scientist 20 (9-10), pp. 3-15 [3-4]. </li>
  35. Makovicky, E. (1992), 800-year-old pentagonal tiling from Maragha, Iran, and the new varieties of aperiodic tiling it inspired. In: I. Hargittai, editor: Fivefold Symmetry, pp. 67–86. World Scientific, Singapore-London </li>
  36. <cite style=”font-style:normal”> “Decagonal and Quasi-Crystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture” (2007). Science 315 (5815): 1106–1110. doi:10.1126/science.1135491. PMID 17322056. Bibcode: 2007Sci…315.1106L.</cite> </li>
  37. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (2007) Das islamische Rippengewölbe : Ursprung, Form, Verbreitung. Berlin: Gebr. Mann. ISBN 978-3-7861-2550-1.</cite> </li>
  38. 157.0 157.1 157.2 157.3 157.4 Adam Robert Lucas (2005), “Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe”, Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1-30 [10-1 & 27] </li>
  39. Adam Robert Lucas (2005), “Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe”, Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1-30 </li>
  40. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (2013) A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Routledge, 162. ISBN 9781317761570.</cite> </li>
  41. 160.0 160.1 Lucas, Adam (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, Brill Publishers, pp. 62 & 64, ISBN 9004146490 </li>
  42. Lucas, Adam (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, Brill Publishers, pp. 62 & 64, ISBN 90-04-14649-0 </li>
  43. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (2013) A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Routledge, 163-166. ISBN 9781317761570.</cite> </li>
  44. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), “Engineering”, p. 783, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751-95) </li>
  45. 164.0 164.1 164.2 164.3 164.4 164.5 164.6 164.7 164.8 Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 65, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004146490 </li>
  46. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), “Engineering”, p. 781, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751-95) </li>
  47. 166.00 166.01 166.02 166.03 166.04 166.05 166.06 166.07 166.08 166.09 166.10 166.11 166.12 166.13 166.14 166.15 166.16 166.17 Donald Routledge Hill, “Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East”, Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64-69 (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering) </li>
  48. Lucas, Adam (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, Brill Publishers, pp. 65 & 84, ISBN 9004146490 </li>
  49. Lucas 2006, p. 26 </li>
  50. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), A history of engineering in classical and medieval times, Routledge, pp. 169–71, ISBN 0-415-15291-7 </li>
  51. Leor Halevi (2008), “Christian Impurity versus Economic Necessity: A Fifteenth-Century Fatwa on European Paper”, Speculum (Cambridge University Press) 83: 917–945 [917–8], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  52. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Thomas F. Glick (2014). Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. Routledge, 385.</cite> </li>
  53. Lucas, Adam (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, Brill Publishers, p. 278, ISBN 9004146490 </li>
  54. Mahdavi, Farid (2003), “Review: Paper Before Print: The History and Impact of Paper in the Islamic World by Jonathan M. Bloom”, Journal of Interdisciplinary History (MIT Press) 34 (1): 129–30 </li>
  55. The Beginning of the Paper Industry, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation. </li>
  56. *Thompson, Susan (1978), “Paper Manufacturing and Early Books”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 314: 167–176 (169):

European papermaking differed from its precursors in the mechanization of the process and in the application of water power. Jean Gimpel, in The Medieval Machine (the English translation of La Revolution Industrielle du Moyen Age), points out that the Chinese and Arabs used only human and animal force. Gimpel goes on to say : “This is convincing evidence of how technologically minded the Europeans of that era were. Paper had traveled nearly halfway around the world, but no culture or civilization on its route had tried to mechanize its manufacture.”‘

</li>

  1. Burns 1996, pp. 414f.:

Indeed, Muslim authors in general call any “paper manufactory” a wiraqah – not a “mill” (tahun)

</li>

  1. Bloom, Jonathan M. B (February 12, 2010), Paper in the Medieval Mediterranean World, Early Paper: Techniques and Transmission – A workshop at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic702028.files/Bloom-Mediterranean_Paper.pdf, retrieved 2010-03-19 </li>
  2. Burns 1996, pp. 414:

Donald Hill has found a reference in al-Biruni in the eleventh century to stones “fixed to axles across running water, as in Samarkand with the pounding of flax for paper,” a possible exception to the rule. Hill finds the notice “too brief to enable us to say with certainty” that this was a water-powered triphammer.

</li>

  1. Leor Halevi (2008), “Christian Impurity versus Economic Necessity: A Fifteenth-Century Fatwa on European Paper”, Speculum (Cambridge University Press) 83: 917-945 [917-8], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  2. Burns, Robert I. (1996), “Paper comes to the West, 800–1400”, in Lindgren, Uta, Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation (4th ed.), Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, pp. 413–422 (414), ISBN 3-7861-1748-9 </li>
  3. Lucas, Adam (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, Brill Publishers, p. 84, ISBN 9004146490 </li>
  4. Lucas, Adam (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, Brill Publishers, pp. 65 & 84, ISBN 90-04-14649-0 </li>
  5. Procopius of Caesarea, Gothic Wars, 1.19.8-29 </li>
  6. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), A history of engineering in classical and medieval times, Routledge, p. 146, ISBN 0415152917 </li>
  7. <cite style=”font-style:normal”> “Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe” (2005). Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1–30 [10]. doi:10.1353/tech.2005.0026.</cite> </li>
  8. 186.0 186.1 <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (2013) A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Routledge, 173. ISBN 9781317761570.</cite> </li>
  9. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (1997) State and Rural Society in Medieval Islam: Sultans, Muqtaʻs, and Fallahun. BRILL, 119, 211, 215. ISBN 9789004106499.</cite> </li>
  10. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), “Engineering”, p. 783, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751-95):

“Further evidence of the Muslims’ eagerness to harness every available source of water power is provided by their use of tidal mills. This application is, of course, not possible in the Mediterranean, but in the fourth/tenth century in the Basra area there were mills that were operated by the ebb-tide. Tidal mills did not appear in Europe until about a century after this.”

</li>

  1. Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 89. BRILL, ISBN 9004146490. </li>
  2. Spain, Rob: “A possible Roman Tide Mill”, Paper submitted to the Kent Archaeological Society </li>
  3. 191.0 191.1 191.2 Drachmann, A.G. (1961), “Heron’s Windmill”, Centaurus 7: 145–151, Error: Bad DOI specified. </li>
  4. 192.0 192.1 192.2 Dietrich Lohrmann, “Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle”, Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, Vol. 77, Issue 1 (1995), pp.1–30 (10f.) </li>
  5. Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. Template:ISBN. </li>
  6. Dietrich Lohrmann (199786543). “Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle”, Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 77 (1), p. 1-30 (8). </li>
  7. Donald Routledge Hill, “Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East”, Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64–9 (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering Template:Webarchive) </li>
  8. Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6. </li>
  9. Dietrich Lohrmann (1995). “Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle”, Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 77 (1), p. 1-30 (8). </li>
  10. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (1980) Wind Machines, 2nd, New York: Litton Educational Publishing, Inc., 15. ISBN 0-442-26134-9.</cite> </li>
  11. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (2011) Electricity Generation Using Wind Power, 1, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., 4. ISBN 978-981-4304-13-9.</cite> </li>
  12. 200.0 200.1 200.2 200.3 200.4 The invention of cosmetics. 1001 Inventions. </li>
  13. 201.0 201.1 201.2 201.3 201.4 201.5 201.6 201.7Muslim Contribution to Cosmetics“. FSTC Limited (2003-05-20). Retrieved on 2008-01-29. </li>
  14. 202.0 202.1 202.2 202.3 Lebling Jr., Robert W. (July-August 2003), “Flight of the Blackbird”, Saudi Aramco World: 24–33, http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200304/flight.of.the.blackbird.htm, retrieved 2008-01-28 </li>
  15. Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2001), Science and Technology in Islam: Technology and applied sciences, pages 73–74 Template:Webarchive, UNESCO </li>
  16. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (2014) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam. Oxford University Press, 137. ISBN 9780199812578.</cite> </li>
  17. 205.0 205.1 Sertima, Ivan Van (1992), The Golden Age of the Moor, Transaction Publishers, p. 267, ISBN 1560005815 </li>
  18. 206.0 206.1 Levey, Martin (1973), “Early Arabic Pharmacology”, E.J. Brill: Leiden, ISBN 90-04-03796-9. </li>
  19. Al-Kindi, FSTC </li>
  20. How Islam invented a bright new world, The Herald, 25/10/2007. </li>
  21. Goddard, Hugh (2000), A History of Christian-Muslim Relations, Edinburgh University Press, p. 100, ISBN 074861009X </li>
  22. 210.0 210.1 210.2 210.3 Makdisi, George (April-June 1989), “Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West”, Journal of the American Oriental Society 109 (2): 175–182 [175–77] </li>
  23. Toby E. Huff (2003), The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, Cambridge University Press, pp. 77-8 </li>
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  25. 213.0 213.1 213.2 213.3 213.4 Alatas, Syed Farid, “From Jami`ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue”, Current Sociology 54 (1): 112–32 </li>
  26. The Guinness Book Of Records, 1998, p. 242, ISBN 0-553-57895-2 </li>
  27. Makdisi, George (April-June 1989), “Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West”, Journal of the American Oriental Society 109 (2): 175–182 [176], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  28. George Makdisi: “Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages”, Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255-264 (264):

Thus the university, as a form of social organization, was peculiar to medieval Europe. Later, it was exported to all parts of the world, including the Muslim East; and it has remained with us down to the present day. But back in the middle ages, outside of Europe, there was nothing anything quite like it anywhere.

</li>

  1. Encyclopedia of Islam has an entry on “madrasa” but notably lacks one for a Muslim “university” (Pedersen, J.; Rahman, Munibur; Hillenbrand, R. “Madrasa.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010, retrieved 21/03/2010) </li>
  2. 218.0 218.1 Makdisi, George (April-June 1989), “Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West”, Journal of the American Oriental Society 109 (2): 175–182 (176) </li>
  3. Pedersen, J.; Rahman, Munibur; Hillenbrand, R. “Madrasa.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010, retrieved 20/03/2010 </li>
  4. Jomier, J. “al- Azhar (al-Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-Azhar).” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010, retrieved 20/03/2010 </li>
  5. Makdisi, George (April-June 1989), “Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West”, Journal of the American Oriental Society 109 (2): 175–182 [176], Error: Bad DOI specified:

There was no other doctorate in any other field, no license to teach a field, except that of the religious law. To obtain a doctorate, one had to study in a guild school of law.

</li>

  1. Pedersen, J.; Rahman, Munibur; Hillenbrand, R. “Madrasa.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010, retrieved 20/03/2010:

Madrasa,…in mediaeval usage, essentially a college of law in which the other Islamic sciences, including literary and philosophical ones, were ancillary subjects only.

</li>

  1. Jomier, J. “al- Azhar (al-Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-Azhar).” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010

There was no examination at the end of the course of study. Many of the students were well advanced in years. Those who left al-Azhar obtained an idjāza or licence to teach; this was a certificate given by the teacher under whom the student had followed courses, testifying to the student’s diligence and proficiency.

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  1. Goddard, Hugh (2000), A History of Christian-Muslim Relations, Edinburgh University Press, p. 99, ISBN 074861009X </li>
  2. 225.0 225.1 <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Devin J. Stewart, Josef W. Meri (2005). Degrees, or Ijazah. Routledge, 201–203. ISBN 9781135455965.</cite> </li>
  3. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (1981) The Rise of Colleges: Instituions of Learning in Islam and The West. Edinburgh University Press.</cite> </li>
  4. 227.0 227.1 Micheau, Françoise, “The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East”, pp. 992–3, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 985-1007) </li>
  5. 228.0 228.1 (Kennedy 1962) </li>
  6. Micheau, Françoise, “The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East”, pp. 988–991 in Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 3, Routledge, ISBN 0415124107 </li>
  7. Oldest University Template:Webarchive </li>
  8. Medina of Fez“. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved on 7 April 2016. </li>
  9. Verger, Jacques: “Patterns”, in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, Template:ISBN, pp. 35–76 (35) </li>
  10. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” id=”Reference-Esposito-2003″>Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press, 328. ISBN 978-0-1951-2559-7.</cite> </li>
  11. Joseph, S, and Najmabadi, A. Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures: Economics, education, mobility, and space. Brill, 2003, p. 314. </li>
  12. Swartley, Keith. Encountering the World of Islam. Authentic, 2005, p. 74. </li>
  13. Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World, Publisher: Marshall Cavendish, 2010 [1] Template:Webarchive p.161 </li>
  14. Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson, Publisher: Allen Lane 2011 – Template:ISBN </li>
  15. Badr, Gamal Moursi (Spring, 1978), “Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems”, The American Journal of Comparative Law 26 (2 – Proceedings of an International Conference on Comparative Law, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 24–25, 1977): 187–198 [196–8] </li>
  16. 239.0 239.1 Makdisi, John A. (June 1999), “The Islamic Origins of the Common Law”, North Carolina Law Review 77 (5): 1635–1739 </li>
  17. Badr, Gamal Moursi (Spring 1978), “Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems”, The American Journal of Comparative Law (The American Journal of Comparative Law, Vol. 26, No. 2) 26 (2 – Proceedings of an International Conference on Comparative Law, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 24–25, 1977): 187–198, Error: Bad DOI specified, JSTOR 839667 </li>
  18. Koehler, Benedikt. Early Islam and the Birth of Capitalism, p. 2, (Lexington Books, 2014). </li>
  19. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (2011) Principles of Islamic International Criminal Law: A Comparative Search. BRILL, 335. ISBN 9789004203969.</cite> </li>
  20. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (2018) Human Rights and Islam: An Introduction to Key Debates between Islamic Law and International Human Rights Law. Edward Elgar Publishing, 299. ISBN 9781784716585.</cite> </li>
  21. Makdisi, John A. (June 1999), “The Islamic Origins of the Common Law”, North Carolina Law Review 77 (5): 1635–1739 </li>
  22. Hussain, Jamila (2001), “Book Review: The Justice of Islam by Lawrence Rosen”, Melbourne University Law Review 30 </li>
  23. The Islamic Origins of the Common Law – John A. Makdisi“. Scribd.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-05. </li>
  24. The Laffer Curve: Past, Present, and Future“. Heritage.org. Retrieved on 2012-12-13. </li>
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  26. Crone, Patricia (2005), Medieval Islamic Political Thought, Edinburgh University Press, pp. 308–09, ISBN 978-0748621941 </li>
  27. Hamid, Shadi (August 2003), “An Islamic Alternative? Equality, Redistributive Justice, and the Welfare State in the Caliphate of Umar”, Renaissance: Monthly Islamic Journal 13 (8), archived from the original on 1 September 2003, https://web.archive.org/web/20030901100155/http://www.renaissance.com.pk/Augvipo2y3.html) </li>
  28. The Cambridge economic history of Europe, p. 437. Cambridge University Press, Template:ISBN. </li>
  29. Timur Kuran (2005), “The Absence of the Corporation in Islamic Law: Origins and Persistence”, American Journal of Comparative Law 53, pp. 785–834 [798–99]. </li>
  30. Jairus Banaji (2007), “Islam, the Mediterranean and the rise of capitalism”, Journal Historical Materialism 15 (1), pp. 47–74, Brill Publishers. </li>
  31. Maya Shatzmiller (1994), Labor in the Medieval Islamic World, pp. 402–03, Brill Publishers, Template:ISBN. </li>
  32. Subhi Y. Labib (1969), “Capitalism in Medieval Islam”, The Journal of Economic History 29 (1), pp. 79–96. </li>
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  43. John Bagot Glubb:

By Mamun’s time medical schools were extremely active in Baghdad. The first free public hospital was opened in Baghdad during the caliphate of Haroon-ar-Rashid. As the system developed, physicians and surgeons were appointed who gave lectures to medical students and issued diplomas to those who were considered qualified to practice. The first hospital in Egypt was opened in 872 AD and thereafter public hospitals sprang up all over the empire from Spain and the Maghrib to Persia.

(cf. Quotations on Islamic Civilization)

</li>

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  292. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” id=”Reference-Goodman-1992″>Goodman, Lenn Evan (1992). Avicenna. Great Britain: Routledge, 31. ISBN 978-0415019293. “It was Biruni, not Avicenna, who found a way for a single man, at a single moment, to measure the earth’s circumference, by trigonometric calculations based on angles measured from a mountaintop and the plain beneath it – thus improving on Eratosthenes’ method of sighting the sun simultaneously from two different sites, applied in the ninth century by astronomers of the Khalif al-Ma’mun.”</cite> </li>
  293. 559.0 559.1 Ragep, F. Jamil (2001a), “Tusi and Copernicus: The Earth’s Motion in Context”, Science in Context (Cambridge University Press) 14 (1–2): 145–163, Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  294. Ragep, F. Jamil (2001b), “Freeing Astronomy from Philosophy: An Aspect of Islamic Influence on Science”, Osiris, 2nd Series 16 (Science in Theistic Contexts: Cognitive Dimensions): 49–64 & 66–71, Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  295. Edith Dudley Sylla, “Creation and nature”, in Arthur Stephen McGrade (2003), pp. 178–179, Cambridge University Press, Template:ISBN. </li>
  296. Irwin, Jones (Autumn 2002), “Averroes’ Reason: A Medieval Tale of Christianity and Islam”, The Philosopher LXXXX (2), http://www.averroes.or.id/averroes-reason-a-medieval-tale-of-christianity-and-islam.html </li>
  297. (Khaleefa 1999) </li>
  298. (Steffens 2006), Chapter 5 </li>
  299. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” id=”Reference-Elton-1927″>Elton, C. S. (1927). Animal Ecology. Sidgwick and Jackson.</cite> </li>
  300. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>”A general model for food web structure.” . Science 320 (5876): 658–661. doi:10.1126/science.1156269.</cite> </li>
  301. <cite style=”font-style:normal”> “Understanding food chains and food webs, 1700-1970” (2007). Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 88: 50–69. doi:10.1890/0012-9623(2007)88[50:UFCAFW]2.0.CO;2.</cite> </li>
  302. Skinner, Stephen (1980). Terrestrial Astrology: Divination by Geomancy. London: Routeledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. pp.14-5 </li>
  303. Lenn Evan Goodman (2003), Islamic Humanism, p. 155, Oxford University Press, Template:ISBN. </li>
  304. Lenn Evan Goodman (1992), Avicenna, p. 33, Routledge, Template:ISBN. </li>
  305. James Franklin (2001), The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal, pp. 177–8, Johns Hopkins University Press, Template:ISBN. </li>
  306. Nasr S.H., Razavi M.A.. “The islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia” (1996). Routledge </li>
  307. Harding, Karen (Summer 1993), “Causality Then and Now: Al Ghazali and Quantum Theory” (PDF), The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 10 (2), http://www.ghazali.org/articles/harding-V10N2-Summer-93.pdf. </li>
  308. <cite style=”font-style:normal”> “Natural Selection before the “Origin of Species”” (1941). Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 84 (1): 71–123.</cite> </li>
  309. Franco, Abel B.. “Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory”. Journal of the History of Ideas. Vol. 64(4): 543. </li>
  310. Rosanna Gorini (2003), “Al-Haytham the Man of Experience, First Steps in the Science of Vision”, International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, Laboratory of Psychobiology and Psychopharmacology, Rome, Italy:

“According to the majority of the historians Ibn al-Haytham was the pioneer of the modern scientific method. With his book he changed the meaning of the term optics and established experiments as the norm of proof in the field. His investigations are based not on abstract theories, but on experimental evidences and his experiments were systematic and repeatable.”

</li>

  1. (Omar 1977) </li>
  2. Rüdiger Thiele (2005), “In Memoriam: Matthias Schramm”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15: 329–31, Cambridge University Press </li>
  3. (Steffens 2006) </li>
  4. David C. Lindberg (1980), Science in the Middle Ages, University of Chicago Press, p. 21, ISBN 0-226-48233-2 </li>
  5. Holmyard, E. J. (1931), Makers of Chemistry, Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 56, https://archive.org/details/makersofchemistr029725mbp </li>
  6. Plinio Prioreschi, “Al-Kindi, A Precursor Of The Scientific Revolution”, Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2002 (2): 17–19 [17]. </li>
  7. Jim Al-Khalili (4 January 2009). “The ‘first true scientist’“, BBC News. </li>
  8. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa (2010). Mind, Brain, and Education Science: A Comprehensive Guide to the New Brain-Based Teaching. W.W. Norton & Company, 39. ISBN 978-0-393-70607-9. “Alhazen (or Al-Haytham; 965–1039) was perhaps one of the greatest physicists of all times and a product of the Islamic Golden Age or Islamic Renaissance (7th–13th centuries). He made significant contributions to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, and visual perception and is primarily attributed as the inventor of the scientific method, for which author Bradley Steffens (2006) describes him as the “first scientist”.”</cite> </li>
  9. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>El-Bizri, Nader (2005). “A Philosophical Perspective on Alhazen’s Optics”. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy (Cambridge University Press) 15 (2): 189–218.</cite> </li>
  10. Sardar, Ziauddin (1998), “Science in Islamic philosophy”, Islamic Philosophy, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/rep/H016.htm, retrieved 2008-02-03 </li>
  11. Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), “Statics”, p. 642, in (Morelon & Rashed 1996, pp. 614–642):

“Using a whole body of mathematical methods (not only those inherited from the antique theory of ratios and infinitesimal techniques, but also the methods of the contemporary algebra and fine calculation techniques), Arabic scientists raised statics to a new, higher level. The classical results of Archimedes in the theory of the centre of gravity were generalized and applied to three-dimensional bodies, the theory of ponderable lever was founded and the ‘science of gravity’ was created and later further developed in medieval Europe. The phenomena of statics were studied by using the dynamic approach so that two trends – statics and dynamics – turned out to be inter-related within a single science, mechanics. The combination of the dynamic approach with Archimedean hydrostatics gave birth to a direction in science which may be called medieval hydrodynamics. […] Numerous fine experimental methods were developed for determining the specific weight, which were based, in particular, on the theory of balances and weighing. The classical works of al-Biruni and al-Khazini can by right be considered as the beginning of the application of experimental methods in medieval science.”

</li>

  1. Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis, Faith (2005), Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, pp. 89–90, ISBN 0-415-96930-1 </li>
  2. <cite style=”font-style:normal”> “The Islamic Concept of Knowledge” (1997). Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture 12.</cite> </li>
  3. <cite style=”font-style:normal”> “Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists” (2004). Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357–77 [375]. doi:10.1007/s10943-004-4302-z.</cite> </li>
  4. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” id=”Reference-Enan-2007″>Enan, Muhammed Abdullah (2007). Ibn Khaldun: His Life and Works. The Other Press, v. ISBN 978-983-9541-53-3.</cite> </li>
  5. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Alatas, S. H. (2006). “The Autonomous, the Universal and the Future of Sociology”. Current Sociology 54: 7–23 [15]. doi:10.1177/0011392106058831.</cite> </li>
  6. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Warren E. Gates (July–September 1967). “The Spread of Ibn Khaldun’s Ideas on Climate and Culture”. Journal of the History of Ideas 28 (3): 415–22 [415]. doi:10.2307/2708627.</cite> </li>
  7. H. Mowlana (2001). “Information in the Arab World”, Cooperation South Journal 1. </li>
  8. <cite style=”font-style:normal”> “A sociological analysis of Ibn Khaldun’s theory : a study in the sociology of knowledge” (June 1950).</cite> </li>
  9. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Dhaouadi, Mahmoud (September 1, 1990). “Ibn Khaldun: The founding father of eastern sociology”. International Sociology 5 (3): 319–35. doi:10.1177/026858090005003007.</cite> </li>
  10. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Hassan, Faridah Hj. “Ibn Khaldun and Jane Addams: The Real Father of Sociology and the Mother of Social Works”. Faculty of Business Management Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia.</cite> </li>
  11. Mehmet M. & Gilbert P. (January 2012). “Debating the Origins of Sociology Ibn Khaldun as a Founding Father of Sociology“. </li>
  12. https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1312/1312.7288.pdf </li>
  13. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Al-Biruni.html </li>
  14. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Abdulazeez, Femi Salami. “Scientific contributions of Ibn Hazm“. International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development 2 (1): 30. ISSN 1753-9412.</cite> </li>
  15. <cite style=”font-style:normal”> “An analysis of the historical development of ideas about motion and its implications for teaching” (2005). Physics Education 40 (2). doi:10.1088/0031-9120/40/2/002. Bibcode: 2005PhyEd..40..139E.</cite> </li>
  16. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Seyyed Hossein Nasr & Mehdi Amin Razavi (1996). The Islamic intellectual tradition in Persia. Routledge, 72. ISBN 978-0-7007-0314-2.</cite> </li>
  17. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Aydin Sayili (1987). “Ibn Sīnā and Buridan on the Motion of the Projectile”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1): 477–482. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb37219.x. Bibcode: 1987NYASA.500..477S.</cite> </li>
  18. Espinoza, Fernando. “An Analysis of the Historical Development of Ideas About Motion and its Implications for Teaching”. Physics Education. Vol. 40(2). </li>
  19. Sayili, Aydin. “Ibn Sina and Buridan on the Motion the Projectile”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences vol. 500(1). p.477-482. </li>
  20. S.H. Nasr, Islamic Philosophy from its Origin to the Present: Philosophy in the Land of Prophecy (2006), SUNY Press, passim. </li>
  21. George Saliba (1995), ‘A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam‘, pp.152-155 </li>
  22. Gandz and Saloman (1936), The sources of al-Khwarizmi’s algebra, Osiris i, p. 263–277: “In a sense, Khwarizmi is more entitled to be called “the father of algebra” than Diophantus because Khwarizmi is the first to teach algebra in an elementary form and for its own sake, Diophantus is primarily concerned with the theory of numbers”. </li>
  23. Roshdi Rashed (November 2009), Al Khwarizmi: The Beginnings of Algebra, Saqi Books, ISBN 0863564305 </li>
  24. (Boyer 1991, “The Arabic Hegemony” p. 229) “It is not certain just what the terms al-jabr and muqabalah mean, but the usual interpretation is similar to that implied in the translation above. The word al-jabr presumably meant something like “restoration” or “completion” and seems to refer to the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation; the word muqabalah is said to refer to “reduction” or “balancing” – that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation.” </li>
  25. Gandz, S. (1936), “The Sources of Al-Khowārizmī’s Algebra”, Osiris 1: 263–277, page 263–277: “In a sense, al-Khwarizmi is more entitled to be called “the father of algebra” than Diophantus because al-Khwarizmi is the first to teach algebra in an elementary form and for its own sake, Diophantus is primarily concerned with the theory of numbers”. </li>
  26. 613.0 613.1 Oaks, J. (2009). Polynomials and equations in Arabic algebra. Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 63(2), 169–203. </li>
  27. 614.0 614.1 614.2 Maher, P. (1998). From Al-Jabr to Algebra. Mathematics in School, 27(4), 14–15. </li>
  28. 615.0 615.1 Katz, Victor J.; Barton, Bill (October 2007), “Stages in the History of Algebra with Implications for Teaching”, Educational Studies in Mathematics 66 (2): 185–201, Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  29. Rashed, Roshdi (1994), The Development Of Arabic Mathematics: Between Arithmetic And Algebra, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media, pp. 102-3, ISBN 978-90-481-4338-2, https://archive.org/stream/RoshdiRashedauth.TheDevelopmentOfArabicMathematicsBetweenArithmeticAndAlgebraSpringerNetherlands1994/Roshdi%20Rashed%20%28auth.%29-The%20Development%20of%20Arabic%20Mathematics_%20Between%20Arithmetic%20and%20Algebra-Springer%20Netherlands%20%281994%29#page/n111/mode/1up </li>
  30. 617.0 617.1 <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Hogendijk, Jan P. (1998). “al-Khwarzimi“. Pythagoras 38 (2): 4–5. ISSN 0033-4766.</cite> </li>
  31. Gandz, Solomon (November 1931), “The Origin of the Ghubār Numerals, or the Arabian Abacus and the Articuli”, Isis 16 (2): 393–424, Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  32. 619.0 619.1 619.2 Prof. Ahmed Djebbar (June 2008). “Mathematics in the Medieval Maghrib: General Survey on Mathematical Activities in North Africa“. FSTC Limited. Retrieved on 2008-07-19. </li>
  33. Kunitzsch, Paul (2003), “The Transmission of Hindu-Arabic Numerals Reconsidered”, in J. P. Hogendijk; A. I. Sabra, The Enterprise of Science in Islam: New Perspectives, MIT Press, pp. 3–22 (12–13), ISBN 978-0-262-19482-2, https://books.google.com/books?id=_AUtLNtg3nsC&pg=PA3 </li>
  34. THE BINOMIAL THEOREM : A WIDESPREAD CONCEPT IN MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC MATHEMATICS“. </li>
  35. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>”Taming the unknown. A history of algebra from antiquity to the early ttwentieth century” . Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. “However, algebra advanced in other respects. Around 1000, al-Karaji stated the binomial theorem”</cite> </li>
  36. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Rashed, R. (1994-06-30). The Development of Arabic Mathematics: Between Arithmetic and Algebra. Springer Science & Business Media, 63. ISBN 9780792325659.</cite> </li>
  37. Ibrahim A. Al-Kadi (April 1992), “The origins of cryptology: The Arab contributions”, Cryptologia 16 (2): 97–126 </li>
  38. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Broemeling, Lyle D. (1 November 2011). “An Account of Early Statistical Inference in Arab Cryptology”. The American Statistician 65 (4): 255–257. doi:10.1198/tas.2011.10191.</cite> </li>
  39. <cite style=”font-style:normal”> “The origins of cryptology: The Arab contributions” (1992). Cryptologia 16 (2): 97–126. doi:10.1080/0161-119291866801.</cite> </li>
  40. 627.0 627.1 Simon Singh, The Code Book, pp. 14–20 </li>
  41. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (1996) The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781439103555.</cite> </li>
  42. 629.0 629.1 629.2 629.3 629.4 <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Broemeling, Lyle D. (1 November 2011). “An Account of Early Statistical Inference in Arab Cryptology”. The American Statistician 65 (4): 255–257. doi:10.1198/tas.2011.10191.</cite> </li>
  43. D.J. Struik, A Source Book in Mathematics 1200-1800 (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1986). ISBN 0-691-02397-2 </li>
  44. P. Luckey, Die Rechenkunst bei Ğamšīd b. Mas’ūd al-Kāšī (Steiner, Wiesbaden, 1951). </li>
  45. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” id=”Reference-Berggren-2007″>Berggren, J. Lennart (2007). “Mathematics in Medieval Islam”, The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A Sourcebook. Princeton University Press, 518. ISBN 9780691114859.</cite> </li>
  46. Miller, Jeff (22 December 2014). “Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols“. Retrieved on 15 February 2016. </li>
  47. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” id=”Reference-Cajori-1928″>Cajori, Florian (1928). A History of Mathematical Notations 1. Open Court Publishing Company, 269.</cite> </li>
  48. Victor J. Katz, Bill Barton (October 2007), “Stages in the History of Algebra with Implications for Teaching”, Educational Studies in Mathematics (Springer Netherlands) 66 (2): 185–201 [192], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  49. St Andrews Template:Webarchive “Khayyam himself seems to have been the first to conceive a general theory of cubic equations.” </li>
  50. Matvievskaya, Galina (1987), “The Theory of Quadratic Irrationals in Medieval Oriental Mathematics”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500: 253–277 [260], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  51. 638.0 638.1 Boris A. Rosenfeld and Adolf P. Youschkevitch (1996), “Geometry”, in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 2, p. 447–494 [470], Routledge, London and New York:

“Three scientists, Ibn al-Haytham, Khayyam and al-Tūsī, had made the most considerable contribution to this branch of geometry whose importance came to be completely recognized only in the 19th century. In essence their propositions concerning the properties of quadrangles which they considered assuming that some of the angles of these figures were acute of obtuse, embodied the first few theorems of the hyperbolic and the elliptic geometries. Their other proposals showed that various geometric statements were equivalent to the Euclidean postulate V. It is extremely important that these scholars established the mutual connection between this postulate and the sum of the angles of a triangle and a quadrangle. By their works on the theory of parallel lines Arab mathematicians directly influenced the relevant investigations of their European counterparts. The first European attempt to prove the postulate on parallel lines – made by Witelo, the Polish scientists of the 13th century, while revising Ibn al-Haytham’s Book of Optics (Kitab al-Manazir) – was undoubtedly prompted by Arabic sources. The proofs put forward in the 14th century by the Jewish scholar Levi ben Gerson, who lived in southern France, and by the above-mentioned Alfonso from Spain directly border on Ibn al-Haytham’s demonstration. Above, we have demonstrated that Pseudo-Tusi’s Exposition of Euclid had stimulated both J. Wallis’s and G. Saccheri’s studies of the theory of parallel lines.”

</li>

  1. Katz, V.J. 1995. “Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India.” Mathematics Magazine (Mathematical Association of America), 68(3):163–174. </li>
  2. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Adamson, Peter (7 July 2016). Philosophy in the Islamic World: A History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-957749-1.</cite> </li>
  3. O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., “Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid Mas’ud al-Kashi”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Kashi.html. </li>
  4. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Pickover, Clifford A. (2009). The Math Book: From Pythagoras to the 57th Dimension, 250 Milestones in the History of Mathematics. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 106. ISBN 9781402757969.</cite> </li>
  5. 643.0 643.1 643.2 643.3 Jacques Sesiano, “Islamic mathematics”, p. 148, in Selin, Helaine; D’Ambrosio, Ubiratan (2000), Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Non-western Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 1402002602 </li>
  6. O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., “Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muadh Al-Jayyani”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Jayyani.html. </li>
  7. Swaney, Mark. History of Magic Squares. </li>
  8. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (2011) Science and Religion Around the World. Oxford University Press, 267. ISBN 9780199793204.</cite> </li>
  9. Rashed, Roshdi (1994), The Development Of Arabic Mathematics: Between Arithmetic And Algebra, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media, p. 49, ISBN 978-90-481-4338-2, https://archive.org/stream/RoshdiRashedauth.TheDevelopmentOfArabicMathematicsBetweenArithmeticAndAlgebraSpringerNetherlands1994/Roshdi%20Rashed%20%28auth.%29-The%20Development%20of%20Arabic%20Mathematics_%20Between%20Arithmetic%20and%20Algebra-Springer%20Netherlands%20%281994%29#page/n58/mode/1up </li>
  10. Ypma, Tjalling J. (December 1995), “Historical Development of the Newton-Raphson Method”, SIAM Review (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics) 37 (4): 531–551 [539], Error: Bad DOI specified, https://works.bepress.com/tjalling_ypma/7/download/ </li>
  11. Ypma, Tjalling J. (December 1995), “Historical Development of the Newton-Raphson Method”, SIAM Review (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics) 37 (4): 531–551 [534], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  12. Ypma, Tjalling J. (December 1995), “Historical Development of the Newton-Raphson Method”, SIAM Review (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics) 37 (4): 531–551 [539], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  13. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Selin, Helaine (2008-03-12). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media, 132. ISBN 9781402045592.</cite> </li>
  14. The developpement of Arabic Mathematics Between Arithmetic and Algebra – R. Rashed “Page 63” </li>
  15. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Sidoli, Nathan (2013-10-30). From Alexandria, Through Baghdad: Surveys and Studies in the Ancient Greek and Medieval Islamic Mathematical Sciences in Honor of J.L. Berggren. Springer Science & Business Media, 54. ISBN 9783642367366.</cite> </li>
  16. 654.0 654.1 <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” > (2018) Passwords: Philology, Security, Authentication. Harvard University Press, 26. ISBN 9780674985377.</cite> </li>
  17. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” id=”Reference-Singh-2000″>Singh, Simon (2000). The code book : the science of secrecy from ancient Egypt to quantum cryptography, 1st Anchor Books, New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 978-0-385-49532-5.</cite> </li>
  18. Ibrahim A. Al-Kadi “The origins of cryptology: The Arab contributions”, Cryptologia, 16(2) (April 1992) pp. 97–126. </li>
  19. Eder, Michelle (2000), Views of Euclid’s Parallel Postulate in Ancient Greece and in Medieval Islam, Rutgers University, http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~cherlin/History/Papers2000/eder.html, retrieved 2008-01-23 </li>
  20. O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., “Arabic mathematics: forgotten brilliance?”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Arabic_mathematics.html. </li>
  21. Matvievskaya, Galina (1987), “The Theory of Quadratic Irrationals in Medieval Oriental Mathematics”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500: 253–277 [254], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  22. 660.0 660.1 Matvievskaya, Galina (1987), “The Theory of Quadratic Irrationals in Medieval Oriental Mathematics”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500: 253–277 [259], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  23. Matvievskaya, Galina (1987), “The Theory of Quadratic Irrationals in Medieval Oriental Mathematics”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500: 253–277 [260], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  24. Matvievskaya, Galina (1987), “The Theory of Quadratic Irrationals in Medieval Oriental Mathematics”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500: 253–277 [261], Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  25. O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F. (1999), “Sharaf al-Din al-Muzaffar al-Tusi”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Tusi_Sharaf.html. </li>
  26. <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” >Boris Abramovich Rozenfelʹd (1988). A History of Non-Euclidean Geometry: Evolution of the Concept of a Geometric Space, Abe Shenitzer translation, Springer, 65. ISBN 0-387-96458-4.</cite> </li>
  27. Victor J. Katz, Bill Barton (October 2007), “Stages in the History of Algebra with Implications for Teaching”, Educational Studies in Mathematics (Springer Netherlands) 66 (2): 185–201, Error: Bad DOI specified </li>
  28. O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., “Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muadh Al-Jayyani”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Jayyani.html. </li>
  29. 667.0 667.1 O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., “Abu’l Hasan ibn Ali al Qalasadi”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Qalasadi.html. </li>
  30. (Boyer 1991, “Revival and Decline of Greek Mathematics” p. 178) “The chief difference between Diophantine syncopation and the modern algebraic notation is the lack of special symbols for operations and relations, as well as of the exponential notation.” </li>
  31. Boyer, Carl B. (1991), A History of Mathematics (Second ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 180, ISBN 978-0-471-54397-8 </li>
  32. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Kennedy, E. S. (1969). “The History of Trigonometry”. 31st Yearbook. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Washington DC.</cite> (cf. <cite style=”font-style:normal”>Haq, Syed Nomanul. “The Indian and Persian background”: 60–3.</cite>, in <cite class=”book” style=”font-style:normal” id=”Reference-Seyyed Hossein Nasr-1996″>Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Oliver Leaman (1996). History of Islamic Philosophy. Routledge, 52–70. ISBN 978-0-415-13159-9.</cite>) </li>
  33. Al-Tusi_Nasir biography“. “One of al-Tusi’s most important mathematical contributions was the creation of trigonometry as a mathematical discipline in its own right rather than as just a tool for astronomical applications. In Treatise on the quadrilateral al-Tusi gave the first extant exposition of the whole system of plane and spherical trigonometry. This work is really the first in history on trigonometry as an independent branch of pure mathematics and the first in which all six cases for a right-angled spherical triangle are set forth.” </li>
  34. the cambridge history of science” (October 2013). </li>
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“There is no evidence for the Hellenistic origin of the spherical astrolabe, but rather evidence so far available suggests that it may have been an early but distinctly Islamic development with no Greek antecedents.”

</li>

  1. Emilie Savage-Smith (1993). “Book Reviews”, Journal of Islamic Studies 4 (2), pp. 296–299.

“There is no evidence for the Hellenistic origin of the spherical astrolabe, but rather evidence so far available suggests that it may have been an early but distinctly Islamic development with no Greek antecedents.”

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